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1850 1857 1859 Bessemer Fredrick Law Social Darwinism Process Olmsted •This theory came from•Developed by the • Landscape Charles Darwins bookBritish architects that called “On the Origin ofmanufacturers. It was in charge of Species”. It wasdeveloped forming urban published in 1859. Thisinjecting air into parks. He helped book explained themolten iron to draw up a plan for process of naturalremove the carbon “Greenward”, selection, it enabled theand other which in now best to surivive. Thisimpurities. It Central Park in book was used by manybecame widely NYC. other professors.used to producesteel. Timeline of 1850 – 1910 By: Bethany Whichello
1862 1862 1864Homestead Act Exodusters Credit Mobilier•Congress passed •A group of •A French bankingthis act. It offered people that company. One of the160 acres of land took advantage most importantfree to any citizen of the financial institutionsor extended citizen Homestead in the world duringwho was head of Act. They were the 19th century. Itthe household. African credited vast debtsFrom 1862 – 1900, Americans who and gave out loans.up to 600,000 moved from the During the Greatfamilies took post – Depression a lot ofadvantage of the reconstruction the loans weregovernments offer. South to audited. Kansas.
1867 1867 1867Greenbacks George Westinghouse Oliver Hudson Kelly•A minor political •American entrepreneurparty that and engineer. He •Started thebelieved in more developed the railway air patrons ofmoney supply, also brake. Also he was a Husbandry.they believed in pioneer of the electrical This was anboth gold and industry. He believed in organization forsilver. Another an alternating current farmers, itdefinition for while opposing Edisons became knowngreenbacks would direct current. as the grange.be a slang term It was forgiven to U.S. isolated farmcurrency. families.
1868 1869 1870 John D. Rockefeller Tammany Hall Gilded Age •American industrialist and•It was the most •Period following the philosophist. He was founderpowerful Democratic civil war . This term was of the Standard oil company. Itpolitical machine. It coined by Mark Twain dominated over all of the oilwas led by a man and Charles Dudley companies of that time. Hisnamed Boss Tweed. Warner in a book called money had a major impact onHe led a group of “The Gilded Age”, a tale education and scientificcorrupt politicians in of today. The book research. As the importance ofdefrauding the town. satirized what they kerosene and oil grew so did his A total of 10 million believed to be an era of wealth. He soon becamedollars went into serious social problems worth1 billion dollars and wastheir pockets. hidden by a thin layer of the richest man in America. gold.
1870 1874 1876 Jacob Riis George A, Custer Great Plains•Danish American social •He announced the •The grassland extendingreformer, journalist, and black hills had gold, through the west –social documentary this started a huge central portion of thephotographer. The gold rush, which put a U.S. . The federalimpoverished people were lot of uprising pressure government designatedthe biggest subjects of his on the Native this entire area as anphotography and prolific Americans living in the enormous reservation forwriting. He also discovered area. He led a battle the Native Americanthe flash. against the Sioux in people 1876 called the Battle of Little Bighorn
1876 1876 1876 Telephone Sitting Bull Little Bighorn•Created by •One of the major •Also called “CustersAlexander G. leaders of the Native Last Stand”, or “BattleBell and Thomas American people called of Greasy Grass”. It wasWatson. It the Sioux. The between the Cheyenne,opened up tons government tried to Lakota, Arapahoof new jobs for force him to sign the Indians, and Custers 7thwomen in office treaty of fort Laramie. cavalry. The Battle wassettings. Also Though some of the June 25th and 26th.the way of other chiefs did sitting Custers men werecommunicating bull held his ground. He outflanked and all 700would be forever never signed the treaty. men and Custer himselfchanged. were killed.
1876 1876 1877 Dawes ActThomas A. Edison Alexander G. Bell •Congress passed this act. It•Became a pioneer on aimed to “Americanize” the •Bell worked withthe new industrial Native Americans. This act another man namedfrontier when he broke up reservations and gave Thomas Watson to inventestablished the worlds some of the reservation land to the Telephone. Itfirst research lab in each individual native. 160 acres created easier officeMenlo Park, NJ. He to each household and 80 to the work and new jobs forperfected what we unmarried person. The rest women. The typewriterknow as the would be sold to other settlers. was also invented at theIncandescent light Any money that was left over same time.bulb. would be given to the Natives to buy farm implements.
