New Methods in Creativity Research

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How can we better understand the creative process in advertising? Griffin and Morrison offer an overview of their latest research project in a presentation from the 2010 American Academy of …

How can we better understand the creative process in advertising? Griffin and Morrison offer an overview of their latest research project in a presentation from the 2010 American Academy of Advertising Conference (AAA) in Minneapolis, MN.

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  • hi there prog glenn may have ur slide?
    seems very informative for beginner like me.
    my email is azman418@yahoo.com
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  • Hi, I am teaching a research methods class on Tuesday, would love to be able to show your presentation--just a couple of slides where you talk about the phenomenological research you did, as that is what I am teaching--different methods and wanting to give them real world examples. Thanks, kareypohn@gmail.com
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  • 1. NEW METHODS IN CREATIVITY RESEARCH:
  • 2. NEW METHODS IN CREATIVITY RESEARCH: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and Enduring Visual Products W. Glenn Griffin, Ph.D. Deborah K. Morrison, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Advertising Chambers Distinguished Professor SMU - Temerlin Advertising Institute University of Oregon - School of Journalism Dallas, TX and Communication - Eugene, OR wgriffin @ smu.edu debmor @ uoregon.edu
  • 3. SPECIAL GUESTS:
  • 4. unbelievably SPECIAL GUESTS:
  • 5. unbelievably SPECIAL GUESTS: DOUG PEDERSEN Associate Creative Director / Art Director Carmichael Lynch - Minneapolis
  • 6. unbelievably SPECIAL GUESTS: DOUG PEDERSEN Associate Creative Director / Art Director Carmichael Lynch - Minneapolis RANDY TATUM Vice President / Group Creative Director Martin | Williams - Minneapolis
  • 7. How can we better understand the creative process in advertising?
  • 8. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008)
  • 9. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.”
  • 10. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.” PERSON
  • 11. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.” PERSON PLACE
  • 12. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.” PERSON PLACE PROCESS
  • 13. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.” PERSON PLACE PROCESS
  • 14. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.” PERSON PLACE PROCESS the people who create advertising
  • 15. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.” PERSON PLACE PROCESS the people who the places or create advertising environments in which they work
  • 16. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.” PERSON PLACE PROCESS the people who the places or the process they create advertising environments in follow in developing which they work creative ideas
  • 17. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP Sasser and Koslow (2008) A “3Ps” research agenda is proposed to help the scholarship in advertising creativity navigate its “evolutionary stage.” PERSON PLACE PROCESS the people who the places or the process they create advertising environments in follow in developing which they work creative ideas “The most common advertising creativity research is comprised of empirical studies of place based perspectives of production.” Sasser and Koslow (2008), p. 9
  • 18. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP PROCESS Sasser and Koslow (2008)
  • 19. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP PROCESS Sasser and Koslow (2008) use of psychographic research the persuasive function Winter and Russell (1973) Dillon (1975) the associative model a mathematical model Reid and Rotfeld (1976) Gross (1972) copywriters’ implicit theories paradox and serendipity Kover (1995) Bengstson (1982) the templates method enhancing and encouraging Goldenberg, Mazursky and Solomon (1999) El-Murad and West (2004) think aloud tasks and teams executional factors on recall, Johar, Holbrook and Stern (2001) comprehension and persuasion Stewart and Koslow (1989) creative directors and research Chong (2006) consumers’ views on creative ads Ang, Lee and Leong (2007) finding a creative voice Stephens and Burke (1974) a consumer response approach Smith and Yang (2004)
  • 20. FRAMING THE SCHOLARSHIP PROCESS Sasser and Koslow (2008) use of psychographic research the persuasive function Winter and Russell (1973) Dillon (1975) the associative model a mathematical model Reid and Rotfeld (1976) Gross (1972) copywriters’ implicit theories paradox and serendipity Kover (1995) Bengstson (1982) the templates method enhancing and encouraging Goldenberg, Mazursky and Solomon (1999) El-Murad and West (2004) think aloud tasks and teams executional factors on recall, Johar, Holbrook and Stern (2001) comprehension and persuasion Stewart and Koslow (1989) creative directors and research Chong (2006) consumers’ views on creative ads Ang, Lee and Leong (2007) finding a creative voice Stephens and Burke (1974) a consumer response approach Smith and Yang (2004)
  • 21. copywriters’ implicit theories Kover (1995)
  • 22. copywriters’ implicit theories Kover (1995)
  • 23. “Copywriters’ Implicit Theories of Communication: An Exploration” copywriters’ implicit theories Kover (1995)
