Chapter 3: Constitutional Rights


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Chapter 3: Constitutional Rights

  1. 1. Business Law Chapter 3 Mr. Whisel
  2. 2. Goals 3-1 <ul><li>Name the documents written in the course of our nations founding. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the relationship between the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution </li></ul>
  3. 3. July 4, 1776 <ul><li>Delegates meet in Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>13 American Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt: Declaration of Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charged King George III “A history of repeated injuries and usurpation for the purpose of establishing an absolute tyranny. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declares “ALL MEN CREATED EQUAL” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix B Page 624 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Starting of Government <ul><li>New government would be derived from the people </li></ul><ul><li>Started war that lasted 8 years </li></ul><ul><li>13 Colonies united in 1781 under a charter called “Articles of the Confederation” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Articles of the Confederation <ul><li>Promises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A one-house legislature –Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two to Seven from each state each with one vote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict Term Limits placed on those member of Congress, who were subject to recall by state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to declare war, make peace, enter into treaties and alliances, manage relations with Indian nations, coin money, settle differences between states, establish postal system, and appoint a Commander in Chief </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Articles of the Confederation Cont. <ul><ul><li>National Defense that would be paid by the National Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States would be asked rather than be required to make payments to the National Treasury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-Thirds Vote to pass bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amendments require unanimous vote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagreement caused Special Convention </li></ul>
  7. 7. Philadelphia 1787 <ul><li>Special Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafted the initial U.S. Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“of the people, for the people, by the people” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By June 1788 Nine states Ratify (2/3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress declares Constitution start March 4, 1789 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other 4 states thought it failed to protect human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolved by Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Bill of Rights <ul><li>First ten amendments to Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Acted as a shield against possible violation of rights </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Freedom of Religion (1 st ) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Speech (1 st ) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to assemble peaceably (1 st ) </li></ul><ul><li>Security in Person and Property against unreasonable search and seizures (4 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to remain silent if accused of a crime (5 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to enjoy a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury (5 th and 6 th ) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Right to not be tried for the same crime twice (5 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to a defense counsel in a trial and to confront a witness against oneself (6 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from cruel and unusual punishment if convicted of a crime (8 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to fair compensation for private property taken by government for a public purpose (5 th ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Bill of Rights <ul><li>Protection from the taking of life, liberty, or property without due process of law (5 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>A well regulated Militia (2 nd ) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to keep and bear arms (2 nd ) </li></ul><ul><li>More to Continue….. </li></ul>
  12. 12. End of Section 3.1 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 3-2 Goals <ul><li>Discuss how the Constitution has been a shield against violations of basic human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basic human rights protected by the Bill of Rights and subsequent amendments </li></ul>
  14. 14. Amendment I <ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for redress of grievances. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Amendment II <ul><li>A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Amendment III <ul><li>No Soldier shall, in time pf peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law </li></ul>
  17. 17. Amendment IV <ul><li>The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or things to be seized. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Amendment V <ul><li>No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, not be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; not shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Amendment VI <ul><li>In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witness against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense </li></ul>
  20. 20. Amendment VII <ul><li>In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the U.S., than according to the rules of the common law. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Amendment VIII <ul><li>Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted </li></ul>
  22. 22. Amendment IX <ul><li>The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people </li></ul>
  23. 23. Amendment X <ul><li>The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectfully, or to the people. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Civil Rights <ul><li>Personal, Natural rights guaranteed by the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>First Amendment Rights </li></ul>
  25. 25. Due Process of Law <ul><li>Fundamental Fairness in compliance with reasonable and just laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The benefits to which a person is justly entitled by law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obligations or standards of conduct toward other persons that are enforceable by law. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral Rights and Duties in other words </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Examples of Due Process <ul><li>Criminally Convicted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed Fine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lawful Execution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Peripheral Rights <ul><li>Right of Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Abolished Slavery (13 th Amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Vote (15 th Amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Vote in Federal Elections (24 th Amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>Women –Right to Vote (19 th Amendment) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Vote 18+ (26 th Amendment) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Peripheral Rights cont. <ul><li>Limited State Power (14 th Amendment) </li></ul>
  29. 29. End of Section 3.2 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  30. 30. Section 3.3 Goals <ul><li>Discuss how the Constitution created a system of checks and balances </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the power to govern is divided between the federal and state governments </li></ul>
  31. 31. System of Checks and Balances <ul><li>System that gives specific authority to each of the three basic branches of government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Legislative <ul><li>Worried that small states would not have a say and large states would not have enough say when voting. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress then divided into House of Representatives and Senate </li></ul><ul><li>No matter the size of the state each would have two voters for each </li></ul><ul><li>House has power to tax and impeach but not without Senate approval </li></ul>
  33. 33. Impeachment Cases <ul><li>Involve trying a government official for misconduct in office. </li></ul><ul><li>Could include cases against the President and Vice-President </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two-thirds vote </li></ul>
  34. 34. Congressional Terms <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 year terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 year terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executive Offices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 year terms </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Executive Branch <ul><li>Headed by President and Vice-President </li></ul><ul><li>Political Party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A private organization of citizens who select and promote candidates from election to public office. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not mentioned in the Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Judicial Branch <ul><li>Headed by Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Decides on the Constitutionality of a statute passed by legislative branch and signed by the President. </li></ul><ul><li>If constitutionally wrong the statute is void </li></ul>
  37. 37. Amendment <ul><li>Addition to the Constitution meaning change or alteration </li></ul><ul><li>Two-thirds majority vote for proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House and Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be ratified by three-fourths </li></ul>
  38. 38. Our Government <ul><li>Democracy- every adult citizen may vote on all issues (impossible in America) </li></ul><ul><li>Republic- Voters select representatives from all branches of government </li></ul>
  39. 39. Sovereignty <ul><li>10 th Amendment sovereignty of all states </li></ul><ul><li>Means freedom from external control </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Law of the Land- Prevails over all </li></ul>
  40. 40. Powers of the Federal Government <ul><li>Duty to protect all stats against invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Raise and Support Armies </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate Interstate Commerce and Foreign Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Post Offices </li></ul><ul><li>Coin Money </li></ul><ul><li>Tax imports and exports </li></ul><ul><li>Impose other taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Create Law </li></ul>
  41. 41. End of Section 3.3 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  42. 42. Chapter in Review <ul><li>Pages 48-51 </li></ul>
  43. 43. End of Chapter