BELL RINGER <ul><li>Cabinet = KNOW THE MAIN IDEA AND WHY IMPORTANT </li></ul>
French Revolution 1789-1799
Causes <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul>
 
Economic <ul><li>BANKRUPT! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars of expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Revolution </li></u...
Political  <ul><li>Absolute monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XVI = divine right of kings </li></ul><ul><li>American Revolu...
Social <ul><li>Class conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights according to class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First estate ...
<ul><li>Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation.  </li></ul>
Third estate <ul><li>93-98% of population </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants want bread  </li></ul><ul><li>Rich want equality (Bou...
<ul><li>“ Inferiors revolt in order to be equals. And equals revolt to be superior. Such is the state of mind which create...
Three stages of the French Revolution <ul><li>Center </li></ul><ul><li>Left  </li></ul><ul><li>Right </li></ul>
Center <ul><li>Economy bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inefficient and unfair tax structure, which placed the burden of taxat...
Where is the Money? <ul><li>In this cartoon from the time, Louis is looking at the chests and asks  “Where is the tax mone...
<ul><li>Calls Estates General to get approval of new taxes. </li></ul>
Center (moderates) <ul><li>Louis XVI calls Estates General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First time – 1614 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>The delegates of the third estate insisted that the three orders meet together and that the vote be taken by head,...
What Is the Third Estate? <ul><li>&quot; What is the Third Estate ?&quot; asked Abbe Sieyes.  &quot;Everything!“    </li><...
Tennis Court Oath <ul><li>King worried about losing power </li></ul><ul><li>Locked NA out of meeting rooms </li></ul><ul><...
 
King Asks Third Estate to Disperse <ul><li>Hearing of the oath, the King called a meeting of all three orders. </li></ul><...
Revolution begins <ul><li>Louis gathers troops to Paris and Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>People scared Louis XVI drive awa...
Storming of Bastille <ul><li>July 14 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Independence Day  in France today </li></ul><ul><li>Political ...
<ul><li>Riots all over France </li></ul><ul><li>New city Government in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>National Guard created to p...
The Marseillaise  <ul><li>Arise you children of our motherland,  Oh now is here our glorious day !  Over us the bloodstain...
The Great Fear <ul><li>Peasants believed Nobles planned to attack them and crush the French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen <ul><li>August 12-15th 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the Bill of Right...
Women’s March to Versailles <ul><li>On October 4, 1789, a crowd of women, demanding bread for their families, marched towa...
Constitution of 1791 <ul><li>Constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Kings power reduced </li></ul><ul><li>He returned t...
<ul><li>Elect new body called the Legislative Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>One house parliament ran the Country </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Louis XVI plotted to overthrow new government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plotted with nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>King tried to escape country and get help </li></ul><ul><li>He was recognized by his picture on the money  </li></...
 
 
The San-Culottes <ul><li>At the beginning of the revolution, the working men of Paris allowed the revolutionary bourgeoisi...
<ul><li>Brother of Marie Emperor Leopold II (Austria) and (Prussia) King Fredrick William II issued declaration = Do not t...
<ul><li>BELL RINGER GREEN BOOK PAGE 133  Sentencing of Louis XVI </li></ul>
Left (Radicals) <ul><li>France under attack from Austria and Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>People afraid Paris might fall </li...
<ul><li>Louis is arrested on belief of treason </li></ul><ul><li>Office of King is suspended </li></ul><ul><li>Need a new ...
Republic of France <ul><li>New Government of France  </li></ul><ul><li>September 1792 first meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Univ...
<ul><li>New government controlled by Factions </li></ul><ul><li>The Jacobins became the leaders of the Government </li></u...
Louis Executed <ul><li>The Verdict:  </li></ul><ul><li>Guilty </li></ul><ul><li>January 21 1793 he was beheaded </li></ul>
 
Republic of France <ul><li>All males vote </li></ul><ul><li>Laws benefited the poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread cheap </li...
Radicals take over <ul><li>Jacobins arrest political adversaries  </li></ul><ul><li>In response a women murders Marat in h...
The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David
Radicals Take Over <ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre and radicals take over Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Formed Army to defend ...
Reign of Terror <ul><li>Find  Enemies of the State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of the King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Guillotine <ul><li>Before only upper class beheaded </li></ul><ul><li>Lower class drawn and quartered </li></ul><ul><li>3/...
Guillotine <ul><li>Total weight of a Guillotine was about 580 kilos (1278lb)  </li></ul><ul><li>The blade weighed over 40 ...
 
Reign of Terror <ul><li>Who was executed? One of the first to be executed was Marie-Antoinette, the former Queen.  </li></...
Reign of Terror <ul><li>Eyewitnesses have reported that women often did their knitting while watching the executions.  </l...
 
<ul><li>Jean-Baptiste Henry, </li></ul><ul><li>aged 18, convicted of having sawn down a tree of liberty, executed 6th Sept...
<ul><li>Marie Plaisant, </li></ul><ul><li>seamstress, convicted of having exclaimed that she was an aristocrat and that sh...
<ul><li>Henriette Francoise Marboeuf, convicted of having hoped for the arrival of the Austrians and Prussians and of keep...
<ul><li>A Woman was charged with the crime of having wept at her husband’s execution…she was condemned to sit for </li></u...
<ul><li>In Lyons, a Jacobin ordered 300 people to be executed by cannon fire as the guillotine was ‘too slow’. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>“ One’s duty is to punish traitors, to help the needy, respect the weak, defend the oppressed, do good to one’s ne...
<ul><li>30,000 to more than 40,000 people were killed! </li></ul>
The Right (Conservative) <ul><li>July 1794 Robespierre was arrest and sent to the guillotine. </li></ul><ul><li>End the Re...
Directory <ul><li>Five man executive </li></ul><ul><li>Business men </li></ul><ul><li>Very conservative compared to Republ...
Directory <ul><li>France winning war </li></ul><ul><li>Invading the rest of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>At home inflation, fo...
Napoleon <ul><li>1799 was so popular he took over the country </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a dictatorship </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
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  • Loaf of bread = 1 months wage
  • When the Estates General met, each estate solemnly marched into the hall at Versailles. The third estate dressed all in black, the nobility dressed in all their finery, and the clergy dressed in full regalia.  
  • 1789 was marked by severe bread shortages in Paris. All of this left an uneasy atmosphere in Paris. The King and queen had not ventured from Versailles, child was sick. fueling speculation about his commitment to the people of France and particularly those of Paris. By mid July, with oppressive summer heat bearing down and emotions running high, events started a chain reaction that would lead to one of the bloodiest revolutions in History. Events leading up to the Storming of the Bastille · Foreign troops were deployed to Paris with no clear explanation as to why they were there. · July 12- Mob of people in the public gardens of Tuileriers Palace were attacked by a German cavalry, who were ordered to clear the area. Rumors begin to circulate that the king was planning some type of action against the people of Paris. People scramble to arm themselves. · July 14th- The morning huge mobs gathered around the armory at Les Invalides. They break into the armory and begin handing out guns. However, there is very little gunpowder stored at the armory. It isn’t long before the mob heads toward the Bastille, an old prison on the River Seine, where 250 barrels of gunpowder is stored. · The governor of the Bastille, Bernard de Launay, refuses to let the mob enter the Bastille or hand out any gunpowder. Someone cuts the ropes to the drawbridge and the mob rushes forth.
  • June 21, 1791. With the dauphin&apos;s governess, the Marquise de Tourzel taking on the role of a Russian baroness, the queen and the king&apos;s sister Madame Élisabeth playing her maids, the king her butler, and the royal children her daughters, the royal family made their escape. When the royal family finally returned under guard to Paris, the revolutionary crowd met the royal carriage with uncharacteristic silence. The royal family was immediately placed under house arrest back at the Tuileries Palace . From this point forward, the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever increasing possibility. The credibility of the king as a constitutional monarch had been seriously undermined by the escape attempt.
  • They were called sans-culottes (literally, without trousers) because the working men wore loose trousers instead of the tight knee breeches of the nobility. Eventually sans culottes came to refer to any revolutionary citizen
  • Quote from Danton Georges-Jacques Danton, a revolutionary leader and a powerful orator, rose in the Assembly on September 2nd 1792 and boomed out these memorable words in his deep bass voice: &amp;quot;When the tocsin sounds, it will not be a signal of alarm, but the signal to charge against the enemies of our country. . . To defeat them, gentlemen, we need boldness, and again boldness, and always boldness; and France will then be saved.&amp;quot; Danton probably meant boldness in fighting the war against Austria. But many took his words to refer to enemies within  France. The radical press took up the cry, &amp;quot;Let the blood of the traitors flow,&amp;quot; and within hours of Danton&apos;s speech the streets of France did indeed run with blood. Many thought the prisons held counter-revolutionaries and so mobs of citizens invaded the prisons, held mock trials, and slaughtered many of the inmates. Many of the inmates were clergymen who had refused to swear the oath which they felt put the state over the Pope. By September 7,  over 1000 were dead.   