  • 24. “Copywriters’ Implicit Theories of Communication: An Exploration” Journal of Consumer Research copywriters’ implicit theories Kover (1995)
  • 25. “Copywriters’ Implicit Theories of Communication: An Exploration” Journal of Consumer Research in-depth interviews with 14 professional advertising writers copywriters’ implicit theories Kover (1995)
  • 26. “Copywriters’ Implicit Theories of Communication: An Exploration” Journal of Consumer Research in-depth interviews with 14 professional advertising writers copywriters’ implicit theories asked each to discuss personal Kover (1995) creative process
  • 27. “Copywriters’ Implicit Theories of Communication: An Exploration” Journal of Consumer Research in-depth interviews with 14 professional advertising writers copywriters’ implicit theories asked each to discuss personal Kover (1995) creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked
  • 28. “Copywriters’ Implicit Theories of Communication: An Exploration” Journal of Consumer Research in-depth interviews with 14 professional advertising writers copywriters’ implicit theories asked each to discuss personal Kover (1995) creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked rich data validated the observation and analyzation of thinking via first- person retrospective accounts
  • 29. * INDIVIDUALS bring unique cognitive approaches to their work within specific domains. Amabile (1996)
  • 30. copywriters’ implicit theories Kover (1995) in-depth interviews with 14 professional advertising writers asked each to discuss personal creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked
  • 31. developmental models of the creative process Griffin (2008) copywriters’ implicit theories Kover (1995) in-depth interviews with 14 professional advertising writers asked each to discuss personal creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked
  • 32. developmental models of the creative process Griffin (2008) “From Performance to Mastery: copywriters’ implicit theories Developmental Models of the Kover (1995) Creative Process” in-depth interviews with 14 professional advertising writers asked each to discuss personal creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked
  • 33. developmental models of the creative process Griffin (2008) “From Performance to Mastery: copywriters’ implicit theories Developmental Models of the Kover (1995) Creative Process” Journal of Advertising in-depth interviews with 14 professional advertising writers asked each to discuss personal creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked
  • 34. developmental models of the creative process Griffin (2008) “From Performance to Mastery: copywriters’ implicit theories Developmental Models of the Kover (1995) Creative Process” Journal of Advertising in-depth interviews with 14 in-depth interviews with 44 professional advertising writers students in portfolio programs asked each to discuss personal creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked
  • 35. developmental models of the creative process Griffin (2008) “From Performance to Mastery: copywriters’ implicit theories Developmental Models of the Kover (1995) Creative Process” Journal of Advertising in-depth interviews with 14 in-depth interviews with 44 professional advertising writers students in portfolio programs asked each to discuss personal asked each to discuss personal creative process creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked
  • 36. developmental models of the creative process Griffin (2008) “From Performance to Mastery: copywriters’ implicit theories Developmental Models of the Kover (1995) Creative Process” Journal of Advertising in-depth interviews with 14 in-depth interviews with 44 professional advertising writers students in portfolio programs asked each to discuss personal asked each to discuss personal creative process creative process thoughtful, detailed, reflective thoughtful, detailed, reflective responses about their work + responses about their work + revealed “implicit theories” about revealed “implicit theories” about how their minds worked how their minds worked
  • 37. Each student created a rough ad based on a creative brief. This assignment was the basis for each student’s personal narratives about their own creative process.
  • 38. These ads were analyzed and revealed different approaches to execution based on level of expertise.
  • 39. The Performance Model of Advertising Studentsʼ Creative Process The Mastery Model of Advertising Studentsʼ Creative Process
  • 40. The Performance Model of Advertising Studentsʼ Creative Process The Mastery Model of Advertising Studentsʼ Creative Process The students’ narratives about process, combined with analysis of their rough ads, yielded evidence for building two new theoretical models.
  • 41. Thinking about thinking.
  • 42. METACOGNITION
  • 43. METACOGNITION How we leverage our own understanding of how we think; how we mentally supervise the achievement of a cognitive goal. Flavell (1979)
  • 44. three categories of METACOGNITION
  • 45. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON
  • 46. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK
  • 47. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK STRATEGY
  • 48. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK STRATEGY
  • 49. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK STRATEGY Everything you believe about yourself as a thinker.
