Suez Canal, a ship canal in Egypt and a major navigational route for world trade. It crosses the Isthmus of Suez and links the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea, thus eliminating the long voyage around Africa for ships traveling between East and West. Since World War II the canal has twice been closed because of war between Egypt and Israel. When in normal operation, it is one of the world's busiest waterways. In its course of slightly more than 100 miles (160 km), the Suez Canal crosses a sandy desert and passes through several natural bodies of water, including Lake Timsah and the Bitter Lakes. The canal has no locks, there being virtually no difference in the levels of the Mediterranean and Red seas. Throughout most of its length, the canal can handle only one-way traffic. Bypasses in the Bitter Lakes and at Ballah permit ships sailing in opposite directions to pass. Widened and deepened over the years, the Suez Canal can accommodate all ships other than the largest crude-oil supertankers. Constant dredging is required to maintain the channel. The canal is operated by the Egyptian government through the Suez Canal Authority, headquartered at Ismailia. More than a dozen stations along the shore help regulate traffic. Special pilots take ships in and out of port at Port Said and Suez and navigate the canal proper. Average transit time is about 15 hours.
CHAPTER 17 Section 1: The Roots of Western Imperialism Section 2: European Claims in North Africa Section 3: European Claims in Sub-Saharan Africa Section 4: Expansion in Asia Section 5: Imperialism in Latin America The Age of Imperialism
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa Algiers Tunis Morocco Bell Ringer 17.2: What are some characteristics of the regions taken over by France?
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa “ France . . . cannot be merely a free country . . . she ought to propagate [spread] [her] influence throughout the world and carry everywhere that she can her language, her customs, her flag, and her genius.” France’s Minister of Foreign Affairs 1883
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa In 1830 France began to expand its Second Empire looking toward North Africa - Algiers – a Muslim state of the Ottoman Empire 40 years of almost continuous rebellions Many French and Europeans would settle in Algiers and French officials took over.
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa Tunisia 1881 ~ unlike Algiers, Tunisia became a French protectorate
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa Morocco Very important because of the Strait of Gibraltar Made a protectorate of France 1912
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa The British in North Africa 1854 ~ French began Suez Canal
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa 1882 REBELLION! British navy attacks Alexandria ~ troops are sent to the Suez Canal. British protectorate until 1922. GB will occupy the Suez until 1954.
Fashoda Crisis SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa Between 1881and 1885, Muhammad Ahmed al-Mahdi led a successful revolt against Egypt in the Sudan. The British defeated the rebels in 1898 and set up a protectorate over the Sudan.
SECTION 2 European Claims in North Africa Algiers Tunis Morocco French forces appropriated land fought against local rebellions inhabitants worked against French rule Barbary States gave French an excuse for intervention protectorate
Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 26 <ul><ul><ul><li>1. What evidence is there that an industrialized country can control a country that is not industrialized? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. What evidence is there to show that areas were colonized because they met the transportation needs of other, more powerful countries? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. What evidence is there to show that areas were colonized for natural resources? </li></ul></ul></ul>