1877 1877 1877 Vanderbilt Family Chief Joseph Longhorns•Railroad family that became •Nez Perce Indian chief. •Texas longhorns weresocially prominent in the first He succeeded his father hearded on an open range.half of the 19th century. chief Tuekakas. He They were a sturdy short –Cornelius Vanderbilt negotiated with the tempered breed. They wereestablished this by the shipping federal government to let accustomed to dryand railroad business. His son his people stay on their grasslands of Southerncontinued this and became very land. In 1877 the Spain, and used for food.wealthy. His descendants have government reversed their During the 1849 gold rushbuilt mansions across the policy on the Indians. they were popular.country. Most have been soldor made into museums
1877 1878 1878 Longdrives National Farmers Alliance Southern•An overland •Black and White movement Alliancetransport of animals. and organization for American •Industrial UnionTypically there was farmers. One of the goals was for whiteone cowboy on a drive to adverse the affects of the farmers. Believedof 250-300 cattle. A crop – lien system for farmers in the samecook also drove the after the Civil War. They principles as thechuck wagon, and a supported transportation National Farmerswrangler cared for industry and income taxes. Alliancethe horses.
1878 1880 1881 Booker T. Washington George Pullman Colored Alliance •Prominent African American •American Inventor and•Also called the educator. He believed racism industrialist. Known asCooperative Union, would end once blacks acquired the inventor of theconsisting of African useful labor skills and proved Pullman sleeping car.American farmers of their economic value to the Also he violentlythe south. Believed in society. He headed the suppressed strikingthe same principles as Tuskegee Normal and Industrial workers in the companyNational Alliance Institute. They aimed to prepare town he created. He African Americans to be well bought almost 4,000 equipped for their society. acres of the Chicago railroad.
1881 1883 1886 Haymarket Affair Assimilation Joseph Pulitzer •This refers to the aftermath of a•Supported by many •Hungarian immigrant . He bombing that took place at a laborsympathizers. It was bought the New York demonstration Tuesday May 4, 1886,plan under which World paper. It featured a Haymarket Square Chicago. ItNative Americans large Sunday edition, began ad a peaceful rally of workerswould give up their comics, sports coverage, striking for an 8-hour day. Andbeliefs and ways of life and womens news. It used unknown random person threw aand adopt the white sex, sin, and sensation to dynamite bomb at police. It endedculture. surpass his competitor up in gunfire and chaos. Seven William Randolph Hearst. policemen, and four civilians were killed, and others were injured
1886 1887 1887 Interstate Commerce Samuel Gompers Commission Soddy•He led the Cigar Makers •This was created by theInternational Union to join with interstate commerce act of 1887. •Mostly built by prairieother unions. He called it the The original purpose was to settlers. A lot of peopleAmerican Federations of Labor. regulate railroads, ensure fair built these. They wereHe was the president of it. They rates, and eliminate race freestanding houses builtfocused on collective bargaining, discrimination. Also regulate by stacking blocks ofor negotiation between common carriers such as prairie turf. In otherrepresentatives of labor and interstate bus lines, and telephone words, it was a dugout, ormanagement to reach written companies. This agency was a sod home. It kept warmagreements such as wages, abolished in 1995 in the winter and cool inhours, and working conditions. the summer
1888 1888 1888 Bimettalism George Eastman Poll Tax•A monetary system •Developed a more convenient •An annual tax that had to bein which the and alternate glass plate used in a paid before you could vote.government would camera. Now photographers African Americans as well asgive citizens either could use flexible film covered in Sharecroppers were most ofgold or silver in gelatin emulsions and send them the time to poor to pay.exchange for paper to get processed. Also Eastman Therefore a lot of them didn’tcurrency or produced the Kodak camera. get to vote.checks. Purchase price was $25 and it included a 100 picture roll of film.
1888 1888 1889 Segregation Jim Crow Laws Jane Adams•Southern states passed •Also known as •Pioneer settlement worker.these laws to separate segregation laws. Founder of Hull House inblack and white people in They separated Chicago. She was a publicpublic and private blacks whites in philosopher, sociologist, author,facilities. These laws public and private and leader in womens suffrage.came to be known as Jim facilities. They She was a powerful leader ofCrow Laws after a were named after the progressive era. Also theminstrel song that ended a minstrel song. first American woman to win thein the words “ Jump, Jim Nobel peace prize in 1931.Crow”
1890 1890 1890 Melting Pot Graft Transcontinental •Many Americans thought of Railroad the U.S. as a melting pot, in •Candidates used this other words a mixture of people advantage in office. It•There were five of different cultures and races was the illegal use oftranscontinental railroads. who blend together by political influence forRailroad companies sold abandoning their native personal gain. Politicianssome land to farmers for languages and customs. A lot were able to get away withtwo – ten dollars/per acre. of immigrants did not want to these shady dealings untilThis made the railroad change these things about 1890 when police officerscompanies extremely themselves. This caused a lot were hired and fired bywealthy. The west and east of anti – immigrant reactions. political bosses.rails were forever linked.
