Liberty accompanying the pioneers traveling on foot, horseback, stagecoaches, and wagons. Image of the romantic west carries manifest destiny throughout the 19thc.
Helen Hunt Jackson wrote Ramona around 1883…best seller. Supposed to expose the evils of the Mexican and native “barrios” in Southern California but ended up-people liked it because of the soap opera love story. Didn’t spark much reform.
Dept. of agriculture formed in 1862 (part of the Morill-Land Grant Act which helped fund farming experimentation, colleges, and institutes) Plows, binders, threshers all helped with bonanza farming but no control over weather, pests, or depleted soils.
Buffalo numbered in the tens of millions in the plains region-by 1889, only 549 remained. Hunted for sport, tongue or hides, or as a policy to deny the plains indians their primary food source
Battle inspired more than 960 paintings. This one done by Edgar Paxton (1899) after years of research…said to be the most accurate.
Quote from when he was an honored speaker at the last spike ceremony…interpretor, dismayed, mumbled platitudes and the chief got a standing ovation. To escape round-up after Custer’s defeat, he led some 2,000 Sioux to Canada. Hunger drove them to surrender in 1881. Died in 1890.
Prevented settlers from taking the famous Montana Trail by cutting off supplies and burning forts. “Red Cloud’s War” considered the only war won by natives in this period. After it, the chief promised to live in peace, once going to Washington DC to receive a medal from Grant-wearing it in portrait.
Sent to prison back east…later in life, appeared in TR’s inaugural parade and at the 1904 World’s Fair.
1877-Joseph took his tribe and fled to Canada, fighting the US Army on a dozen occasions. The 1,700 mile journey ended with capture and removal to a reservation. Joseph spent time in Washington delivering speaches and trying to get his tribe back to the Northwest.
Post Civil War Western Settlement
Manifest Destiny Emigrants Crossing the Plains by Alfred Bierstadt, 1846
Railroad is in, Buffalo are out Hides for sale!
Up to 30 million buffalo at one time… By 1900, less than 1,000 left
Buffalo skulls… … human skulls (scalping) Since the Plains Indians relied on buffalo to survive, they fought back:
US military and white settlement vs. Plains Indians
Native tribes fight back and a variety of conflicts become known as: “ The Indian Wars”….it was total war. “ Fleeing women holding up their hands and praying for mercy were shot down; infants were killed and scalped; men were tortured and mutilated.” Congressional Committee (investigating Sand Creek Massacre) “ It was of no unfrequent occurrence for an Indian to be shot down in cold blood, or a squaw to be raped by some brute. Such a thing as a white man being punished for outraging an Indian was unheard of.” General Crook “ The only good Indians I ever saw were dead” General Sheridan Natives were left with two choices: defend their way of life and fight OR be removed and assimilate onto reservations
George Armstrong Custer Fought the Sioux and Cheyennes in the North Kit Carson Fought Apache and Navajo in South Photos by Mathew Brady
1876: Black Hills South Dakota “ Custer’s Last Stand” Sioux vs. Military… military lost this one. Custer becomes hero anyway! Battle of Little Big Horn
Sitting Bull Sioux “ I hate all white people. You are thieves and liars” Defeated Custer at Little Big Horn Shot during the Ghost Dance Movement
Red Cloud Oglala Sioux “ Are…sacred graves to be plowed for corn? Dakotas, I am for war!”
Geronimo Apache Leader “ I think I am a good man, but…all over the world they say I am a bad man”
Chief Joseph Hinmatowyalahtqit (Thunder Coming Up over the land) Nez Perce “ My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more”
Tipi is a Lakota (Sioux) word meaning “used for a dwelling” They were made out of hide and easily moved to travel with the buffalo. SOD is an English word for lame white guy. Settlers built houses out of it because it was one of the few resources on the Plains.
Sod houses of the great plains Sod: one-room school house
Civilizing The Natives… … Extreme Makeovers @ the carlisle school in Pennsylvania: an example of many off-reservation schools in the east. “Kill the Indian, save the man”.
Meanwhile, back on the reservation: U.S. government hands out rations to the Sioux. Lakota men join the police force Assimilation: Taught to abandon everything “indian” and become white.
Wovoka - Paiute shaman founder of the “Ghost Dance” Movement Pawnee ghost dancer’s shirt Only known photograph of the Lakota ghost dancers , 1890 <ul><li>Native revival </li></ul><ul><li>Return to traditional culture </li></ul><ul><li>Unified tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Scared white man </li></ul>
Wounded Knee Hotchkiss guns that did the deadly work. Burying the dead-200? men, women, and children misunderstanding and massacre
What do you get when you mix Cowboys and Indians together? Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Shows! And… Myths of the west!
Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill, 1889 Wild West Show
What do you think of when you think of The West? What are some myths of the west? What has the image of the west done for our national character? 1939 movie poster What ways have we tried to preserve the west? The End?