  • 50. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK STRATEGY Everything you Your assessment of believe about yourself the resources you will as a thinker. need to complete a project.
  • 51. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK STRATEGY Everything you Your assessment of How you combine believe about yourself the resources you will both person and task as a thinker. need to complete knowledge to achieve a project. an ultimate goal.
  • 52. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK STRATEGY Everything you Your assessment of How you combine believe about yourself the resources you will both person and task as a thinker. need to complete knowledge to achieve a project. an ultimate goal. “As an art director, I am more skilled in visualization than articulation.”
  • 53. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK STRATEGY Everything you Your assessment of How you combine believe about yourself the resources you will both person and task as a thinker. need to complete knowledge to achieve a project. an ultimate goal. “As an art director, “When the creative I am more skilled brief leaves me with in visualization than more questions than articulation.” answers, I do some of my own research.”
  • 54. three categories of METACOGNITION PERSON TASK STRATEGY Everything you Your assessment of How you combine believe about yourself the resources you will both person and task as a thinker. need to complete knowledge to achieve a project. an ultimate goal. “As an art director, “When the creative “I wanted to get I am more skilled brief leaves me with started on this project in visualization than more questions than as soon as possible, articulation.” answers, I do some since I was unfamiliar of my own research.” with the product and I tend to procrastinate in those situations.”
  • 55. HYPOTHESIS:
  • 56. HYPOTHESIS: Creative professionals in advertising do understand their own creative process for developing ideas and they can articulate it.
  • 57. HYPOTHESIS: Creative professionals in advertising do understand their own creative process for developing ideas and they can articulate it. (i.e., they are metacognitively aware)
  • 58. HYPOTHESIS: Creative professionals in advertising do understand their own creative process for developing ideas and they can articulate it. (i.e., they are metacognitively aware) HUNCH:
  • 59. HYPOTHESIS: Creative professionals in advertising do understand their own creative process for developing ideas and they can articulate it. (i.e., they are metacognitively aware) HUNCH: They can visualize their creative process.
  • 60. APPROACH:
  • 61. APPROACH: Analyze the cognitive phenomenon (the creative process in advertising) at the intersection of...
  • 62. APPROACH: Analyze the cognitive phenomenon (the creative process in advertising) at the intersection of... what creatives say about the process
  • 63. APPROACH: Analyze the cognitive phenomenon (the creative process in advertising) at the intersection of... what creatives say about the process +
  • 64. APPROACH: Analyze the cognitive phenomenon (the creative process in advertising) at the intersection of... what creatives say about the process + what creatives show about the process
  • 65. methods from qualitative research in psychology and art therapy
  • 66. What DO creatives say about the process?
  • 67. INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Smith (1994, 1996)
  • 68. INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Smith (1994, 1996) IPA is concerned with the detailed examination of individual lived experience and how individuals make sense of that experience. Eatough and Smith (2008)
  • 69. INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Smith (1994, 1996) IPA is concerned with the detailed examination of individual lived experience and how individuals make sense of that experience. Eatough and Smith (2008) theoretical roots: hermeneutics + phenomenology
  • 70. IPA Smith (1994, 1996) GROUNDED An approach to THEORY Glaser & Strauss (1967) research guided by a particular world-view and epistemology. It is not simply a research methodology. - the privileged account - focus on phenomena, lived experiences
  • 71. IPA Smith (1994, 1996) GROUNDED An approach to THEORY Glaser & Strauss (1967) research guided by a particular world-view A systematic generation of and epistemology. It is theory from data that not simply a research contains both inductive and methodology. deductive thinking. - the privileged account - focus on phenomena, - researcher holds privilege lived experiences - broad application for various forms of qualitative data
  • 72. INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Smith (1994, 1996)
  • 73. INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Smith (1994, 1996) LIVED EXPERIENCE encompasses the embodied, socio-culturally and historically situated person who inhabits an intentionally interpreted and meaningfully lived world. Eatough and Smith (2008)
  • 74. INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Smith (1994, 1996) LIVED EXPERIENCE encompasses the embodied, socio-culturally and historically situated person who inhabits an intentionally interpreted and meaningfully lived world. Eatough and Smith (2008) based on in-depth interviews that examine specific phenomena with which individuals are intimately familiar; i.e. repeated/regular experiences for those individuals
  • 75. INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Smith (1994, 1996) LIVED EXPERIENCE encompasses the embodied, socio-culturally and historically situated person who inhabits an intentionally interpreted and meaningfully lived world. Eatough and Smith (2008) based on in-depth interviews that examine specific phenomena with which individuals are intimately familiar; i.e. repeated/regular experiences for those individuals IPA is devoted to the micro analysis of convergence and divergence within a small set of accounts. We compare accounts to establish the common features.
