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Chapter 10 social2_final

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  • Prejudice - negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group. Discrimination - treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong. Forms of prejudice include ageism, sexism, racism, and prejudice toward those who are too fat or too thin. In-groups - social groups with whom a person identifies; “us.” Out-groups - social groups with whom a person does not identify; “they.” Realistic conflict theory - conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination. Scapegoating - tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence. stereotype vulnerability - the effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior. self-fulfilling prophecy - the tendency of one’s expectations to affect one’s behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to occur.
  • Social identity theory – theory in which the formation of a person’s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison. Three components: Social categorization – assignment of categories to self and others to help determine appropriate behavior. Social comparison – the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one’s self-esteem. Identification - the part of the self-concept including one’s view of self as a member of a particular social category.
  • EQUAL STATUS CONTACT & THE ROBBER’S CAVE Contact between social groups can backfire under certain circumstances, however, as seen in a famous study (Sherif et al., 1961) called the “Robber’s Cave.” In this experiment conducted at a summer camp called Robber’s Cave, 22 white, well-adjusted 11- and 12-year-old boys were divided into two groups. The groups each lived in separate housing and were kept apart from each other for daily activities. During the second week, after in-group relationships had formed, the researchers scheduled highly competitive events pitting one group against the other. Intergroup conflict quickly occurred, with name-calling, fights, and hostility emerging between the two groups. The third week involved making the two groups come together for pleasant, noncompetitive activities, in the hopes that cooperation would be the result. Instead, the groups used the activities of the third week as opportunities for more hostility. It was only after several weeks of being forced to work together to resolve a series of crises (created deliberately by the experimenters) that the boys lost the hostility and formed friendships between the groups.
  • Interpersonal attraction - liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person. Proximity - physical or geographical nearness. Similarity - People like people who are similar to themselves OR who are different from themselves (complementary). Reciprocity of liking - tendency of people to like other people who like them in return.
  • Intimacy , in Sternberg’s view, refers to the feelings of closeness that one has for another person or the sense of having close emotional ties to another. Passion refers to the emotional and sexual arousal a person feels toward the other person. Commitment involves the decisions one makes about a relationship.
  • Stanford Prison Experiment The experiment was recorded on film from the beginning to a rather abrupt end: about 70 young men, most of whom were college students, volunteered to participate for two weeks. They were told that they would be randomly assigned the social role of either a guard or a prisoner in the experiment. The “guards” were given uniforms and instructions not to use violence but to maintain control of the “prison.” The “prisoners” were booked at a real jail, blindfolded, and transported to the campus “prison,” actually the basement of one of the campus buildings. On day 2, the prisoners staged a revolt (not planned as part of the experiment), which was quickly crushed by the guards. The guards then became increasingly more aggressive, using humiliation to control and punish the prisoners. For example, prisoners were forced to clean out toilet bowls with their bare hands. The staff observing the experiment had to release five of the prisoners who became so upset that they were physically ill. The entire experiment was canceled on the fifth day, after one of the prisoners reported to Zimbardo that what the experimenters were doing to the young men was terrible (Zimbardo, 1971). The conclusions of Zimbardo and his colleagues highlighted the influence that a social role, such as that of “guard,” can have on perfectly ordinary people. Photos The first photo shows a “guard” searching a “prisoner” in Zimbardo’s famous Stanford prison experiment. The students in the experiment became so deeply involved in their assigned roles that Zimbardo had to cancel the experiment after only five days—less than half the time originally scheduled for the study. The second photograph shows a U.S. soldier threatening an Iraqi prisoner at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. Investigators into alleged abuses at this prison found numerous sadistic and brutal acts committed by U.S. military personnel upon the prisoners. One brigadier general in charge of the prison was suspended.