  • the day of the execution — prep preparations are made: Troops were stationed at the entrances to the city to prevent crowds from entering or leaving. 200 Mounted guards and 1200 foot soldiers were to surround Louis’s coach. There were around 80,000 armed men in Paris to ensure that problems did not arise
  • &amp;quot;I forgive those who are guilty of my death.&amp;quot;
  • A final Girondin blow was struck, however, when Charlotte Corday, a Girondin sympathizer, gained entrance  to Marat&apos;s bath and stabbed him. Marat immediately became a martyr to the revolution. He was given a hero&apos;s funeral and the procession lasted 7 hours.
  • After the death of Louis XVI in 1793, the Reign of Terror began. The first victim was Marie Antoinette . She had been imprisoned with her children after she was separated from Louis. First they took her son Louis Charles from her (often called the lost dauphin, or Louis XVII ). He disappeared under suspicious circumstances. Then she led off a parade of prominent and not-so-prominent citizens to their deaths.  The guillotine , the new instrument of egalitarian justice, was put to work. Public executions were considered educational. Women were encouraged to sit and knit during trials and executions. The Revolutionary Tribunal  ordered the execution of 2,400 people in Paris by July 1794. Across France 30,000 people lost their lives. The Terror was designed to fight the enemies of the revolution, to prevent counter-revolution from gaining ground. Most of the people rounded up were not aristocrats, but ordinary people. A man (and his family) might go to the guillotine  for saying something critical of the revolutionary government. If an informer happened to overhear, that was all the tribunal needed. Watch Committees around the nation were encouraged to arrest &amp;quot;suspected persons, ... those who, either by their conduct or their relationships, by their remarks or by their writing, are shown to be partisans of tyranny and federalism and enemies of liberty&amp;quot; ( Law of Suspects , 1793). Civil liberties were suspended. The Convention ordered that &amp;quot;if material or moral proof exists, independently of the evidence of witnesses, the latter will not be heard, unless this formality should appear necessary, either to discover accomplices or for other important reasons concerning the public interest.&amp;quot; The promises of the Declaration of the Rights of Man were forgotten. Terror was the order of the day. In the words of Maximilien Robespierre, &amp;quot;Softness to traitors will destroy us all.&amp;quot; Robespierre was the mastermind of the Reign of Terror. He was the leader of the Committee of Public Safety, the executive committee of the National Convention, and the most powerful man in France. He explained how terror would lead to the Republic of Virtue in a speech to the National Convention:  If the spring of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible...It has been said that terror is the principle of despotic government. Does your government therefore resemble despotism? Yes, as the sword that gleams in the hands of the heroes of liberty resembles that with which the henchmen of tyranny are armed. Maximilien Robespierre Speech on the Justification of the Use of Terror The old maxim &amp;quot;the end justifies the means&amp;quot; describes Robespierre&apos;s policy well. Even the radical Jacobins, the supporters of Robespierre, come to feel that the Terror must be stopped. Danton rose in the Convention calling for an end to the Terror. He was its next victim. Fearful of Danton&apos;s reputation for eloquence, the Convention passed a decree stating that any accused person who insulted the court should be prohibited from speaking in his own defense. Danton was not allowed to speak in his own defense. Nevertheless after the trial Danton asserted that &amp;quot;the people will tear my enemies to pieces within 3 months.&amp;quot; As he was led to the guillotine he remarked &amp;quot;Above all, don&apos;t forget to show my head to the people - it&apos;s well worth having a look at.&amp;quot; Modesty was never one of his virtues.
  • In spite of its efficiency, an execution by guillotine was still a sickening spectacle. When the head was severed, blood poured from the body as the heart continued to pump. When it was used frequently (as it was during the revolution), the stench from the place of execution was horrible. There is also some evidence to suggest that the head retained some life for a moment after the head was severed and so the death might not be as quick as has been supposed.
