Business Law Chapter 4 Mr. Whisel
Section 4.1 Goals <ul><li>Explain how disputes can be settled without resort to the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Name the diff...
What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>7-Eleven sells franchises for stores bearing its name. The franchise agreement specifies that...
Why Arbitration for 7-Eleven? <ul><li>The disputing parties avoid costs, delays, and difficulties of a court trial. </li><...
<ul><li>Litigation  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking a dispute to court. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediator </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Levels of Courts <ul><li>Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government forum that administers justice under the law. Both Civil a...
What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Doyle made and illegal U-turn. A police officer saw it and gave him a citation (order to appe...
Why courts? <ul><li>Necessary to decide whether Doyle is telling the truth and whether the blocked sign would be a valid d...
Trial Courts <ul><li>First Court to hear a dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Original Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to ...
Operation <ul><li>Clerks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter cases on the court calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Records o...
Appellate Courts <ul><li>Review the decisions of the lower courts when a party claims an error was made during the previou...
Page 54 <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
Section 4.1 Goals <ul><li>Explain how disputes can be settled without resort to the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Name the diff...
Section 4.2 Goals <ul><li>Identify the source of power of the federal courts </li></ul><ul><li>Name the various levels of ...
What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Jim and Marla were discussing how U.S. Bankruptcy Courts were empowered to decide cases. Jim ...
Who is Correct? <ul><li>Both </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Courts receive power from the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Consti...
Origins of Federal Courts <ul><li>Article III of Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feder...
Jurisdiction <ul><li>Three Levels of Federal Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal District Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Federal District Courts <ul><li>Lowest level of the Federal Courts with general Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Trial Court...
Federal Court of Appeals <ul><li>Appellate Court to Federal District Court </li></ul><ul><li>Do NOT accept any new evidenc...
United States Supreme Court <ul><li>Original ( State Supreme Courts) and Appellate Jurisdiction (District Court of Appeals...
Page 57 <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
Section 4.2 Goals <ul><li>Identify the source of power of the federal courts </li></ul><ul><li>Name the various levels of ...
Section 4.3 Goals <ul><li>Compare the structure of a typical state court with the structure of the federal courts </li></u...
State Legal System <ul><li>Resembles Federal </li></ul><ul><li>Three Tiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical based Trial ...
State Trial Courts <ul><li>Known as Circuit Courts, District Courts, or Court of Common Pleas </li></ul><ul><li>Court of R...
State Court of Appeals <ul><li>Panel of Judges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No more than three </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine Tra...
State Supreme Courts <ul><li>Case that involves the most complex legal issues are taken to the justices of the state </li>...
State Courts with Special Jurisdiction <ul><li>Associate Circuit Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear minor criminal cases, t...
Page 61 <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Do all What...
Section 4.3 Goals <ul><li>Compare the structure of a typical state court with the structure of the federal courts </li></u...
Chapter in Review Page 62-65
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Chapter 4 Detailed

  1. 1. Business Law Chapter 4 Mr. Whisel
  2. 2. Section 4.1 Goals <ul><li>Explain how disputes can be settled without resort to the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Name the different levels of courts and describe their powers </li></ul>
  3. 3. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>7-Eleven sells franchises for stores bearing its name. The franchise agreement specifies that disputes between 7-Eleven and those who buy a franchise should be settled by arbitration rather than by a trial in court. </li></ul><ul><li>Can 7-Eleven compel its franchise to use arbitration instead of litigation? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why Arbitration for 7-Eleven? <ul><li>The disputing parties avoid costs, delays, and difficulties of a court trial. </li></ul><ul><li>Even before arbitration the best way might be to just talk to the people involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Too often people quickly litigate </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Litigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking a dispute to court. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third party who tries to develop a solution acceptable to both sides of a dispute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not bind either party. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arbitrator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person holding an informal hearing to determine what happened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike mediation, arbitration is binding for both parties, enforceable by the courts </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Levels of Courts <ul><li>Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government forum that administers justice under the law. Both Civil and Criminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Award Damages- Civil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impose Imprisonment- Criminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impartial and Thorough Procedures to make a decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Witness- Person who gives an account of how they perceived the incident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal opportunity for Plaintiff and Defendant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial Courts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate Courts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Doyle made and illegal U-turn. A police officer saw it and gave him a citation (order to appear in court). Doyle claimed that the sign forbidding a U-turn at that intersection was obstructed by a tree branch. The officer replied, “Sorry, Sir Tell it to the judge in court.” </li></ul><ul><li>Why is a court necessary in this situation? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why courts? <ul><li>Necessary to decide whether Doyle is telling the truth and whether the blocked sign would be a valid defense. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trial Courts <ul><li>First Court to hear a dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Original Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to hear a case in full for the first time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information is presented at this level to prove alleged facts </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of Judges and Lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Other people involved in the court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clerks, Sheriffs, Marshalls, Bailiffs, and Jury Members </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Operation <ul><li>Clerks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter cases on the court calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Records of Proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compute Court Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sheriffs and Marshalls (Federal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summon Witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Court in order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carryout Judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Juries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sworn in citizens by the court to decide issues of fact in court cases. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Appellate Courts <ul><li>Review the decisions of the lower courts when a party claims an error was made during the previous proceeding </li></ul><ul><li>Do not hear witnesses (generally) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not accept new evidence (generally) </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with errors in law </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the Transcript </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A verbatim record of what went on at trial. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appellate Briefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written arguments on the issues of laws submitted by attorneys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After case make decision whether the lower court should be affirmed, reversed, or remanded (sent back to lower court). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Page 54 <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 4.1 Goals <ul><li>Explain how disputes can be settled without resort to the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Name the different levels of courts and describe their powers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section 4.2 Goals <ul><li>Identify the source of power of the federal courts </li></ul><ul><li>Name the various levels of federal courts and describe their jurisdictions </li></ul>
