Pmp session 4

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Pmp session 4

  1. 1. PMP & CAPMExam Preparation February 19, 2013
  2. 2. Sessions1. About the exam2. Integration & Scope Management3. Time & Cost Management4. Quality & HR Management5. Communication & Risk Management6. Procurement Management
  3. 3. Last Session Key point• Process groups: IPEMCC• 9 Knowledge Area: ISTiCoQuHurCoRiP• Project Integration Management – DevPC.PMP.DirManPex.MoConPW.PerICC.CloPP• Project Scope Management – CoDeWoBVCon
  4. 4. Last Session Key point – cont’d• Project Time Management (DeSeReDDevCon) – Define activities – Sequence activities – Estimate activity resources – Estimate activity durations – Develop schedule – Control schedule
  5. 5. Last Session Key point – cont’d• Project Cost Management (EsCDeBCon) – Estimate cost – Determine budget – Control cost
  6. 6. Project Quality Management• Plan QA QC
  7. 7. Project Quality Management• Quality: the degree to which product characteristics fulfill requirements – Low quality: lots of bugs / defects• Grade: assigned category to products with same/similar functional use but different in technical characteristics – Low grade: limited features• Low quality = PROBLEM
  8. 8. Project Quality Management• Precision: values of repeated measurements have little scatter• Accuracy: measured values closed to true value• Quality management approaches by: – Deming, Juan, Crosby – TQM, Six Sigma, VoC, FMEA (failure mode and effect analysis) – Cost of Quality: total cost of all efforts related to quality throughout product lifecycle
  9. 9. Project Quality Management• Modern quality management focuses on: – Customer satisfaction – Prevention over inspection – Continuous improvement (PDCA  by Shewhart, modified by Deming) – Management responsibility
  10. 10. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality
  11. 11. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – I – Scope baseline (…) – Stakeholder register – Cost performance baseline – Schedule baseline – Risk register – EEF – OPA
  12. 12. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – TT – Cost-Benefit analysis • Less rework, higher productivity, lower cost, increased stakeholder satisfaction – Cost of quality • Cost of conformance  to avoid failure • Cost of non-conformance  to fix (because of failure)
  13. 13. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – TT (cont’d) – Cost of quality (cont’d)
  14. 14. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – TT (cont’d) – Control charts • Mostly used to monitor repetitive activities (manufacturing), cost/schedule variance • To determine performance stability • To answer: “Is the process variance within acceptable limits?” • Applies higher and lower control limits (+/- 3 ) • A process is considered out of control if seven consecutive points are above or below Mean
  15. 15. Project Quality Management
  16. 16. Project Quality Management
  17. 17. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – TT (cont’d) – Benchmarking (comparison) – Design of Experiments • Statistical method to identify factors influencing product’s variables • Can be used to determine number and type of tests, and impact of cost of quality • E.g.: experiment to combine chemical materials to produce strong adhesive material
  18. 18. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – TT (cont’d) – Statistical sampling – Flowcharting
  19. 19. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – TT (cont’d) – Proprietary quality management methodologies • Six sigma • Lean six sigma • Quality function deployment • etc
  20. 20. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – TT (cont’d) – Additional quality planning tools • Brainstorming • Affinity diagrams (grouping) • Force field analysis (change factors) • Nominal group techniques (brainstorming with groups) • Matrix diagram (diagramming to look for intersection between factors, causes and objectives) • Prioritization matrices (ranking)
  21. 21. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – O – Quality management plan – Quality metrics • Defining tolerance • Budget control • Monitor defect frequency and rate • Define availability and reliability
  22. 22. Project Quality Management• Plan Quality – O (cont’d) – Quality checklist – Process improvement plan • Process boundaries (start/end, I/O) • Process configuration (graphical depiction of process) • Process metrics (to analyze efficiency) • Targets for improved performance – PD U
  23. 23. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Assurance – Process of auditing quality requirements and results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used