  • When Robespierre called for a new purge in 1794, he seemed to threaten the other members of the Committee of Public Safety. The Jacobins had had enough. Cambon rose in the Convention and said &amp;quot;It is time to tell the whole truth. One man alone is paralyzing the will of the Convention. And that man is Robespierre .&amp;quot; Others quickly rallied to his support. Robespierre was arrested and sent to the guillotine the next day, the last victim of the Reign of Terror. 
  • French revolution

    1. 1. BELL RINGER <ul><li>Cabinet = KNOW THE MAIN IDEA AND WHY IMPORTANT </li></ul>
    2. 2. French Revolution 1789-1799
    3. 3. Causes <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul>
    4. 5. Economic <ul><li>BANKRUPT! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars of expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Marie Antoinette </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food shortages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of famine </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Political <ul><li>Absolute monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XVI = divine right of kings </li></ul><ul><li>American Revolution overthrew monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>People ruled </li></ul><ul><li>French began to want this </li></ul>
    6. 7. Social <ul><li>Class conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights according to class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First estate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clergy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second estate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third estates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone else </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Third estate <ul><li>93-98% of population </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants want bread </li></ul><ul><li>Rich want equality (Bourgeoisie) </li></ul><ul><li>All paid taxes </li></ul><ul><li>No rights compared to the first two estates </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>“ Inferiors revolt in order to be equals. And equals revolt to be superior. Such is the state of mind which creates revolutions.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Three stages of the French Revolution <ul><li>Center </li></ul><ul><li>Left </li></ul><ul><li>Right </li></ul>
    11. 12. Center <ul><li>Economy bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inefficient and unfair tax structure, which placed the burden of taxation on those least able to pay, the third estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdated medieval bureaucratic institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A drained treasury which was the result of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aiding the Americans during the American Revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long wars with England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overspending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>King wants to tax wealthy </li></ul>
    12. 13. Where is the Money? <ul><li>In this cartoon from the time, Louis is looking at the chests and asks “Where is the tax money?“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The financial minister, Necker, looks on and says “ The money was there last time I looked.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nobles and clergy are sneaking out the door carrying sacks of money, saying &quot;We have it.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>Calls Estates General to get approval of new taxes. </li></ul>
    14. 15. Center (moderates) <ul><li>Louis XVI calls Estates General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First time – 1614 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approve new tax laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting became a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One vote per estate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only one vote to block </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd estate mad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have as many reps as other two estates combined </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>The delegates of the third estate insisted that the three orders meet together and that the vote be taken by head, rather than by order. </li></ul><ul><li>Since there were far more delegates from the third estate, this plan would give them a majority. </li></ul><ul><li>The King refused to grant their request. </li></ul><ul><li>The third estate refused to budge.   </li></ul>
    16. 17. What Is the Third Estate? <ul><li>&quot; What is the Third Estate ?&quot; asked Abbe Sieyes. &quot;Everything!“   </li></ul><ul><li>This liberal clergyman rallied the commoners of France to assert their power and take charge of the Estates General. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At his suggestion, they declared themselves the National Assembly and invited the other two orders to join them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The next day they found their meeting hall locked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the suggestion of one of the delegates they moved to a nearby indoor tennis court.  </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Tennis Court Oath <ul><li>King worried about losing power </li></ul><ul><li>Locked NA out of meeting rooms </li></ul><ul><li>June 20 th 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Will not stop meeting until a constitution was created” </li></ul>
    18. 20. King Asks Third Estate to Disperse <ul><li>Hearing of the oath, the King called a meeting of all three orders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the meeting he ordered the third estate to disperse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They refused. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the delegates declared that  &quot; We are here at the will of the people, . . . and . . . shall not stir from our seats unless forced to do so by bayonets .&quot; </li></ul>
    19. 21. Revolution begins <ul><li>Louis gathers troops to Paris and Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>People scared Louis XVI drive away the National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>No food </li></ul><ul><li>Blame the king </li></ul><ul><li>Rioted </li></ul>
