Impact of instructional theories on Student Critical, Creative thinking, and Classroom Environment
Nature of Schools, ED 5210
Group Assignment Week 2
July 12, 2010
Created by Jean Piaget and John Dewey
A theory that states people construct their own understanding and knowledge learn through their experiences and reflections.
Knowledge is not transmitted from one person to another, but is constructed by each individual.
Students learn by linking new information to previous knowledge.
Learning is through exploration and discovery
What is Constructivism?
Key Principles by Jean Piaget for Teaching
Learning is an active process
Direct experience, making errors, and looking for solutions are very important in the learning process.
When information is introduced as an aid to problem solving, it functions as a tool instead of arbitrary information.
Assimilation is when a person takes an experience and incorporates that into an already existing framework within themselves.
Accommodation is re-framing a person's mental representation of the world to fit new experiences
Applications for Learning in the Classroom
Instruction must correspond with the experiences that make the student want to learn
Instruction must be structured so it can be easily understood by the students
Instruction should be designed so that the student can build new ideas and concepts from old ones
Use experiments and real world problem solving techniques
Less emphasis on isolated skill exercises and more on learning with meaningful activities (i.e. operating a class bank or writing a class newspaper).
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence can be measured by short-answer tests.
People are born with a fixed amount of intelligence.
Intelligence level does not change over a lifetime.
Intelligence consists of ability in logic and language.
In practice, teachers teach the same material to everyone.
Teachers teach a topic or subject.
Assessment by tests that value process over the final answer.
Each person has a combination all of the intelligences.
We can all improve each of the intelligences.
MI’s reflect different ways of interacting with the world.
Teach and assess individual intellectual strengths and weaknesses.
Structure learning around an issue or question and connect subjects
All humans - all nine
Each person - different composition
Education – address MI of students
MI - different areas of the brain
MI - work independently or together
Define the human species
Critics of MI
It's not new .
It isn't well defined .
It's culturally embedded .
It defeats National Standards .
It is impractical .
Constructivism & Critical Thinking
"It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge." - Albert Einstein
Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action (Criticalthinking.org ).
The constructivist approach focuses on students building their own understanding of new ideas.
In order to construct this knowledge students must think critically.
The key model oriented with critical thinking is Bloom's Taxonomy.
A hiercheal model of the cognitive process
1. Knowledge or Remembering: Students are able to recall information
2. Comprehension or Understanding: Students understand the information.
3. Application: Students use information learned within another situation.
4. Analysis: Students are able to sort through and oranize information.
5. Evaluating: Students are able
to assess and make judgements
about infomation learned.
6. Creating: Students are able to
bring all the information
together in order to create
Bloom's Taxonomy in the Classroom
Can be used in any lesson
Ex. Science teachers in Miami use a technique that aligns with Bloom's ( http://www.miamisci.org )
Extends student's thinking skills
Fosters creating new meaning
Constructivism & Creative Classroom Environment
Creative Classrooms have a positive effect on students learning.
In connection with constructivism students must be engaged in the learning process in order to progress through the levels of Bloom's.
Use Multiple Intelligence to support the learning environment.
In the Classroom...
Project base Learning
Discovery Based Learning
Use of Technology
High Student Engagement (Active Learning)
References Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. NY: BasicBooks, 1983. Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligence for the 21st Century. NY: Basic Books, 1999. Thirteen Ed Online. (2004). Workshop: Tapping into multiple intelligences. In Concept to classroom. Retrieved from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/index.html Thirteen Ed Online (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html Constructivist Theories (2008). Retrieved from http://starfsfolk.khi.is/solrunb/construc.htm Critical Thinking Definition (2009). Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutct/define_critical_thinking.cfm Bloom's Taxonomy Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html