  15. 15. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Jim and Marla were discussing how U.S. Bankruptcy Courts were empowered to decide cases. Jim said that federal courts received their power from the U.S. Constitution. Marla thought Congress had created and empowered the bankruptcy courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is correct? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Who is Correct? <ul><li>Both </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Courts receive power from the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution granted Congress to divide powers </li></ul>
  17. 17. Origins of Federal Courts <ul><li>Article III of Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Judiciary Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordained and Established the U.S. Supreme Court and the circuit courts of appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal District Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized courts, such as those concerned primarily with tax or bankruptcy matters, also were created as the need for them arose </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Jurisdiction <ul><li>Three Levels of Federal Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal District Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Courts of Appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts that can hear almost any kind of case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts that can only hear one type of case </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Federal District Courts <ul><li>Lowest level of the Federal Courts with general Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Trial Court- (First court to hear a dispute) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the facts and make initial determination of the law to use in deciding the case </li></ul><ul><li>Original Jurisdiction over federal questions, or cases that arise under the Constitution, U.S. Law, and U.S. Treaties, and Lawsuits between citizens of different states (diversity of citizenship over $75,000 to dispute in federal court)(Less than $75,000 goes to state court with power </li></ul>
  20. 20. Federal Court of Appeals <ul><li>Appellate Court to Federal District Court </li></ul><ul><li>Do NOT accept any new evidence or call witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Review of lower courts ruling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine transcript/oral argument of attorney </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Appellate Court can change the factual determinations of a jury. </li></ul><ul><li>13 Federal Circuit Court of Appeals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 Assigned to a geographical area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 “Federal Circuit” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handles patent cases appealed from district courts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handles special jurisdiction cases </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. United States Supreme Court <ul><li>Original ( State Supreme Courts) and Appellate Jurisdiction (District Court of Appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Highest form of Court </li></ul><ul><li>Must find an issue with Constitution (if proven request a Writ of Certiorari) </li></ul><ul><li>Writ of Certiorari </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning over the record of the case for review </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Page 57 <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  23. 23. Section 4.2 Goals <ul><li>Identify the source of power of the federal courts </li></ul><ul><li>Name the various levels of federal courts and describe their jurisdictions </li></ul>
  24. 24. Section 4.3 Goals <ul><li>Compare the structure of a typical state court with the structure of the federal courts </li></ul><ul><li>Identify typical state courts of specialized jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the jurisdiction of the various typical state courts </li></ul>
  25. 25. State Legal System <ul><li>Resembles Federal </li></ul><ul><li>Three Tiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical based Trial Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate Level of Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Supreme Courts </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. State Trial Courts <ul><li>Known as Circuit Courts, District Courts, or Court of Common Pleas </li></ul><ul><li>Court of Record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps an exact account of what goes on at trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy Vital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as a transcript </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Original Jurisdiction </li></ul>
  27. 27. State Court of Appeals <ul><li>Panel of Judges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No more than three </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine Transcript and Oral Argument </li></ul><ul><li>No new evidence or witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>If find that wrong law used, sent back down to trial court to be retried </li></ul>
  28. 28. State Supreme Courts <ul><li>Case that involves the most complex legal issues are taken to the justices of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title given to Judge that sits on State and Federal Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review legal issues at hand and oral argument </li></ul><ul><li>Final measure in the states unless Constitution or Federal issues are involved, next step U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul>
  29. 29. State Courts with Special Jurisdiction <ul><li>Associate Circuit Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear minor criminal cases, traffic offenses, and lawsuits which small amount are involved (<$25,000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>City or Municipal Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic and Criminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less serious violations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Small Claims Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle disputes that are generally less than $2500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Jury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Juvenile Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 13 but under 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal acts that should not be considered adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full Constitutional Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Probate Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts that administer wills and estates </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Page 61 <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Do all What’s Your Verdicts? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Section 4.3 Goals <ul><li>Compare the structure of a typical state court with the structure of the federal courts </li></ul><ul><li>Identify typical state courts of specialized jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the jurisdiction of the various typical state courts </li></ul>
  32. 32. Chapter in Review Page 62-65
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