Ch 1 What is Psychology?


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HRW Psychology: Principles in Practice Ch 1

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  • How has the study of psychology developed over time?
  • >Another definition of psychology would be: the science of mental life >How do psychologists study behavior and mental processes? They OBSERVE and MEASURE. >Psychologists seek to understand and explain thought, emotion, and behavior. Let’s look at behavior . What are some examples? > waking up this morning, getting out of bed, laughing (these activities are OBSERVABLE by other people) What about your heartbeat? Or brain activity? Are these activities observable? How? >What about mental processes? MENTAL PROCESSES and here is where you have a new word – you will also see this written as COGNITION and COGNITIVE ACTIVITIES ….. It has to do with thought processes – things like perception, remembering, problem solving, decision making … Thoughts! Dreams! But these activities can’t be observed! How do we know that these activities are going on? Can we measure thoughts or dreams or memories? Brain waves measure brain activity … but thoughts - dreams – memories are private mental processes. >Psychologists are also interested in studying people’s EMOTIONS -- … can affect both behavior AND mental processes. You had emotions about coming into this class … first day … maybe you didn’t know me …. -- you probably felt a little anxious or nervous. Your heart rate probably went up … which causes your blood pressure to rise. These behaviors can be measured and therefore observed, right? But your thoughts? No – only when you tell someone can those PRIVATE MENTAL PROCESSES be observed.
  • … how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment – what were their functions??
  • Ch 1 What is Psychology?

