Ryan's psy ch02
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    Ryan's psy ch02 Ryan's psy ch02 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS Section 1: Conducting Research Section 2: Surveys, Samples, and Populations Section 3: Methods of Observation Section 4: The Experimental Method Section 5: Ethical Issues
    • Conducting Research (general info)
      • Psychology is an experimental science
      • Assumptions must be supported by evidence
      • Procedures consists of five steps:
        • Forming a research question
        • Forming a hypothesis
        • Testing the hypothesis
        • Analyzing the results
        • Drawing conclusions
    • Form a question (posing a question based on daily experience, psychological theory or common knowledge)
      • Form a question from daily experience
      • Questions should be based on behavior
      • People learn from observing others
      • Some questions come from folklore and common knowledge
        • “ Two heads are better than one” “Opposites attract” “Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder.”
      Section 1: Conducting Research
    • Form a hypothesis (making an educated guess)
      • An educated guess
      • A hypothesis in the form of an “if-then” statement
      • “If-then” reasoning is an example of social scientific reasoning
    • Test the hypothesis (examining the evidence through any of a variety of means)
      • Psychological knowledge rests on carefully examined human experience
      • A hypothesis cannot be considered to be correct until it has been scientifically tested and proved to be right
      • Psychologists do not rely on people’s opinion
      • Answer research questions or test hypotheses through a variety of methods.
    • Analyze Results (looking for patterns or relationships in the evidence)
      • What the findings mean
      • Have to figure out how to interpret the reaction
      • Psychologists collect a great deal more data than needed
      • Look for patterns and relationships in the data
      • They must decide which data support their hypothesis and which data do not.
      Section 1: Conducting Research
    • Draw a conclusion (determining whether the findings support the hypothesis and adjusting it if they do not)
      • They draw conclusions about their questions and their hypotheses
      • When observations do not support hypotheses they often change the theories or beliefs from which the hypotheses were derived
      • Psychologists need to keep an open mind
      • Be willing to adjust or modify their hypotheses if their findings make it necessary to do so
    • Replication
      • Findings may represent a random occurrence
      • For a study to be confirmed it must be replicated (repeated) to show the same results
      • If the studies are repeated and obtain different results, the findings of the first study are questioned
      • It is important to study both males and females if the goal is to make generalizations about all members of the species.
    • Does this lead to new questions?
      • Whether the findings of the research study support or contradict the hypothesis, they are likely to lead to new research questions.
      • Once new questions are asked, the process begins all over again.
    • Question: Why are proper sampling techniques important?
      • Surveys are taken to find out about people’s attitudes and behaviors directly.
      • Two survey methods—written questionnaires and interviewing
      • The findings of interviews and questionnaires are not completely accurate.
        • People may not answer honestly about their attitudes or behavior
      Section 2: Surveys, Samples, and Populations
    • Populations and Samples
      • Must decide what group or groups of people they wish to examine and how they will be selected.
      • Target population—is the whole group you want to study or describe.
      • Researchers study a sample of the target population
    • Selecting Samples
      • Samples must be selected scientifically to ensure that the samples accurately represent the populations they are supposed to represent.
      • Random Sample—individuals are selected by chance from the target population
      • Stratified sample—subgroups in the population are represented proportionally in the sample.
      • A random sample of 1,000 to 1,500 people will usually represent the general American population reasonably well.
    • Generalizing Results
      • Researchers do not use a sample that represents an entire population
      • Researchers want to know about only one group within the population
      • Researchers are cautious about generalizing their findings to groups other than those from which their samples were drawn
      • Researchers cannot learn about the preferences of all people by studying only one group of people, such as men.
      • The gender of the individuals in the sample is not the only characteristic that researchers must take into account.
    • Volunteer Bias
      • Researchers have little control over who responds to surveys or participates in research studies.
      • They cannot force people to complete the questionnaires.
      • Bias—a predisposition to a certain point of view.
      • People who volunteer to participate in studies often bring with them a volunteer bias.
      • They often have a different outlook from people who do not volunteer for research studies.
      • Volunteers may: be more interested, have more spare time.
      • Depending on what the study is about, any or all of the factors could skew the results.