    20. 22. Storming of Bastille <ul><li>July 14 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Independence Day in France today </li></ul><ul><li>Political Prison </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of king </li></ul><ul><li>People revolted </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked the prison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons to protect new government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free the Political prisoner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 forgers, 2lunitics,1 sexual offender </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li>Riots all over France </li></ul><ul><li>New city Government in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>National Guard created to protect new government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tri Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red white and blue </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 24. The Marseillaise <ul><li>Arise you children of our motherland,  Oh now is here our glorious day !  Over us the bloodstained banner  Of tyranny holds sway !  Of tyranny holds sway ! Oh, do you hear there in our fields  The roar of those fierce fighting men ?  Who came right here into our midst  To slaughter sons, wives and kin. </li></ul><ul><li>CHORUS </li></ul><ul><li>To arms, oh citizens !  Form up in serried ranks !  March on, march on !  And drench our fields  With their tainted blood!  </li></ul>
    23. 25. The Great Fear <ul><li>Peasants believed Nobles planned to attack them and crush the French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants want payback for oppression in their eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>They attack nobles houses and monasteries. = Hatred of Old Regime and destroyed documents that contained taxes old the first two estates </li></ul><ul><li>To settle people down passed a Declaration </li></ul>
    24. 26. Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen <ul><li>August 12-15th 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the Bill of Rights (list of Freedoms) </li></ul><ul><li>Absolved feudal privileges and unjust taxes </li></ul><ul><li>No special privileges </li></ul><ul><li>Stated Goals of the French revolution </li></ul><ul><li>“ Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” </li></ul>
    25. 27. Women’s March to Versailles <ul><li>On October 4, 1789, a crowd of women, demanding bread for their families, marched toward Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>When they arrived, soaking wet from the rain, they demanded to see &quot;the Baker,&quot; &quot;the Baker's wife,&quot; and &quot;the Baker's boy&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The King met with some of the women and agreed to distribute all the bread in Versailles to the crowd. </li></ul>
    26. 28. Constitution of 1791 <ul><li>Constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Kings power reduced </li></ul><ul><li>He returned to Paris never to return to Versailles </li></ul>
    27. 29. <ul><li>Elect new body called the Legislative Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>One house parliament ran the Country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled by Factions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives = sat on the right </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radicals = sat on the left </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderates = in the center </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 30. <ul><li>Louis XVI plotted to overthrow new government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plotted with nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plotted with other countries to invade France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Austria and Prussia (relatives of his) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 31. <ul><li>King tried to escape country and get help </li></ul><ul><li>He was recognized by his picture on the money </li></ul><ul><li>Family arrested and sent back to Paris </li></ul>
    30. 34. The San-Culottes <ul><li>At the beginning of the revolution, the working men of Paris allowed the revolutionary bourgeoisie to lead them. </li></ul><ul><li>But by 1790 the sans-culottes were beginning to be politically active in their own right. </li></ul>
    31. 35. <ul><li>Brother of Marie Emperor Leopold II (Austria) and (Prussia) King Fredrick William II issued declaration = Do not touch the Monarchy!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Help the French Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria (over whelming majority) </li></ul>
    32. 36. <ul><li>BELL RINGER GREEN BOOK PAGE 133 Sentencing of Louis XVI </li></ul>
    33. 37. Left (Radicals) <ul><li>France under attack from Austria and Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>People afraid Paris might fall </li></ul><ul><li>“ To defeat them, gentlemen, we need boldness, and again boldness, and always boldness; and France will then be saved.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>September Massacres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to jails and get 1600 nobles/priest and beheaded them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No trial </li></ul></ul>
    34. 38. <ul><li>Louis is arrested on belief of treason </li></ul><ul><li>Office of King is suspended </li></ul><ul><li>Need a new government </li></ul>
    35. 39. Republic of France <ul><li>New Government of France </li></ul><ul><li>September 1792 first meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Universal manhood suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No more king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppress disorder at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight the foreign invaders </li></ul></ul>
    36. 40. <ul><li>New government controlled by Factions </li></ul><ul><li>The Jacobins became the leaders of the Government </li></ul><ul><li>Lead by Georges-Jacques Danton, Maximilain Robespierre and Jean-Paul Marat </li></ul><ul><li>Put Louis on trial for treason </li></ul>
