Chapter 4 Condensed


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  • Those types of activities would be prohibited under federal anti-discrimination statutes Could sue for damages and an injunction against similar treatment If employer retaliates against Anthony, the courts could correct such actions. No legal duty, but maybe a moral duty to help those in the future.
  • - By using arbitration both parties can avoid court costs and delays. 7-Eleven can require buyers to use arbitration.
  • - To settle the dispute
  • Court that deals with federal disputes as opposed to state or local disputes
  • Lawsuit of more than $75,000 between citizens of different states.
  • Original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls and cases dealing with a state
  • Federal issues vs. state issues
  • Chapter 4 Condensed

    1. 1. 4-1 The Court System
    2. 2. Hot Debate <ul><li>Turn to page 52 </li></ul><ul><li>What would likely happen to Anthony if he turns to the courts for help in ending the discrimination? </li></ul><ul><li>Does Anthony have a duty to anyone, legally or morally, to bring such a lawsuit? </li></ul>
    3. 3. First Things <ul><li>Settle disputes four different ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation – discuss the problem calmly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation – invite an independent third party to develop acceptable solutions. Mediators do not bind parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitration – Arbitrator holds an informal hearing. The decision is binding by both parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litigation – take dispute to court </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Can 7-Eleven compel its franchises to use arbitration instead of litigation? </li></ul>
    5. 5. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Why did Doyle have to go to court? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Different Levels of Courts <ul><li>Court – governmental forum that administers justice under the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide civil disputes and criminal cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two levels of court: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate court </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Trial Court <ul><li>Trial court – first court to hear a dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Original jurisdiction over a case </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawyers –officers of the court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clerks – enter cases on calendar, keep records of proceedings, compute court costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheriffs – summon witnesses, keep order, and carry out judgments in state court systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshals – carry out judgments in the federal court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jury members – decide issues of fact </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Appellate Court <ul><li>Reviews decisions of lower courts when a party claims an error was made during the previous proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Do not hear witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Generally do not accept new evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with errors of law rather than questions of fact </li></ul>
    9. 9. Appellate Court <ul><li>Examine transcript </li></ul><ul><li>Read briefs </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to attorneys’ oral argument </li></ul><ul><li>Question attorneys </li></ul><ul><li>Decide whether the lower court decision should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmed – upheld </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed – overturned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amended – changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remanded – sent back to trial court (possibly a new trial) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Review <ul><li>What is the difference between a trial court and appellate court? </li></ul>
    11. 11. 4-2 Federal Court System
    12. 12. Origins of Federal Court System <ul><li>Constitution states the U.S. should have one Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Judiciary Act – established the U.S. Supreme Court and court of appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation did not allow for a Supreme Court </li></ul>
    13. 13. Jurisdiction of Federal Courts <ul><li>What is a federal court? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Jurisdiction of the Federal Courts <ul><li>General Jurisdiction – can hear almost any kind of case </li></ul><ul><li>Three levels of federal courts with general jurisdiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal district courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal courts of appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Jurisdiction – hears only one specific type of case </li></ul>
    15. 15. Federal District Courts <ul><li>Lowest level of federal court </li></ul><ul><li>Trial court of the federal system </li></ul><ul><li>Have original jurisdiction over: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawsuits between citizens of different states and between a U.S. citizen and a foreign nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawsuits of more than $75, 000 </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>What arguments could you make for holding this dispute in a federal court? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Question <ul><li>What is the highest federal appellate court? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Federal Court of Appeals <ul><li>Have appellate jurisdiction over district courts </li></ul><ul><li>Do not accept new evidence or call witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Review trial transcripts and arguments of attorneys </li></ul><ul><li>No appellate court, not even the U.S. Supreme Court, can change factual determinations of a jury </li></ul>
    19. 19. Federal Court of Appeals <ul><li>13 federal courts of appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 are assigned to a specific region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 th dedicated to “federal circuit” and deals with patent cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also handles appeals from bodies like the International Trade Commission </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Other Countries <ul><li>Page 56 </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden’s judicial system </li></ul><ul><li>Use GOOGLE to search for the court system of other countries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the information, prepare a 1-2 page report about the court system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will discuss our findings in class </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Review <ul><li>How many federal courts of appeal are there? </li></ul><ul><li>What is special about the 13 th ? </li></ul>