  24. 24. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Assurance – I – PMP – Quality metrics – WPI – Quality control measurements
  25. 25. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Assurance – TT – Plan quality and perform quality control tools and techniques – Quality audits • Identify good/best practices being implemented • Identify all gaps • Share the good/best practices • Proactively assist implementation improvement to raise productivity • Highlight contributions of each audit in lesson learned
  26. 26. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Assurance – TT (cont’d) – Process analysis • Identify a problem • Discover root cause • Develop preventive actions
  27. 27. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Assurance – O – OPA U – CR – PMP U – PD U
  28. 28. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – Process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes – Performed throughout the project – The QC team must know the concept of: • Prevention and Inspection • Attribute sampling and variable sampling • Tolerance and control limit
  29. 29. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control
  30. 30. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – I – PMP – Quality metrics – Quality checklist – WPM – Approved CR – Deliverables – OPA
  31. 31. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – TT – Cause and effect diagrams • AKA: ishikawa or fishbone diagrams • Asking: Why or How  Why why and How how
  32. 32. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – TT (cont’d) – Control charts – Flowcharting – Histogram • To show occurrence / frequency of variables
  33. 33. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – TT (cont’d) – Pareto chart • A histogram ordered by frequency of occurrence • Applies rank ordering to focus on corrective actions • Developed conceptually to Pareto’s law: 80/20 principle where 80% of problems are due to 20% of causes
  34. 34. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – TT (cont’d) – Run chart • Similar to control chart but no limits • Shows history and pattern of variation • Is a form of a line graph plotted in order in which they occur • Shows trend
  35. 35. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – TT (cont’d) – Scatter diagram • Shows relationship of 2 variables • To identify relationship between changes of 2 variables • The closer the points are to diagonal line, the more closely they are related
  36. 36. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – TT (cont’d) – Statistical sampling – Inspection – Approved CR review
  37. 37. Project Quality Management• Perform Quality Control – O – Quality control measurements – Validated changes – Validated variables – OPA U – CR – PMP U – PD U
  38. 38. Project HR Management• DevPlan AcqDeM
  39. 39. Project HR Management• Develop HR Plan
  40. 40. Project HR Management• Develop HR Plan – I – Activity resources requirements – EEF – OPA
  41. 41. Project HR Management• Develop HR Plan – TT – Organization charts position descriptions: • Hierarchical: organizational structure • Matrix based: RACI matrix • Text oriented • Others
  42. 42. Project HR Management• Develop HR Plan – TT (cont’d) – Organization charts position descriptions:
  43. 43. Project HR Management• Develop HR Plan – TT (cont’d) – Networking – Organizational theory
  44. 44. Project HR Management• Develop HR Plan – O – HR Plan • Roles and responsibilities • Project organization charts • Staffing management plan – Staff acquisition – Resource calendar – Staff release plan – Training needs – Recognition and rewards – Compliance – Safety
  45. 45. Project HR Management• Acquire Project Team
  46. 46. Project HR Management• Acquire Project Team – I – PMP – EEF – OPA
  47. 47. Project HR Management• Acquire Project Team – TT – Pre-assignment – Negotiation – Acquisition – Virtual teams  highlight the communication issues • Different geographic area • Office and mobile office staffs • Staffs with limitations / disability
  48. 48. Project HR Management• Acquire Project Team – O – Project staff assignments – Resource calendars – PMP U
  49. 49. Project HR Management• Develop Project Team – Improve team’s competencies/skills, interaction, and overall environment to enhance project performance – Highlight about teamwork despite cultural / language differences – Highlight about team’s bond and trust to raise morale and lower conflict – To create a dynamic and cohesive team culture
  50. 50. Project HR Management• Develop Project Team
  51. 51. Project HR Management• Develop Project Team – I – Project staff assignments – PMP – Resource calendars
