Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns Musical Intelligence -- ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber Visual-Spatial Intelligence -- capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully Interpersonal Intelligence -- capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others. Intrapersonal Intelligence -- capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes Naturalist Intelligence -- ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature Existential Intelligence -- sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here.
Traditional Intelligence can be measured by short-answer tests: Stanford-Binet Intelligence Quotient Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCIV) Woodcock Johnson test of Cognitive Ability Scholastic Aptitude Test People are born with a fixed amount of intelligence. Intelligence level does not change over a lifetime. Intelligence consists of ability in logic and language. Teachers teach a topic or subject. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Multiple Intelligence Theory Assessment of an individual's multiple intelligences can foster learning and problem-solving styles. Short answer tests are not used because they do not measure disciplinary mastery or deep understanding. They only measure rote memorization skills and one's ability to do well on short answer tests. Some states have developed tests that value process over the final answer, such as PAM (Performance Assessment in Math) and PAL (Performance Assessment in Language) Human beings have all of the intelligences, but each person has a unique combination, or profile. We can all improve each of the intelligences, though some people will improve more readily in one intelligence area than in others. M.I. pedagogy implies that teachers teach and assess differently based on individual intellectual strengths and weaknesses. Teachers structure learning activities around an issue or question and connect subjects. Teachers develop strategies that allow for students to demonstrate multiple ways of understanding and value their uniqueness.
According to Gardner, All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts. Each person has a different intellectual composition. We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students. These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together. These intelligences may define the human species.
Critics of the theory say that: It's not new . Critics of multiple intelligence theory maintain that Gardner's work isn't groundbreaking -- that what he calls &quot;intelligences&quot; are primary abilities that educators and cognitive psychologists have always acknowledged. It isn't well defined . Some critics wonder if the number of &quot;intelligences&quot; will continue to increase. These opposing theorists believe that notions such as bodily-kinesthetic or musical ability represent individual aptitude or talent rather than intelligence. Critics also believe that M.I. theory lacks the rigor and precision of a real science. Gardner claims that it would be impossible to guarantee a definitive list of intelligences. It's culturally embedded . M.I. theory states that one's culture plays an important role in determining the strengths and weaknesses of one's intelligences. Critics counter that intelligence is revealed when an individual must confront an unfamiliar task in an unfamiliar environment. It defeats National Standards . Widespread adoption of multiple intelligence pedagogy would make it difficult to compare and classify students' skills and abilities across classrooms. It is impractical . Educators faced with overcrowded classrooms and lack of resources see multiple intelligence theory as utopian.
Impact of instructional theories on Student Critical, Creative thinking, and Classroom Environment
Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action (Criticalthinking.org ).
The constructivist approach focuses on students building their own understanding of new ideas.
In order to construct this knowledge students must think critically.
The key model oriented with critical thinking is Bloom's Taxonomy.
References Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. NY: BasicBooks, 1983. Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligence for the 21st Century. NY: Basic Books, 1999. Thirteen Ed Online. (2004). Workshop: Tapping into multiple intelligences. In Concept to classroom. Retrieved from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/index.html Thirteen Ed Online (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html Constructivist Theories (2008). Retrieved from http://starfsfolk.khi.is/solrunb/construc.htm Critical Thinking Definition (2009). Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutct/define_critical_thinking.cfm Bloom's Taxonomy Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html