Cultural Issues of Education and Schooling Claudine Cottini Wayne McMahon Allison Persaud
Immigration can result in very diverse classrooms in race, ethnicity, and language Lau v. Nichols Supreme Court case in 1974 brought by a Chinese American who was very limited in English. The Supreme Court found the students were not being given the tools needed to succeed according to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the students which expanded the rights of students around the country with limited proficiency in English. Schools began to explore numerous approaches to bilingual education. Congress then passed the Equal Educational Opportunities Act in 1974 which prohibits discrimination and requires school districts to provide students with equal opportunities for participation.
Bilingual Education Because there are so many students that come from different backgrounds schools are offering services to these students. <ul><ul><li>Schools offer ESL classes to the students that speak languages other than English. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some schools are starting programs where the students have classes in English one day and classes in Spanish the next. </li></ul></ul>
Focus Question 1 How can teachers meet the diverse needs of an increasingly multicultural student population?
By 2030, the number of U.S. residents who are nonwhite of Hispanic will be about 140 million or about 40 % of the U.S. population Consider these statistics By 2012 the western US will become “minority majority,” with no single racial or ethnic group having a majority The nation has approximately 2.5 million Native Americans,a number that increases to about 4 million when including Americans claiming partial Indian heritage on the census By 2000, the number of Asians, including Asian Indians, in the United states was over 10 million or 3.6 % of the population About 6 million Americans claimed multiracial heritage with 2 or more races indicated by Census 2000
Focus Question 2 What are the different levels of multicultural education?
<ul><li> Multicultural Education </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of multicultural education is having male and female students, and exceptional or culturally diverse students from different social classes, races, and ethnic groups having an equal opportunity to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for dealing with diversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalize, don't stereotype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model skills and behaviors that reflect sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use classroom strategies that build on student learning styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give equal instructional attention </li></ul></ul>Many of the strategies considered effective in working with students of color benefit all students.
Effective multicultural practices that benefit all students include more equitable distribution of the teacher's attention, a greater representation of the contributions and experiences of diverse groups in curricular materials, and response to different learning styles. Changing patterns of immigration and birth rates are demographic trends that will result in very diverse classrooms in terms of race, ethnicity, and language.
<ul><li>The Achievement Gap </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Achievement Gap is an indicator of shortcomings in the learning of minority and economically disadvantaged students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be stated as the difference in average achievement of children from different groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed in measures such as standardized test scores, grade point average, drop out rates, and college enrollment rates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All students have different ways of learning, comprehending, and knowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers need knowledge of the diverse communities in which they teach. </li></ul></ul>
References <ul><li>Banks, J. A. (1997). Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals. In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks, (Eds.). Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives (3rd ed., pp. 3-31). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Sadker, D. M., & Sadker, M. P. (2002). Teachers, Schools, and Society, 6th Ed. [Electronic version]. New York: McGraw-hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Spring, Joel. (2010). American Education, 14th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul>