Ch_16-section5
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  • Treaty of San Stefano -- …freed Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro from Turkish rule, gave autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and created a huge autonomous Bulgaria under Russian protection. Britain and Austria-Hungary, alarmed by the Russian gains contained in the treaty, compelled Russia to accept the Treaty of Berlin (July 1878), whereby Russia's military-political gains from the war were severely restricted. Dominated by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the congress solved an international crisis caused by the San Stefano treaty by revising the peace settlement to satisfy the interests of Great Britain (by denying Russia the means to extend its naval power and by maintaining the Ottoman Empire as a European power) and to satisfy the interests of Austria-Hungary (by allowing it to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and thereby increase its influence in the Balkans). In acting so, however, the congress left Russia humiliated by substantially reducing the gains that it had made under the San Stefano treaty. Furthermore, the congress failed to consider adequately the aspirations of the Balkan peoples themselves and, thereby, laid the foundation for future crises in the Balkans.

Ch_16-section5 Ch_16-section5 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 16 Section 1: The Unification of Italy Section 2: The Unification of Germany Section 3: Opposition to Bismarck Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia Section 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary Nationalism in Europe
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary Ch 16.5 Bell Ringer: What events led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire? ( complete flow chart) religious ____________ and unfair __________ in Ottoman Empire rise of _____________ in the Balkans _________ won independence; _________ won some self-rule
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary 1848 “ Europe, sire, is involved in a crisis which much exceeds the bounds of political movements. It is a crisis in the social body. I foresaw the event; I have combated it consistently during a ministry of well-nigh forty years. To check the torrent is no longer within the power of man. It can only be guided.” Metternich to Tsar Nicholas II ~ 1848 Metternich resigns and flees Vienna! Until 1848, Metternich had largely succeeded in destroying all traces of revolutionary change in Europe , but, in that year, when Hungary had risen in revolt and Austrian students had demonstrated in the streets of Vienna demanding "Down with Metternich!", the emperor dismissed him.
  • Political Cartoon Unrest in Austria-Hungary Metternich fleeing Vienna
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary Hapsburg coat of arms A strong nationalist movement centered on making the Magyars dominant in Hungary.
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary Lajos ( Louis ) Kossuth 1802-1894
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary 1867 ~ creation of the Dual Monarchy Franz Josef I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary Each would have their own parliament. Hungary - agricultural Austria - industrial
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary Creation of the Dual Monarchy Franz Josef I
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary Sultan Abd-ul-aziz 1830-1876
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • Political Cartoon Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary In 1877 Russia and its ally Serbia came to the aid of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria in their rebellions against Turkish rule. Russo-Turkish War 1877-1878 Russia WINS! But what exactly did they win?
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary The Treaty of San Stefano … freed Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro from Turkish rule, gave autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and created a huge autonomous Bulgaria under Russian protection. GB & Austria were not happy! Why?
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary The Berlin Treaty … revised the peace settlement to satisfy the interests of Great Britain (denied Russia the means to extend its naval power and by maintaining the Ottoman Empire as a European power) and satisfied the interests of Austria-Hungary (allowed it to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and thereby increase its influence in the Balkans).
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary
  • SECTION 5 Unrest in Austria-Hungary The rulers of Germany, France, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Great Britain attempting to keep the lid on the powder keg of imperialist and nationalist tensions in the Balkans to prevent a general European war. They were successful in 1912 and 1913 but failed in 1914.
  • Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 16
        • 1. How did differences in the goals of different political groups affect the unification and nationalization of countries such as Germany and Russia?
        • 2. To what extent did threats from other countries influence unification movements?
        • 3. In what countries did common cultural backgrounds play a role in unification efforts?