  • 76. CREATIVE PROFESSIONALS: the individual ideation (creative) process
  • 77. IPA Smith (1994, 1996)
  • 78. IPA Smith (1994, 1996) smaller sample sizes (typically less than 30)
  • 79. IPA Smith (1994, 1996) smaller sample sizes (typically less than 30) semi-structured interviews most common; also diaries and unstructured life histories
  • 80. IPA Smith (1994, 1996) smaller sample sizes (typically less than 30) semi-structured interviews most common; also diaries and unstructured life histories both participant’s and researcher’s sensemaking of the lived experience (the topic) are recorded / compared
  • 81. IPA Smith (1994, 1996) smaller sample sizes (typically less than 30) semi-structured interviews most common; also diaries and unstructured life histories both participant’s and researcher’s sensemaking of the lived experience (the topic) are recorded / compared generally, a flexible, non-prescriptive stance with respect to sample size or form of data collection
  • 82. What CAN creatives show about the process?
  • 83. USING AND INTERPRETING VISUAL IMAGES Reavey and Johnson (2008)
  • 84. USING AND INTERPRETING VISUAL IMAGES Reavey and Johnson (2008) “Qualitative psychology has always fought to be recognized as a credible approach to research within the methodological fetishism of the positivistic mainstream ... this might explain an initial reluctance to embrace visual methodologies.” p. 297
  • 85. USING AND INTERPRETING VISUAL IMAGES Reavey and Johnson (2008) “Qualitative psychology has always fought to be recognized as a credible approach to research within the methodological fetishism of the positivistic mainstream ... this might explain an initial reluctance to embrace visual methodologies.” p. 297 Barthes (1973, 1995) - semiotic tradition: words are not the only way people engage with the world
  • 86. USING AND INTERPRETING VISUAL IMAGES Reavey and Johnson (2008) “Qualitative psychology has always fought to be recognized as a credible approach to research within the methodological fetishism of the positivistic mainstream ... this might explain an initial reluctance to embrace visual methodologies.” p. 297 Barthes (1973, 1995) - semiotic tradition: words are not the only way people engage with the world “... the way in which we live feelings and experiences are not always available to verbal description.” - p. 299
  • 87. USING AND INTERPRETING VISUAL IMAGES Reavey and Johnson (2008) “Qualitative psychology has always fought to be recognized as a credible approach to research within the methodological fetishism of the positivistic mainstream ... this might explain an initial reluctance to embrace visual methodologies.” p. 297 Barthes (1973, 1995) - semiotic tradition: words are not the only way people engage with the world “... the way in which we live feelings and experiences are not always available to verbal description.” - p. 299 Collection of visual data can be less obtrusive because offers agency to study participants rather than limiting their responses to those elicited by a researcher’s questions.
  • 88. Enduring Visual Products
  • 89. Enduring Visual Products Visual data collected for the purpose of augmenting verbal description of personal experiences. Temple and McVittie (2005)
  • 90. How can we better understand the creative process in advertising?
