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Ch_13-section 4
 

Ch_13-section 4

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    Ch_13-section 4 Ch_13-section 4 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 13 The Industrial Revolution Section 1: Origins of the Industrial Revolution Section 2: The Factory System Section 3: New Methods and Business Organizations Section 4: Living and Working Conditions Section 5: Socialism
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions 13.4 Bell Ringer: What were the theories of economists and philosophers during the Industrial Revolution? (see next slide for chart)
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Economist Theories Adam Smith Thomas Malthus David Ricardo Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions REVIEW! What is mercantilism? Remember the Physiocrats Philosophes in the -believed that the wealth of Enlightenment? We’re the guys that liked to talk nations was derived solely about economics. from the value of land agriculture or land development. -denied that commerce and manufacturing produce riches. -advocates of free trade, rejecting the "balance of trade" theory
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 Considered the founder of classical economics Two natural laws govern all business & economic activity: 1. Law of Supply & Demand 2. Law of Competition
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Supply and Demand If an item is scarce and EVERYONE wants it . . . . People will pay a high price for it and profits do what? $299 32GB
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Competition As manufacturers compete – they MUST reduce their prices … BUT if they cut prices too much … what could happen? Supply would then decrease … and prices would do what? What’s the lesson here? You MUST be efficient -
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Free Enterprise Mercantilist laws & regulations hinder natural economic forces. Competition should be unrestricted by laws, regulations, or government controls.
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Other economists …. Thomas Malthus David Ricardo The Principle of Population “iron law of wages” 1798 1817
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Principle of Population Despite famines, epidemics, and wars, people still multiply faster than the food supply increases. Malthus believed that human misery and poverty is inevitable…
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions “iron law of wages” Supply and demand of labor determine wages …. When there is a surplus of labor (population growth), wages go down. When there is a shortage, wages go up. Working class poverty is inevitable.
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions These theories supported EMPLOYERS – they want labor as CHEAP as possible …. But they also didn’t want what? Gov’t interference! Laissez-faire “Let it be” “Leave things alone”
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions From the Middle Ages until well into the 1800s, craft and merchant guilds regulated quality and prices of goods along with working hours and wages. In the early 1800s, trade became almost completely unregulated ….. Laissez-faire!
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Reformers ARISE! People argued that business could NOT be left entirely alone to do as it pleased. Humanitarians urged reforms. Ministers preached against the selfish practices of businesses.
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Charles Dickens David Copperfield Oliver Twist Many will argue that laws were needed to regulate work hours, wages, and working conditions.
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Jeremy Bentham – philosopher and social reformer utilitarianism the idea that moral worth of an action is determined solely by its contribution to overall utility: that is, its contribution to happiness or pleasure
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions John Stuart Mill was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century whose works on liberty justified freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. On Liberty 1859 …the individual ought be free to do as he wishes unless he harms others. Individuals are rational enough to make decisions about their good being and choose any religion they want to. “tyranny of the majority” On the Subjection of Women 1869 …in 1869 became the first person in Parliament to call for women to be given the right to vote
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions What Early Reform Laws Factory Act of 1802 about shortened hours and improved conditions for children in cotton mills WAGES?!? Cotton Factories Regulation Act 1819 Did these Set the minimum working age to 9; maximum working hours to 12 per day Established paidlaws REALLY regulations and Regulation of Child Labor Law 1833 inspectors to inspect factories on child labor enforce the law Ten Hours Bill 1847 make any difference? Limited working hours to 10 per day for women and children Factory owners will extend the 10-hour day to all employees
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions To improve their lives and working conditions, workers banded together … collective action When a large group of workers refuse to strikes work, until their demands are met. unions When workers organized and form associations
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Workers’ Associations (unions) were illegal in many countries. Workers who united to fight for higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions could be imprisoned! 1870s Parliament passed laws legalizing strikes. Collective Bargaining
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Labor Disturbances
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions This 1899 political cartoon, published in The Verdict, represents the growing disparity between the rich and poor classes in America. This disproportion fomented the formation of anti-trust laws in the following decade.
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Close your books Time for QUIZZES!
    • SECTION 4 Living and Working Conditions Economist Theories Adam Smith creation of wealth; manufacturing and agriculture both impor-tant; the law of supply and demand and the law of competition govern all business and economic activity; free enterprise Thomas Malthus population increase is the greatest obstacle to human progress; human misery and poverty are inevitable David Ricardo working-class poverty is inevitable; supply and demand determine wages (the iron law of wages) Jeremy Bentham utilitarianism; a good and useful law should lead to “the greatest happiness of the greatest number” of people; people should be educated so they could decide what was good for them; reform of the justice and prison systems John Stuart Mill government should work for the good of all its citizens; protection of working children; improvements in housing and factory conditions; full democracy; equality