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Ch 12.3

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  • 1. CHAPTER 12 The French Revolution and Napoléon Section 1: The Roots of Revolution Section 2: The French Revolution Section 3:The French Republic Section 4: The Napoléonic Era Section 5: A Return to Peace
  • 2. SECTION 3 The French Republic 12.3 Bell Ringer: In what ways did the National Convention differ from the Directory? National Directory Convention Voters Executive branch Length of rule Use of terror
  • 3. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories In our last class, France was faced with having to create a new government . . . This time without a king. Delegates were selected to convene a National Convention to write a new constitution. (The term was taken from the Constitutional Convention which drew up the US Constitution in 1787.) Universal Manhood Suffrage
  • 4. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories The Convention delegates were divided into three groups: Jacobins “waffles” Girondins
  • 5. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Jacobins • Republicans who favored domination by Paris • Were supported by the Commune and sans- culottes • wanted reforms to benefit ALL classes –believed that the vote should be universal, popular education, and that the gov’t should provide for the welfare of the poor • The more radical members were called The Mountain (for where they sat in the Convention)
  • 6. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Danton Marat Robespierre Leaders of the Jacobins
  • 7. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Who or What were the Sans-culottes? They were the working people, the shop owners, the trades people, the artisans, and even the factory workers.
  • 8. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Girondins • Lawyers, intellectuals and journalists, the Girondins attracted a following of businessmen, merchants, industrialists, and financiers. • Feared that the Parisians would take over …
  • 9. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Brought Louis XVI to trial …
  • 10. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Executed Louis XVI on 21 January 1793
  • 11. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories “Madame Guillotine” “The National Razor”
  • 12. Visual Source Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Hostile foreign press on the execution of The king. February 1793
  • 13. Visual Source Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories The Birth of the French Republic
  • 14. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories French army FINALLY stopped the foreign invaders . . . Good news! Now they start to “export” the Revolution . . . European monarchs join together in an alliance Against the French and invade France . . .
  • 15. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Committee of Public Safety -Created to meet the threat of invasion -est. a special court for “enemies of the Revolution” --The Revolutionary Tribunal -adopted conscription to fill the army
  • 16. Visual Source Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories “the purifying pot of the Jacobins”
  • 17. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Events begin to spiral out of control … Danton & Robespierre arrest their enemies … namely the Girondins. Charlotte Corday assassinates Marat.
  • 18. Visual Source Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories
  • 19. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories The Reign of Terror Sept 1793 – July 1794 -supposedly punished enemies of the Republic -Marie-Antoinette -basically ANYONE suspected of disloyalty including Girondin opponents -Olympe de Gouges executed TWICE as many bourgeoisie as nobles MORE THEN TWICE as many peasants & workers as bourgeoisie …
  • 20. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Danton declared the Reign of Terror had met its goal . . . Robespierre didn’t think so … Guess who was next …
  • 21. Visual Source Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Opposition views …
  • 22. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Many of the Jacobins began to fear for their own safety . . . A conspiracy was formed to overthrow Robespierre.
  • 23. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories July 28th 1794 The Reign of Terror was over.
  • 24. Visual Source Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories The Reign of Terror
  • 25. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories After the Reign of Terror … • Sense of relief • Jacobins lost power • Wealthy middle class took control • Riots by poor were put down by the army • By 1794 people began to favor a return to a • monarchy
  • 26. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Work of the National Convention • Opened new schools – universal elementary education • Wage & price controls • Abolished slavery in French colonies • Encourage religious toleration • Metric system • New militaristic spirit – used army to quell dissent • Crushed Paris uprising 1795 – new gov’t would not accept any opposition
  • 27. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories The Directory • Two house legislature • Executive branch = 5 directors • Only male property owners could vote • Not effective – directors were weak & corrupt • Used army against unrest • Paved the way for a military dictatorship
  • 28. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories And who would become their dictator? An ambitious young army officer . . . . Napoleon.
  • 29. SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Napoleon was a war hero having fought against foreign invaders . . . His supporters would use his popularity to overthrow the Directory … Coup d’etat!
  • 30. Visual Source Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories The Directory and Napoleon
  • 31. Section 3 Reflection Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Why would the French support another upheaval in their government?
  • 32. Section 3 Reflection Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Quiz Time! Close Your Books!
  • 33. SECTION 3 The French Republic National Directory Convention Voters universal manhood male property owners suffrage only Executive committees 5 directors branch Length of 3 years 4 years rule Use of terror yes no
  • 34. Political Cartoon Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories Use on test …
  • 35. Visual Source Israel and the Occupied The French Republic Territories