  • 91. what creatives say about the process + what creatives show about the process
  • 92. PARTICIPANTS
  • 93. PARTICIPANTS creative professionals (CDs, ADs, CWs) ranging from 3-40 years of experience; primarily drawn from major awards annuals in recent years + some legends; 300+ contacted, 76 participated
  • 94. PARTICIPANTS creative professionals (CDs, ADs, CWs) ranging from 3-40 years of experience; primarily drawn from major awards annuals in recent years + some legends; 300+ contacted, 76 participated STUDY PACKET
  • 95. PARTICIPANTS creative professionals (CDs, ADs, CWs) ranging from 3-40 years of experience; primarily drawn from major awards annuals in recent years + some legends; 300+ contacted, 76 participated STUDY PACKET cover letter with overview of the project
  • 96. PARTICIPANTS creative professionals (CDs, ADs, CWs) ranging from 3-40 years of experience; primarily drawn from major awards annuals in recent years + some legends; 300+ contacted, 76 participated STUDY PACKET cover letter with overview of the project 17” x 22” process canvas with consent form, instructions and spaces for participant data and comments on back
  • 97. PARTICIPANTS creative professionals (CDs, ADs, CWs) ranging from 3-40 years of experience; primarily drawn from major awards annuals in recent years + some legends; 300+ contacted, 76 participated STUDY PACKET cover letter with overview of the project 17” x 22” process canvas with consent form, instructions and spaces for participant data and comments on back postage-paid return envelope
  • 98. PARTICIPANTS creative professionals (CDs, ADs, CWs) ranging from 3-40 years of experience; primarily drawn from major awards annuals in recent years + some legends; 300+ contacted, 76 participated STUDY PACKET cover letter with overview of the project 17” x 22” process canvas with consent form, instructions and spaces for participant data and comments on back postage-paid return envelope black Sharpie marker
  • 99. They call this “data collection.” Help us, please? You take that brain to work with you every day. You know better than anyone else how it works. As difficult as the journey can be, you’ve grown to understand more and more about how you’ll get to that elusive G R E A T I D E A . Your creative process is yours alone A N D I T M E A N S S O M E T H I N G . It has a life, a direction, a feel, a style. So, we’re wondering... WAH A T D O EYS U R U R C R E A T I V E P R O C E S S LL OOK L I K E ? YO O WW A T TD D O E S Y O U R CREATIVE RPROCESS K OL IK E I K E ? H H OES O CREATIVE P OCESS LOO L K ? How do you get to the idea? What if you were asked to I L L U S T R A T E the process? Could you capture it V I S U A L LY — at a level of detail that reveals your own experience to others? We study the creative process as it applies to advertising. We’ve taught hundreds of young art directors and writers, and we know each person thinks about and develops ideas differently. Those differences are staggering — and unbelievably interesting! We’re inviting some of the industry’s best and brightest, including yourself, to show us their brains. This is stuff we’d like to capture for posterity. For research and building theory. For informing the next generation. For a beautiful book that will showcase great minds and how they work. We’re providing you with the necessary tools. Use the Sharpie® and the Process Canvas (both enclosed) to share your unique journey. Please follow the instructions on the back of that poster-sized sheet before providing us your solution, and return it to us in the postage-paid envelope. Think about the thinking, then show it to us. W. G L E N N G R I F F I N DEBORAH K. MORRISON ASSISTANT PROFESSOR PROFESSOR SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF OREGON
  • 100. I N S T R U C T I O N S 1. Think about your own creative process. Think about the route you take to find ideas. 2. Experiment with illustrating that process on a scratch piece of paper. Can your visualization (with or without words) offer someone else an understanding of the process as you experience it? 3. When you are satisfied with your solution, use the Sharpie® marker (provided) to transfer it to the Process Canvas on the reverse of this sheet. 4. This is research, folks. You know how this works. We need you to sign the Consent to Participate (in ink, not Sharpie®)
  • 101. 3. When you are satisfied with your solution, use the Sharpie® marker (provided) to transfer it to the Process Canvas on the reverse of this sheet. 4. This is research, folks. You know how this works. We need you to sign the Consent to Participate (in ink, not Sharpie®) to make this legal in all 50 states. We’d also like to get your comments on this study and/or your thoughts on process. Just fill in the box below. 5. Fold this sheet and mail it back to us in the postage-paid return envelope we’ve provided to you. Please complete the project and return it no later than: Thanks for your participation!
  • 102. FOLLOW-UP
  • 103. FOLLOW-UP study participants (those who returned a process canvas to us) were contacted and narratives about their creative process were collected
  • 104. AVAILABLE IN AUGUST 2010
  • 105. @pureprocess
  • 106. www.pureprocess.com
  • 107. NEW METHODS IN CREATIVITY RESEARCH: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and Enduring Visual Products W. Glenn Griffin, Ph.D. Deborah K. Morrison, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Advertising Chambers Distinguished Professor SMU - Temerlin Advertising Institute University of Oregon - School of Journalism Dallas, TX and Communication - Eugene, OR wgriffin @ smu.edu debmor @ uoregon.edu