OERs and the University (2011)


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Openness means different things, and poses substantial challenges to
the education system and to publicly funded institutions. The biggest
of these perhaps is the increasingly polarised internal struggle faced
by institutions as HEIs are expected to be open, transparent, and
accessible, and at the same time requires them to be protective of
their constituency and engage in competitive battles with peer
institutions, private education providers, and the wider economy at

The question arises, whether the concepts of a highly competitive
global knowledge economy and those of global openness are mutually
exclusive or whether institutions can balance these in their favour
and for the benefit of wider society.

The presentation highlights some of the issues that lie beneath the
surface, leading to tensions in and around the education system. It
will also touch upon the search for OER business models that are
compatible with the demands put to institutions and that can secure
their longer term future.

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OERs and the University (2011)

  1. 1. OERs and the UniversityInstitutional Aspects of OpennessWolfgang Greller, Open University of the Netherlands<br />
  2. 2. The Meaning of Openness<br />The concept of „open“ is not new: e.g. public libraries, open universities<br />Now: Open Source, Open Access, Open Data, Open Educational Resources, Open Course Ware, Open Assessment, Open Networks, Open Online Courses (MOOC), Open Standards...<br />Open =<br />Free of charges<br />Free to edit<br />Free to distribute/share<br />But: different for each concept!<br />
  3. 3. Demands on HEIs<br />Competitiveness<br />Income Generation<br />Privacy Protection<br />Openness<br />Transparency<br />Accessible<br />Open ethos: Publicly funded research should be publicly available! Funding bodies insist on free availability of education and research products. This leads to dispute with publishing industry.<br />
  4. 4. Drivers/ Reasons for OERs<br />Ethical (= myth)<br />Funding (= unsustainable)<br />Marketing/Branding (e.g. tasters)<br />Sustainability of content (internal openness)<br />Standardisation of process (internal)<br />Innovative business models<br />Engine for change (surfaces systemic ‘soft’ issues)<br />OER engagement adds a range of additional needs: IPR, de-contextualisation, presentational and media design (quality standards), learning design for ‘strangers’, curation and long-term access issues = COST!<br />Need to move from OER subsistence to sustainability<br />
  5. 5. Where OERs are<br />Cloud<br />Institution repository<br />Managed<br />(Web1.0)<br />Federated repositories and collections<br />Informally shared<br />(Web2.0)<br />Most OERs are personally shared items, not institutionally organised or managed<br />Knowledge increasingly located/stored outside institutions (open scholarship)<br />
  6. 6. OER use<br />Institutional use of open content is still rather limited<br />GIVERS<br />TAKERS<br />
  7. 7. Licence Compatibility<br />Barriers and hesitations on licence issues in „official“ use of OERs<br />
  8. 8. Learning Networks<br />Learning Networks are fed by OERs. Institutions still largely content providers.<br />Intangible (O)ERs<br />Advice<br />Community<br />Open Assessments<br />Expertise<br />Participation<br />Tangible OERs<br />OCW<br />Lesson plans<br />Video/audio lectures<br />Simulations<br />Shift<br />Learning Resources<br />Human Resources<br />Move from OER to Open Practice (content ► process | delivery ► collaboration)<br />Move from repository to eco-system<br />
  9. 9. Process<br />University courses are linear<br />OERs don’t make a course!<br />LiveBinders.com<br />OERGlue.com<br />OER organisers<br />
  10. 10. Open University of the Netherlands<br />OpenU<br />Shift<br />Business Case <br />Business Model<br />Make your case for OERs in the institution<br />Build your business on OERs<br />
  11. 11. Open University of the Netherlands<br />Old business model: people buy courses: Bachelor, Master, PhD<br />Drivers for OER business model:<br /><ul><li>Target new customer groups (professional learners)
  12. 12. Generate new revenue streams (from services surrounding OERs)
  13. 13. Widen participation (in Dutch context)
  14. 14. Creating lifelong learning trajectory for learners</li></li></ul><li>New Business Model<br />BUSINESS<br />CUSTOMER<br />1: marketing, awareness<br />Layer 1: (free/open)<br />OER content, course teasers, scientific articles<br />2: targeted marketing<br />Layer 2: (registered)<br />personalised services (pdp), tests, community<br />BA, MA, PhD<br />3: targeted support<br />Layer 3: (subscription)<br />pedag. process, support, services, tools, cohorts<br />4: traditional course business<br />Layer 4: (fee based)<br />examination, accreditation<br />
  15. 15. Benefits:<br />Low threshold entry to HE and professional learners<br />Attracting new learners (e.g. for short term commitment)<br />Customer loyalty<br />Living up to Open University name and mission<br />New Business Model<br />
  16. 16. Summary<br />To make OERs sustainable institutions need:<br /><ul><li>Clarity of ownership of content and process (author vs. employer)
  17. 17. Clear licencing policies
  18. 18. Building internal quality processes
  19. 19. Clear business model (marketing driver is not enough)
  20. 20. Clear distribution model (e.g. app store model)
  21. 21. Increased use of third party content in course curricula</li>