    1. 1. Heads up! Before we begin … <ul><li>You will be learning A LOT of new terms and words in this class. </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning of each chapter is a list of Key Terms. You will be expected to KNOW these terms for the chapter test. </li></ul><ul><li>As we proceed in class - make notes of new terms that we discuss AND their definitions & examples! </li></ul><ul><li>Plain & simple – You will have to memorize these terms …. AND the people that we will learn about. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Chapter 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY Section 1: Why Study Psychology? Section 2: What Psychologists Do Section 3: A History of Psychology Section 4: Contemporary Perspectives
    3. 3. Section Reading Questions <ul><li>What are the goals of psychology, and how is psychology a science? </li></ul><ul><li>What do psychologists do, and what are their areas of specialization? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How has the study of psychology developed over time? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What are the seven main contemporary perspectives in psychology? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Section 1: Why study psychology? <ul><li>Why did you take this class? </li></ul><ul><li>What is psychology ? Do you know? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… the scientific study of behavior and mental processes .” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? Observe and measure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COGNITION ( another word you will see is cognitive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thought processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emotions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Question: What are the goals of psychology? <ul><li>Psychologists have the same goals as scientists. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe </li></ul><ul><li>Describe behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul>Section 1: Why Study Psychology?
    6. 6. Question: How is psychology a science? Section 1: Why Study Psychology? <ul><li>Psychology is a social science . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History, anthropology, economics, political science, sociology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… all deal with the structure of human society and the nature of the individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>But is this REAL science like biology or chemistry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… . answer questions by applying the steps involved in scientific research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… conducting experiments, collecting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys and experiments </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Section 2: What do psychologists do? <ul><li>Psychologists accept that something is true ONLY if the evidence shows it is so. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are interested in RESEARCH – investigating and forming theories – and finally testing those theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others apply knowledge through THERAPY to help people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And finally there are those who TEACH in classrooms and workshops. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Question: What are their areas of specialization? <ul><li>AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical – the largest group – treat psychological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling – treat adjustment problems </li></ul><ul><li>School – deal with students who have problems that interfere with learning </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Psychologist – focus on course planning and instructional methods </li></ul>Section 2: What Psychologists Do
    9. 9. Question: What are their areas of specialization? <ul><li>Personality Psychologist – identify characteristics or traits </li></ul><ul><li>Social Psychologist – concerned with people’s behavior in social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Psychologist – conduct research into basic processes </li></ul>Section 2: What Psychologists Do AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION (continued)
    10. 10. Question: What are their areas of specialization? <ul><li>Industrial and Organizational Psychologist – focus on people in work and business </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Psychologist – focus on ways in which people influence and are influenced by physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Psychologist – study the behavior of shoppers to explain and predict behavior </li></ul>Section 2: What Psychologists Do AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION (continued)
    11. 11. Question: What are their areas of specialization? <ul><li>Forensic Psychologist – are concerned with how psychological problems give rise to criminal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Health Psychologist – study the ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to physical health </li></ul>Section 2: What Psychologists Do AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION (continued)
    12. 12. Psychology Today: Psychology as a Profession Section 3: A History of Psychology
    13. 13. Psychology Today: Where are psychologists employed? Section 3: A History of Psychology
    14. 14. Question: How has the study of psychology developed over time? Section 3: A History of Psychology Psychology is as old as human history.
    15. 15. Roots from Ancient Greece <ul><li>Socrates (469-399 CE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Know thyself.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn about yourself through self-examination ~ introspection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristotle (384-322 CE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human behavior is subject to certain rules and laws. </li></ul></ul>… really began with ancient philosphy.
    16. 16. <ul><li>The ancient Greeks theorized about various psychological problems. </li></ul><ul><li>… believed that the gods punished people by causing them confusion and madness. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocrates (460-377 CE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… caused by abnormalities in the brain </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The Middle Ages <ul><li>… believed that agitation and confusion were signs of possession by demons </li></ul><ul><li>… punishment for sins or deals made with the devil </li></ul><ul><li>Tests were used to determine if a person was possessed. </li></ul>
    18. 18. The birth of modern science <ul><li>In the mid 16 th century, Copernicus looked to the skies and Versalius wrote about the workings of the human body – est. the basis for modern science. </li></ul><ul><li>… leading to the birth of modern psychology in the 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>… ideas about human behavior and mental processes should be supported by EVIDENCE. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Wilhelm Wundt and the School of Structuralism <ul><li>1879~first formal psychological laboratory in the world (Leipzig) </li></ul><ul><li>… founded structuralism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the study of the elements of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what was it? What was it made of? What was its structure?? </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. William James and the School of Functionalism <ul><li>… how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment – what were their functions?? </li></ul><ul><li>The Principles of Psychology (1890) considered by many as the first modern psychology textbook </li></ul>
    21. 21. John B. Watson and the School of Behaviorism <ul><li>… believed that it is unscientific to study consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>claimed that psychology was not concerned with the mind or with human consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>… study should be limited to observable, measurable events – BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>humans could be studied objectively, like rats and apes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior. </li></ul>
    22. 22. B.F. Skinner and Reinforcement <ul><li>…when an animal is reinforced (rewarded), for performing an action, it is more likely to perform that action again in the future </li></ul><ul><li>…people learn the same way animals do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People learn to behave in certain ways because they have been reinforced for doing so. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. The Gestalt School <ul><li>… context influences people’s interpretation of information </li></ul><ul><li>… much learning, especially problem solving, is accomplished by insight, not by mechanical repetition </li></ul>
    24. 24. Sigmund Freud and the School of Psychoanalysis <ul><li>… emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>… most of what fills an individual’s mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes </li></ul><ul><li>People’s behavior is aimed at satisfying these impulses – even though some may be socially inappropriate or unacceptable </li></ul><ul><li>People often fool themselves about the real motives for their behavior. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Question: What are the seven main contemporary perspectives in psychology? <ul><ul><li>Each perspective emphasizes different topics of investigation and has different approaches. </li></ul></ul>Section 4: Contemporary Perspectives
    26. 26. Question: What are the seven main contemporary perspectives in psychology? <ul><ul><li>Biological – nervous system, glands, hormones, genetic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary – physical traits, social behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive – interpretation of mental images, thinking, language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic – self-concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic – environmental influences, learning, observational learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning – effects of experience on behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural – ethnicity, gender, culture, socioeconomic status </li></ul></ul>Section 4: Contemporary Perspectives
    27. 28. Main topic Section 4: Contemporary Perspectives