    37. 41. Louis Executed <ul><li>The Verdict: </li></ul><ul><li>Guilty </li></ul><ul><li>January 21 1793 he was beheaded </li></ul>
    38. 43. Republic of France <ul><li>All males vote </li></ul><ul><li>Laws benefited the poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Want to spread Republic to other countries </li></ul><ul><li>England, Prussia , Austria and other not like idea </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Coalition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invade France </li></ul></ul>
    39. 44. Radicals take over <ul><li>Jacobins arrest political adversaries </li></ul><ul><li>In response a women murders Marat in his tub. </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is necessary to annihilate both the internal and external enemies of the republic or perish with it.” </li></ul>
    40. 45. The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David
    41. 46. Radicals Take Over <ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre and radicals take over Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Formed Army to defend France from First Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a “Committee of Public Safety” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect France from invasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find enemies within </li></ul></ul>
    42. 47. Reign of Terror <ul><li>Find Enemies of the State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of the King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of a constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of free speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone that stood up against the new government of Robespierre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Send them to the Guillotine </li></ul>
    43. 48. Guillotine <ul><li>Before only upper class beheaded </li></ul><ul><li>Lower class drawn and quartered </li></ul><ul><li>3/6/1791 The Assembly approved a text providing that &quot;Every person condemned to the death penalty shall have his head severed&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Very Enlightened </li></ul>
    44. 49. Guillotine <ul><li>Total weight of a Guillotine was about 580 kilos (1278lb) </li></ul><ul><li>The blade weighed over 40 kilos (88.2lb) </li></ul><ul><li>Height of side posts was just over 4m (14ft) </li></ul><ul><li>The blade drop was 2.3m (88 inches) </li></ul><ul><li>Power at impact was 400 kilos (888lb) per square inch. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    45. 51. Reign of Terror <ul><li>Who was executed? One of the first to be executed was Marie-Antoinette, the former Queen. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 18,000 were officially guillotined, but many others were shot, drowned, or put to death some other way. The Terror was supposed to help the revolution survive </li></ul>
    46. 52. Reign of Terror <ul><li>Eyewitnesses have reported that women often did their knitting while watching the executions. </li></ul><ul><li>Those convicted persons were often greeted with cries of &quot;Death to the Traitors&quot; shouted from spectators. </li></ul><ul><li>Little toy guillotine for children, women wore them as jewelry </li></ul>
    47. 54. <ul><li>Jean-Baptiste Henry, </li></ul><ul><li>aged 18, convicted of having sawn down a tree of liberty, executed 6th September, that same day </li></ul>
    48. 55. <ul><li>Marie Plaisant, </li></ul><ul><li>seamstress, convicted of having exclaimed that she was an aristocrat and that she did not care a fig for the nation, condemned to death and executed the same day </li></ul>
    49. 56. <ul><li>Henriette Francoise Marboeuf, convicted of having hoped for the arrival of the Austrians and Prussians and of keeping food for them, condemned to death and executed that day. </li></ul>
    50. 57. <ul><li>A Woman was charged with the crime of having wept at her husband’s execution…she was condemned to sit for </li></ul><ul><li>hours under the blade which shed upon her, drop by drop the blood of her dead </li></ul><ul><li>husband…”before she was </li></ul><ul><li>released by death…” </li></ul>
    51. 58. <ul><li>In Lyons, a Jacobin ordered 300 people to be executed by cannon fire as the guillotine was ‘too slow’. </li></ul><ul><li>At Nantes, barges containing 2000 people were towed into the middle of the River Loire and sunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Birds hovered above the water, eating dead flesh. </li></ul>
    52. 59. <ul><li>“ One’s duty is to punish traitors, to help the needy, respect the weak, defend the oppressed, do good to one’s neighbor and behave justly.” “Terror is nothing but quick and hard justice.” “ I detest the death penalty.” “..in a revolution the state is at war, it doesn’t have to follow all the laws.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robespierre </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 60. <ul><li>30,000 to more than 40,000 people were killed! </li></ul>
    54. 61. The Right (Conservative) <ul><li>July 1794 Robespierre was arrest and sent to the guillotine. </li></ul><ul><li>End the Reign of Terror </li></ul><ul><li>New government </li></ul><ul><li>Directory </li></ul>
    55. 62. Directory <ul><li>Five man executive </li></ul><ul><li>Business men </li></ul><ul><li>Very conservative compared to Republic </li></ul>
    56. 63. Directory <ul><li>France winning war </li></ul><ul><li>Invading the rest of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>At home inflation, food shortages and people suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Could not solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to its down fall </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon's coup d'etat </li></ul>
    57. 64. Napoleon <ul><li>1799 was so popular he took over the country </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a dictatorship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ended the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>First Modern Dictator </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you wish to be successful in the world, promise everything, deliver nothing.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAPOLEON </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
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