Ch_16-section4

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Ch_16-section4

  1. 1. CHAPTER 16 Section 1: The Unification of Italy Section 2: The Unification of Germany Section 3: Opposition to Bismark Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia Section 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary Nationalism in Europe
  2. 2. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Advantage: Disadvantage: Option 1 expand military force Advantage: Disadvantage: Option 2 develop resources Problems: lagging industry, underdeveloped natural resources, lack of ports, external and internal conflict Ch 16.4 Bell Ringer: What were some of the problems faced by Russia?
  3. 3. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Russia was not much changed from the medieval period.
  4. 4. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  5. 5. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia 11 th c. 1300-1796
  6. 6. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  7. 7. By the mid-1800s Russia had the largest territory and population of any European nation. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  8. 8. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia 1533-1894
  9. 9. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia === Has the world’s largest oil reserves === === second largest coal reserves === === 1/5 largest lead reserves === === largest reserves of water in lakes === === largest diamond deposits === === second largest potassium reserves === === enormous fish reserves ===
  10. 10. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia … virtually landlocked. No warm water ports.
  11. 11. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Ethnic Groups in Russia
  12. 12. Russian Domestic & Foreign Policies SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Liberalism made little progress in Russia. Autocrat ~ one who holds absolute power Alexander I 1814 Nationalist ideals appealed to the many ethnic minorities within the Russian Empire ~ AND the educated aristocracy.
  13. 13. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia … harsh measures would be taken. Nicholas I 1840 Strictly censored speech and press Rejected all demands for a constitution Russification : change in language or self-identity of non-Russian peoples to being Russian
  14. 14. Russian Foreign Policy <ul><li>Had two primary features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To increase Russian influence among the Slavic peoples of the Balkans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pan-Slavism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion to the south into Ottoman Empire and east into Asia </li></ul></ul>SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  15. 15. Visual Source Reform and Revolution in Russia What country does the octopus represent? What are its tentacles trying to encircle? Why?
  16. 16. Alexander II and Reforms SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Alexander II came to power in 1855. Serfs in Russia
  17. 17. Political Cartoon Reform and Revolution in Russia
  18. 18. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  19. 19. Political Cartoon Reform and Revolution in Russia Pre-emancipation cartoon depicting the value of the serfs.
  20. 20. Political Cartoon Reform and Revolution in Russia A 19th century cartoon of Alexander II, as he plunges into an abyss on a sled labeled &quot;despotism“.
  21. 21. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  22. 22. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia The Emancipation Edict &quot;It is better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait for the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below.”
  23. 23. <ul><li>Zemstovs ~ elected councils at the provincial & county levels </li></ul><ul><li>Civil & criminal courts reformed reducing delays and corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Limited the power of secret police </li></ul><ul><li>Gave press greater freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded education </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced military service from 25 to 6 years </li></ul>SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Other Reforms …
  24. 24. Alexander’s reforms did not please everyone … SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  25. 25. Radicals and Government Reaction SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Nihilists ~ favored the destruction of human institutions and laws, based on the idea that such institutions and laws were artificial and corrupt
  26. 26. Political Cartoon Reform and Revolution in Russia
  27. 27. Terrorist Acts <ul><li>the Populists (1870s) </li></ul><ul><li>People’s Will </li></ul><ul><li>terrorism </li></ul>SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Czar Alexander repressed the radical groups but continued reforms.
  28. 28. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  29. 29. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Czar Alexander had signed a document granting the first ever constitution for his people … the same day he was assassinated.
  30. 30. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Alexander III Nicholas II Used every available means to stamp out liberalism …
  31. 31. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Censorship Control of church and education Spies and informers Imprisonment and exile Revived and intensified Russification. Pogroms targeting Jews.
  32. 32. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia These attempts to preserve the old order met with much opposition. Liberals and radicals found support from the exploited workers.
  33. 33. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Social Democratic Labor Party 1898
  34. 34. The Revolution of 1905 <ul><li>22 January 1905 ~ “Bloody Sunday” </li></ul>SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  35. 35. The Revolution of 1905 <ul><li>Workers struck and held demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Mutinies in army and navy </li></ul><ul><li>October Manifesto issued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Election of a parliament ~ the Duma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autocracy continued </li></ul>SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  36. 36. Failed to overthrow the czar for three main reasons … <ul><li>Army remained loyal to the czar </li></ul><ul><li>The French loaned money to Russian gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>The revolutionary groups were divided in their goals. </li></ul>SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia The autocracy continued and would use repressive measure to preserve their power.
  37. 37. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Any questions? Close your books! Time for your quiz!
  38. 38. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  39. 39. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia
  40. 40. SECTION 4 Reform and Revolution in Russia Advantage: Disadvantage: adds resources and ports, unifies populace risks loss of ports and re-sources, popular opposition Option 1 expand military force Advantage: Disadvantage: avoids external conflict, supports economy requires unavailable technology, labor, and capital Option 2 develop resources Problem: lagging industry, underdeveloped natural resources, lack of ports, external and internal conflict
  41. 41. Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 16 <ul><ul><ul><li>1. How did differences in the goals of different political groups affect the unification and nationalization of countries such as Germany and Russia? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. To what extent did threats from other countries influence unification movements? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. In what countries did common cultural backgrounds play a role in unification efforts? </li></ul></ul></ul>

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