  • Stanford Prison Experiment The experiment was recorded on film from the beginning to a rather abrupt end: about 70 young men, most of whom were college students, volunteered to participate for two weeks. They were told that they would be randomly assigned the social role of either a guard or a prisoner in the experiment. The “guards” were given uniforms and instructions not to use violence but to maintain control of the “prison.” The “prisoners” were booked at a real jail, blindfolded, and transported to the campus “prison,” actually the basement of one of the campus buildings. On day 2, the prisoners staged a revolt (not planned as part of the experiment), which was quickly crushed by the guards. The guards then became increasingly more aggressive, using humiliation to control and punish the prisoners. For example, prisoners were forced to clean out toilet bowls with their bare hands. The staff observing the experiment had to release five of the prisoners who became so upset that they were physically ill. The entire experiment was canceled on the fifth day, after one of the prisoners reported to Zimbardo that what the experimenters were doing to the young men was terrible (Zimbardo, 1971). The conclusions of Zimbardo and his colleagues highlighted the influence that a social role, such as that of “guard,” can have on perfectly ordinary people. Photos The first photo shows a “guard” searching a “prisoner” in Zimbardo’s famous Stanford prison experiment. The students in the experiment became so deeply involved in their assigned roles that Zimbardo had to cancel the experiment after only five days—less than half the time originally scheduled for the study. The second photograph shows a U.S. soldier threatening an Iraqi prisoner at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. Investigators into alleged abuses at this prison found numerous sadistic and brutal acts committed by U.S. military personnel upon the prisoners. One brigadier general in charge of the prison was suspended.
  • Prosocial behavior - socially desirable behavior that benefits others. Altruism - prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself. Bystander effect - referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases. Diffusion of responsibility - occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
  • Decision Point Description Factors Influencing Decision Noticing - Realizing that there is a situation that might be an emergency. Hearing a loud crash or a cry for help. Defining an Emergency - Interpreting the cues as signaling an emergency. Loud crash is associated with a car accident, people are obviously hurt. Taking Responsibility - Personally assuming the responsibility to act. A single bystander is much more likely to act than when others are present. Planning a Course of Action - Deciding how to help and what skills might be needed. People who feel they have the necessary skills to help are more likely to help. Taking Action - Actually helping. Costs of helping (e.g., danger to self) must not outweigh the rewards of helping.
  • The term cult literally refers to any group of people with a particular religious or philosophical set of beliefs and identity. What kind of person joins a cult in the first place ? Although there is no particular personality profile associated with cult membership, cult members do appear to have been in some psychological distress at the time of recruitment by the cult. People who are under a lot of stress, dissatisfied with their lives, unassertive, gullible, dependent, feel a desire to belong to a group, and who are unrealistically idealistic (“we can solve all the world’s problems if everyone will just love each other”) are the most likely targets of cult recruitment (Langone, 1996). Young people rebelling against parental authority or trying to become independent of families are prime targets. How do cults control their members? Cults use love-bombing, isolation, rituals, and activities to keep the new recruits from questions and critical thinking.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Links to Learning Objectives
      • SOCIAL INFLUENCE
      • LO 10.1 Conformity
      • LO 10.2 Compliance
      • LO 10.3 Obedience
      • SOCIAL COGNITION
      • LO 10.4 Attitudes
      • LO 10.5 Cognitive dissonance
      • LO 10.6 Social Categorization
      • LO 10.7 Explaining others’ actions
      • SOCIAL INTERACTION
      • LO 10.8 Prejudice & discrimination
      • LO 10.9 Why are people prejudiced?
      • LO 10.10 Attraction and love
      • LO 10.11 Aggressive behavior
      • LO 10.12 Altruism
      • LO 10.13 Cults
    • 2. Prejudice & Discrimination Prejudice & Discrimination Discrimination Preiudice &
    • 3. Prejudice and Discrimination
      • Prejudice – negative thoughts & feelings about a particular group
      • Discrimination – treating others differently because of prejudice
      • In-groups and out-groups
      • Realistic conflict theory
      • Scapegoating
      • Stereotype vulnerability & self-fulfilling prophecy
      10.8 How are prejudice and discrimination different?
    • 4. Prejudice and Discrimination
      • In-groups and Out-groups: Us and Them
      • Realistic Conflict Theory: An increase in competition between groups increases prejudice and tension.
      • Scapegoating: member or members of an out-group used as a target of in-group frustration
    • 5. Prejudice and Discrimination
      • Stereotype Vulnerability: Effect that awareness of stereotypes have on behavior
      • Stereotype threat: awareness of how your behavior reinforces a stereotype
      • Self-fulfilling Prophecy: The effect that expectations have on out comes
    • 6. Social Identity Theory? Gender Gap Race Gap Generation Gap 10.9 Why are people prejudiced and how can it be stopped? Social Categorization Social Comparison Identification
    • 7. How do you define yourself?
