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  • 1. CHAPTER 13 The Industrial Revolution Section 1: Origins of the Industrial Revolution Section 2: The Factory System Section 3: New Methods and Business Organizations Section 4: Living and Working Conditions Section 5: Socialism
  • 2. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Ch 13.1 Bell Ringer: Who were some of the inventors of the Industrial Revolution and how were their inventions used? Write this question – complete the next slide’s chart.
  • 3. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Inventor Invention Function of Invention Industry Jethro Tull Eli Whitney James Watt Samuel Morse Richard Arkwright Henry Bessemer
  • 4. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution To understand the importance of the Industrial Revolution, you have to know what life was like before it. Many things had remained unchanged for centuries. Life was mainly based on farming, with families producing enough for their own needs. Craftspeople also worked on a local level, making and mending things for their neighbors with little contact with the outside world.
  • 5. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution The slow pace of life was hardly different from that of the Middle Ages. Water mills, windmills, and horses or oxen provided the only extra power, and most work was still down by hand. Few people realized that all this was set to change.
  • 6. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution What is a revolution? Before the Industrial Revolution, there was an Agricultural Revolution . . .
  • 7. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Enclosure Movement
  • 8. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Jethro Tull Seed Drill 1701 …resulted in farming becoming less labor intensive and allowed farmers to grow crops on a much larger scale.
  • 9. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Charles “Turnip” Townshend crop rotation
  • 10. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Other improvements increased production and made farm labor easier… Iron plows would replace wooden ones. …plow with a replaceable blade. By 1800s, many farm workers were forced out and headed to the cities.
  • 11. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION … is a term used to describe the transformation from an agricultural nation to an industrial nation.
  • 12. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain?
  • 13. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Factors of Production • Land – All natural resources • Labor – Workers who migrated into the cities • Capital – Tools, machinery, equipment, MONEY
  • 14. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
  • 15. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Where is the Industrial Revolution taking root in Great Britain?
  • 16. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Textile Industry The oldest known representation of a horizontal treadle-loom. 13th century English manuscript. • In 1600s, men and women carded the wool, spun thread and wove cloth by hand at home …
  • 17. Visual Source Origins of the Industrial Revolution Carding the wool Spinning the thread and weaving
  • 18. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution The textile industry would be the first industry to be mechanized.
  • 19. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution John Kay flying shuttle Increased the speed that handweavers could work – Began to weave faster than thread could be supplied!
  • 20. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution James Hargreaves spinning jenny Produced EIGHT times more Thread than a single Spinning wheel!
  • 21. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Richard Arkwright spinning frame Produced stronger threads for yarns Powered by water-wheel Built first textile mill in 1771 Beginning of the modern factory system
  • 22. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Edmund Cartwright water powered loom Produced as much as 200 hand-loom operators
  • 23. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Need more cotton!
  • 24. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Eli Whitney’s cotton gin
  • 25. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Water power had drawbacks . . . A more dependable and portable power supply was needed! STEAM! First recorded steam engine invented by a Greek in the first century AD
  • 26. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution James Watt would improve on the Newcomen steam engine … Modern Steam Engine 1769 Now it would be used to drive the new spinning & weaving machines!
  • 27. Visual Source Origins of the Industrial Revolution Allegory on the significance of steam power, c.1850 Details from the cartoon
  • 28. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution More Machines? Need more iron ore . . . And coal to separate it. But cast iron couldn’t withstand high steam pressure . . . Henry Bessemer developed the first process for mass-producing steel inexpensively Same basic process is used today!
  • 29. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Technology would be applied to other industries … Gas Lights First public street lighting – 1807 in London Samuel Clegg
  • 30. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Charles Goodyear – father of modern rubber industry vulcanization 1844
  • 31. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Oil Industry Began in the mid-1800s Produced as an unwelcome byproduct from brine wells in Pennsylvania … 1849 first distillation of kerosene from crude oil 1857 kerosene lamp forces whale oil lamps off the market 1859 first oil well dug at Titusville, PA
  • 32. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Transportation Revolution • Stone topped roads • Canals • Steam locomotive – George Stephenson • Robert Fulton - father of steam navigation “Fulton’s Folly” The Clermont 1807
  • 33. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Communications Revolution • 1800 Alessandro Volta – first battery with steady flow of current • 1820s Andre Ampère – founded the science of electromagnetism • 1844 Samuel Morse - telegraph
  • 34. Political Cartoon Origins of the Industrial Revolution 1882 Punch magazine detailing potential of electricity’s use to society …
  • 35. Political Cartoon Origins of the Industrial Revolution PUNCH December 26, 1902 DEVELOPMENT OF WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY—SCENE IN HYDE PARK.
  • 36. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Spread of Industry Worldwide • Lagged in other European countries • France encouraged building of railroads, remained agricultural • Germany did not have a central gov’t until the 1870s • Ahhh . . . But in the United States? Industry THRIVED! • by 1869 – intercontinental railroad joined the East and West coasts …
  • 37. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
  • 38. Political Cartoon Origins of the Industrial Revolution Consequences of urbanization: A Punch magazine cartoon from 1858 shows Father Thames with 'his offspring', diphtheria, scrofula and cholera.
  • 39. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution ‘Capital and Labour’, Punch Magazine, May, 184 This illustrator was already predicting the outcome of industrialization.
  • 40. Political Cartoon Origins of the Industrial Revolution
  • 41. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Any questions? Close your books – Time for your Open Note Quiz!
  • 42. SECTION 1 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Inventor Invention Function of Invention Industry Jethro Tull seed drill, horse- planted seeds in straight rows; agriculture drawn hoe dug up weeds and broke up soil cotton gin cleaned more cotton in a day textile Eli Whitney than hand laborers could James Watt modern steam powered engines for factories textile and engine and transportation of goods transportation Samuel Morse Morse communication communication code/telegraph Richard water power to drive increased level of production textile Arkwright spinning wheel Henry Bessemer textile and used to make steel Bessemer process transportation