    22. 22. Review <ul><li>What are three types of disputes that can only be heard at the federal level? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the three levels of federal courts? </li></ul>
    23. 23. U.S. Supreme Court <ul><li>Both original and appellate jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Most important function is appellate jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over cases on appeal from the U.S. Court of Appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the Supreme Court decides to take a case, it will issue a writ of certiorari to the last court that heard the case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Writ” forces the state court to turn over the record of the case </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. U.S. Supreme Court <ul><li>Jurisdiction over state supreme courts is only when a federal question is involved </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions that interpret and apply the Constitution are final </li></ul><ul><li>Can only be overturned by the Supreme Court itself or a constitutional amendment </li></ul>
    25. 25. 4-3 State Court Systems
    26. 26. State Court Systems <ul><li>What is the difference between a federal court and a state court? </li></ul>
    27. 27. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Page 58 </li></ul><ul><li>Can she take it to the U.S. Supreme Court? </li></ul><ul><li>Can she take it to the state supreme court? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is our legal system organized in tiers? </li></ul>
    28. 28. State Court Systems <ul><li>State system very similar to federal system </li></ul><ul><li>Courts of general jurisdiction have three tiers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom tier – trial court (geographically based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle tier – appellate courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top tier – state supreme court </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. A TYPICAL STATE COURT SYSTEM Supreme Court Family Court Probate Court Criminal Court Juvenile Court Municipal Court Justice’s Court (The Court of a Justice of the Peace ) Small Claims Court Trial Court (Of Original General Jurisdiction) Intermediate Appeals Court (In Populous States)
    30. 30. State Trial Courts <ul><li>Known as circuit courts, superior courts, district courts, and courts of common pleas depending on the state </li></ul><ul><li>Court of record – keeps an exact account of what goes on at trial </li></ul><ul><li>Record includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very important for appeals </li></ul>
    31. 31. State Courts of Appeals <ul><li>Appeal is reviewed by a panel of no more than three judges </li></ul><ul><li>No new evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Only check to see the correct law was used </li></ul><ul><li>If incorrect law, appellate court may send the case back down for a new trial </li></ul><ul><li>If correct law, the judgment will stand </li></ul>
    32. 32. State Supreme Courts <ul><li>In all legal issues, we are entitled to one trial and one appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Only cases dealing with complex legal issues are taken to the state supreme court </li></ul><ul><li>Panel of three or more justices review the case </li></ul><ul><li>Issues the final decision, unless federal issues are involved </li></ul><ul><li>In some states, state supreme courts have both appellate and original jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Original jurisdiction over most state impeachment cases </li></ul>
    33. 33. Activity <ul><li>In pairs, research a major state or federal trial that has been held within the past few years </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a who, what, when, where, result analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Find how much the trial cost taxpayers and the defendant </li></ul>
    34. 34. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Page 59 </li></ul><ul><li>Will Reid be treated differently in juvenile court than in an adult criminal court? </li></ul><ul><li>Should all juveniles be tried as juveniles? </li></ul><ul><li>Should juvenile offenders of serious crimes be sent to adult prisons? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Associate Circuit Courts <ul><li>Associate circuit courts/county courts – courts below main courts </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor criminal cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State traffic offenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawsuits of small amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No courts of record </li></ul><ul><li>Can be appealed to circuit courts to be on record </li></ul>
    36. 36. City or Municipal Courts <ul><li>Administer ordinances </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into traffic an criminal divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Can be appealed to circuit courts </li></ul><ul><li>Not considered criminal laws, but punishment can be just as severe </li></ul>
    37. 37. Small Claims Court <ul><li>For minor individual suits </li></ul><ul><li>Usually disputes of $2,500 or less </li></ul><ul><li>Attorneys generally not allowed </li></ul><ul><li>No jury or formal rules for evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions can be appealed to circuit court </li></ul>
    38. 38. Juvenile Courts <ul><li>Juveniles – 13-17 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Should not be held as responsible as adults for crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Full Constitutional rights </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on rehabilitation, not punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile cases not public knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>No records open to public </li></ul>
    39. 39. Probate Courts <ul><li>Probate Courts – courts that administer wills and estates </li></ul><ul><li>When people die, their belongings divided according to their wishes </li></ul><ul><li>Process is complex </li></ul>
    40. 40. Probate Court <ul><li>Why are courts needed to administer wills? </li></ul><ul><li>Why can’t the family settle the will among themselves? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the courts are just trying to get the family’s money? </li></ul>
    41. 41. Activity <ul><li>Turn to page 64, #25 </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Who, what, when, where, result analysis </li></ul>
    42. 42. Additional Activity <ul><li>Page 65 </li></ul><ul><li>Read the case </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions with a partner </li></ul>
    43. 43. Review <ul><li>What are probate courts? </li></ul><ul><li>What ages are children considered juveniles? </li></ul><ul><li>Name one characteristic unique to juvenile court. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Current Event <ul><li>Teens ordered to stay home </li></ul><ul><li>Jury called back – one year later </li></ul>
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