1890 1891 1892 Grandfather Clause Debt Peonage Ida B. Wells•Several southern states •A system that bound •Born into slavery a little beforeadded this clause to their laborers into slavery in the emancipation. She moved toconstitution. It stated that order to work off a Memphis to be a teacher andeven if a man failed the debt to the employer. later was the editor of a localliteracy test or could not Later on congress paper. March 9th, 1892 there wasafford the poll tax, he was declared this a a crusade involving a racialstill entitled to vote if he, his violation of the 13th injustice. Three black men,father, or his grandfather had amendment. friends of wells were lynched.been eligible to vote before After this Wells worked to stopJan. 1st , 1867 or 1868. racial injustice and lynching.
1829 1892 1892 Populist Ellis Island Scab•A supporter of •Immigration station in New •A Union worker who returnspopulism. Populism is a York. 20% of all immigrants were to the job without permissionphysical philosophy detained there for a few days from the Union. Or it can beurging social and before being inspected. Only 2% a non – Union employee whopolitical system change werent given entry. Normally needs the work and is willingthat favors “the people” the whole process around five to put up with taunts,over “the elite”. Or you days. The immigrants had to be threats, and even strikercould say they favored medically examined, documents violence. In short terms it is athe common person over checked, they had to be able to strikebreaker who willinglythe wealthy business work, had to have at least $25, crosses the picket line.owners. and could have never been convicted of a felony.
1894 1894 1894 Eugene V. Debs Patronage Civil Service• He attempted to form an •Since the beginning of 19th century.industrial Union called the the 19th century meant Government“American Railway Union”. the giving of administration.Most members were unskilled government jobs to They said thoseand semi skilled laborers, but people who helped a jobs should go to.some skilled engineers and candidate get elected. The most qualifiedfireman joined too. The new person reformersUnion struck for higher believed this.wages and won. Themembership rose all the wayto 150,000 people.
1894 1895 1895 Pullman Strike Urbanization Settlement Houses•Tweed Boss’s business •19th century after the •Reforms from a social gospelstarted to fall off. Pullman technological boom. movement established thesecut wages and jobs while It resulted in rapid houses. They were communityincreasing working hours. urbanization. This centers in slum neighborhoodsHe did this to lower costs meant growth of that provided assistance to peopleand keep profits. The failure cities, mostly in in the area especially immigrants.to lower his utility and rent regions of the A lot of settlement workers livedled his workers to strike. It Northeast and at these houses to learn first handwas a violent upheaval that Midwest. about problems caused bywas taken care of by federal urbanization and then createtroops. solutions.
1895 1895 1896 Political Machine William McKinley Mark Twain • A politically organized •He was nominated by the• His real name was group that controlled the Republican Party. HeSamuel Clemens. He activities of a political party campaigned on his frontwas a novelist and in a city. It also offered porch. He gothumorist. He wrote services to voters and approximately 7 millionmany classics such as, businesses in exchange for votes and his opposer got“The Adventures of political or financial support. 6.5 million. He carriedHuckleberry Finn”. After the civil war these the East. With the gained control of local McKinley election government in Baltimore, population collapsed. New York, San Francisco and a few other major cities.
1896 1896 1899 Andrew Carnegie Plessy vs. FergusonWilliam Jennings •Came from Scotland to America Bryan •Legal case that tested the when he was 12 years old. After 6 constitutionality of segregation.• Nominated by the years he became a private The supreme court ruled thatDemocratic party secretary to the local separation of races in publicfor president. He superintendent of the accommodations was legal and didwas a former Pennsylvania Railroad. When he not violate the 14th amendment. ItNebraska gave orders to untangle two established the doctrine ofcongressman. He freight and passenger trains. He “Separate but Equal”, which allowedhad a difficult was rewarded by being able to buy states to maintain segregatedcampaign due to stock. He soon received his first facilities for blacks and whites asthe gold bug. He dividend. He became one of the long as they provided equal service.ended with 6.5 second wealthiest men in the It permitted legalized segregationmillion votes. country. Today’s Carnegie Hall in for almost 60 years. NYC is named after him.
1903 1905 1910 Wilbur and Orville Wright W.E.B. Dubois Angel Island•The brothers were bicycle •First African American •In San Francisco bay. It letmanufacturers from Dayton, Ohio. to receive a doctorate in immigrants from Europe First they built a glider, then from Harvard University. and Asia arriving on the Eastcommissioned a four cylinder He founded the Niagara Coast. The immigrantsinternal combustion engine, chose movement. It insisted entered around 1910-1940.a propeller, and then designed a that blacks should seek a They received very harshbiplane with a 40’4” wingspan. liberal arts education so procedures. They had to stayTheir first successful flight lasted that the African in filthy ramshackle buildings12 sec. and went up to 120 ft. It American community while they waited to bewas on Dec. 17th, 1903 In Kitty would have well educated inspected. 50,000 ChineseHawk, NC. leaders. immigrants entered here.
Works Cited• Google images• www.wikipedia.com• U.S History Textbook