      • Social Identity Theory: Identity within a group and the assumption of behaviors, attitudes and concepts of that group
        • Social categorization
        • Identification
        • Social comparison
    • 8. Social Identity Theory
        • Social categorization: Who am I?
        • Identification: Who are we?
        • Social comparison: Who are they?
    • 9. Into The Robber’s “Cave”
      • Boys assigned to one of three groups competing with each other…
            • within-group solidarity
            • negative stereotyping of other group
            • hostile between-group interactions
    • 10. Coming Out of The “Cave”
      • Overcoming prejudice through:
          • Equal status contact
          • Common goals (intergroup dependence)
          • One-one-one interactions
    • 11. Attraction, Aggression & Altruism & Altruism Attraction,Aooression Attraction, Aggression & Altruism
    • 12. Personality
      • Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual
    • 13. The Personality Canoe
      • The Big Five
        • Conscientiousness: Organization and Motivation
        • Agreeableness: Easy going and pleasant
        • Neuroticism: Emotional instability
        • Openness: Willingness to try new things
        • Extraversion: Center of attention
    • 14. Rules of Attraction
      • Interpersonal attraction - liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person.
      • Factors
        • Attractiveness
        • Proximity
        • Similarity
        • Reciprocity
      10.10 What factors govern attraction and love? Non-social factors would include large eyes, smooth skin and facial symmetry.
    • 15. Birds of a feather
      • Similarity draws people together and keeps them there
      • Complementary qualities can be rewarding but these relationships don’t usually last
    • 16. Components of Love INTIMACY: feelings of emotional closeness PASSION: emotional & sexual arousal COMMITMENT: decisions about relationship
    • 17. Different Forms of Love Liking Companionate Empty Fatuous Infatuation Romantic Consummate INTIMACY COMMITMENT PASSION
    • 18. Sternberg’s Triangle
    • 19. Aggression
      • Aggression – deliberate behavior intended to hurt or destroy another organism
        • frustration  aggression
        • biological
          • amygdala, low serotonin, high testerone
        • Observation
          • media violence
    • 20. Aggression and Biology
      • Identical twins are more similar in aggression than fraternal twins
      • High testosterone correlates with high aggression
      • Alcohol: Sober man’s thoughts, drunk man’s words
    • 21.  
    • 22. The Power of Social Roles
      • Social roles – pattern of behavior expected of person in particular social position
        • Stanford prison experiment
      Visit the Stanford Prison Experiment online
    • 23. Stanford Prison Experiment
      • Phillip Zimbardo assigned 70 men to be either guards or prisoners for two weeks
      • Two days in an unplanned revolt broke out and the guards aggressively put it down
      • Five days in the experiment was cancelled after conditions became unbearable
    • 24. Abu Ghraib Prison
    • 25. Violence in the Media
      • Brief exposure to violent media and games increases violent behavior
      • More aggressive children prefer more violent media
    • 26.
      • Altruism & prosocial behavior
      • Bystander Effect
      • Diffusion of Responsibility
        • Fewer bystanders  less diffusion  help
      Altruism & The Bystander Effect 10.12 What is altruism?
    • 27. Altruism
      • Helping someone in need with no expectation of reciprocity or fear for one’s safety
      • Bystander effect: The more people around the less likely someone will intervene
      • Diffusion of responsibility: Failure to take action because of the presence of others
    • 28. Latan é & Darley’s Study
      • Participants in room filling with smoke more likely to report smoke when alone
    • 29. Five Steps in Making a Decision to Help Notice Define emergency Take responsibility Plan course of action Take action 1 2 3 4 5
    • 30. Deciding to Help
      • Noticing: Realizing there is a situation
      • Defining: Interpreting the cues in the situation
      • Taking Responsibility: Assuming the responsibility to act
      • Planning: Deciding how to help
      • Taking Action: intervening
    • 31. Cults
      • What is a cult?
      • What kind of person joins a cult?
      • How do cult leaders control the members of their cult?
      10.13 Why do people join cults?

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