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Ch 20.3

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  • 1. CHAPTER 20 Section 1: The British Empire in the Postwar Era Section 2: Turkey, Persia, and Africa Section 3: Unrest in China Section 4: Imperialism in Japan Section 5: Latin America Between the Wars Nationalist Movements Around the World
  • 2. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Bell Ringer 20.3: What steps led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty? Unrest in China
  • 3. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Increasing Western influence caused division in China. A nationalist movement grew that wanted to regain Chinese power and glory through Western ideals of government. To understand China and its relationship with the West, we have to go back in time to the 1800s…..
  • 4. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China In the early 1800s,  the British treasury was being depleted due to its dependence upon imported tea from China.
  • 5. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China And proceeded to get the Chinese hooked on opium …. To solve this trade imbalance Britain shipped opium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony of India, into China. The Chinese still considered their nation to be the Middle Kingdom , and therefore viewed the goods the Europeans brought to trade with as nearly worthless trinkets.
  • 6. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Chinese officials attempted to ban the importation of the highly addictive opium, but ultimately failed. The British declared war on China in a series of conflicts called the Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed them to claim victory and subject the Chinese to a series of Unequal Treaties.
  • 7. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China
    • Unequal Treaties According to the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing , the Chinese were to:
      • Reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the Chinese
      • Open several ports to British trade
      • Provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong
      • Grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China
    “ being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law” Want to guess how the Chinese felt about all this???
  • 8. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Eventually several European nations followed suit, forcing China to sign a series of unequal treaties. … established spheres of influence within China which guaranteed specific trading privileges to each nation within its respective sphere.
  • 9. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Eventually the United States demanded equal trading status within China, and rather than carve out its own sphere of influence, simply announced the Open Door Policy in 1899.         Uncle Sam: "I'm Out For Commerce Not Conquest!"
  • 10. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China After the further insult of the Open Door Policy, China’s fate as a secondary nation seemed sealed. In response, Chinese nationalists staged the Boxer Rebellion in 1900.
  • 11. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China
  • 12. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China The Boxer Rebellion failed to drive the foreigners from China. It did, however, encourage nationalist sentiment among the people. A new political party – the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) was formed. The party’s director was Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen).
  • 13. Sun Yat-sen
    • Considered the “Father of the Nation” by the Chinese
    • Instrumental in overthrowing the last imperial dynasty in China
    • based his idea of revolution on Three Principles of the People:
      • Nationalism
      • Democracy
      • People’s livelihood
    Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China
  • 14. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Five thousand years of dynastic rule came to an end in February 1912 but the warlords were not quick to give up their power. China was in turmoil.
  • 15. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China The Nationalists asked for help from the West …. The only country that responded was the Soviet Union. The Soviets sent technical, political, and military advisors to help build a modern Chinese army.
  • 16. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Sun Yat-sen died in 1925 and his successor Chiang Kai-shek began a campaign against the Communist influence in China.
  • 17. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China In 1927 Chiang expelled ALL Soviet advisers from the country and moved against the left-wing Chinese communists. The Shanghai Massacre of 1927 ~ Over a thousand Communists were arrested, some 300 were officially executed, and more than 5,000 went missing.
  • 18. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Outnumbered and outgunned 6 to 1, Mao Zedong led 100,000 of his followers from southern China northward on a 6000 mile trek over 368 days. The Long March. … over 18 mountain ranges and deep marshes. … crossing 24 rivers. … while being pursued by Nationalist troops through territory controlled by warlords. Only one in ten would survive .
  • 19. China was now split into two rival groups: Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Corruption, massacre of communists impact tremendous support from peasants Remove communists, modernize, democracy goals land reform, education, food production Weapons & supplies fighting strengths guerilla tactics Military, business leaders, banks inside support rural peasants Southern China Territory controlled Northern China USA outside support Soviet Union Chiang Kai-shek leader Mao Zedong Nationalists Political Party Communists
  • 20. Israel and the Occupied Territories Visual Source Unrest in China “ The War in China” ~ “I can take on ALL of you by myself!”
  • 21. ` Israel and the Occupied Territories Political Cartoon Unrest in China This post-Boxer Uprising cartoon depicts War standing over the various European countries (plus the U.S. and Japan) as a pack of dogs fighting over the corpse of the Qing empire.
  • 22. Quiz Time! Are you ready? Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) Anti-foreigner Industrialize Modernization Communists Chiang Kai Shek The Soviet Union An end to foreign influences Open Door Policy Peasants
  • 23. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China
  • 24. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China
  • 25. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China
  • 26. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China
  • 27. Israel and the Occupied Territories SECTION 3 Unrest in China
  • 28. SECTION 3 Unrest in China Qing downfall imperialist powers trade in China Qing emperor imprisoned Tz’u-hsi supports Boxer Rebellion foreigners put down rebellion; take more control in China Kuomintang formed revolts lead to end of Qing
  • 29. Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 29
        • 1. How did the military affect Japan’s government?
        • 2. How did cultural issues affect nationalistic movements in Africa?
        • 3. How did economic issues influence political events in Latin America?