  52. 52. Project HR Management• Develop Project Team – TT – Interpersonal skills (soft skills, people skills like: empathy, influence, creativity) – Training – Team-building activities • Forming (the first meet and greet) • Storming (the work initiation but not so collaborative yet) • Norming (work habit adjusted, working together) • Performing (team functions very well) • Adjourning (completes work and move on)
  53. 53. Project HR Management• Develop Project Team – TT (cont’d) – Ground rules – Co-location – Recognition and rewards
  54. 54. Project HR Management• Develop Project Team – O – Team performance assessments • Skills and competencies improvement plan • Reduce staff turnover • Increase team cohesiveness – EEF U
  55. 55. Project HR Management• Manage Project Team – Tracking team’s performance – Provide feedback – Resolve issues – Optimize project performance – Emphasizes on communication, conflict management, negotiation, and leadership
  56. 56. Project HR Management• Manage Project Team – I – Project staff assignments – PMP – Team performance assessments – Performance reports – OPA
  57. 57. Project HR Management• Manage Project Team – TT – Observation and conversation – Project performance appraisals – Conflict management • Withdrawing /avoiding • Smoothing / accommodating • Compromising • Forcing • Collaborating • Confronting / problem solving
  58. 58. Project HR Management• Manage Project Team – TT (cont’d) – Conflict management • Withdrawing /avoiding – Retreat from potential conflict situation • Smoothing / accommodating – Emphasizing on agreement rather than differences • Compromising – Searching of solutions to bring certain level of satisfaction to all parties • Forcing • Collaborating • Confronting / problem solving
  59. 59. Project HR Management• Manage Project Team – TT (cont’d) – Conflict management (cont’d) • Forcing – Pushing one’s point of view at the expense of others (win-lose situation) • Collaborating – Gather all parties’ viewpoints, reach consensus and commitment • Confronting / problem solving – Treat conflict as problem to be solved by examining alternatives; requires a give-and-take attitude and open dialogue
  60. 60. Project HR Management• Manage Project Team – TT (cont’d) – Issue log – Interpersonal skills • Leadership • Influencing (persuasive and considerate) • Listening skills • Effective decision making
  61. 61. Project HR Management• Manage Project Team – O – EEF U – OPA U – CR – PMP U
  62. 62. Project HR Management• Motivating your team – Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • People have layers of needs • Fill the lower layer first before filling the upper layer
  63. 63. Project HR Management• Motivating your team (cont’d) – Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Hygiene factor – They do not bring satisfaction but prevent dissatisfaction – E.g.: level of supervision or ownership, relationship with superiors, compensation, etc • Motivating factor – Bring in / increase job satisfaction – E.g.: challenging work assignment, opportunity / career advancement, recognition, etc
  64. 64. Project HR Management• Motivating your team (cont’d) – McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory • Achievement – The need to perform well, achieve success, and get recognized • Affiliation – Good relationship at work, feel connected at work • Power – Power to influence people or events
  65. 65. Project HR Management• Motivating your team (cont’d) – McGregor’s X-Y Theory • Theory X – Believes most people are self-centered – Believes people are motivated by their physiological and safety needs, indifferent to organization they work for, lack ambition, have little creativity, and low problem solving capacity – Appears dislike their work and will try to avoid it; also avoid responsibility and initiative – Distrusts their employees  authoritarian
  66. 66. Project HR Management• Motivating your team (cont’d) – McGregor’s X-Y Theory • Theory Y – Trusts their employees – Believes people are discipline, high performers, committed to meet organization’s needs they work for, like to take responsibility and high initiative – Tends to provide more freedom and opportunity for career growth
  67. 67. Project HR Management• Motivating your team (cont’d) – Expectancy Theory • “What’s in it for me?” • Desires objective that matched with effort and rewards
  68. 68. Sample Questions1. What is the name of a quality planning technique that involves comparing the results of similar activities?A. BrainstormingB. BenchmarkingC. Cost/benefit analysisD. Quality metrics
  69. 69. Sample Questions2. The plan-do-check-act cycle of quality management was:A. Defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming.B. Originally defined by Deming and then modified by Shewhart.C. Defined by Crosby and modified by Deming.D. Defined by Crosby and modified by Juan.
  70. 70. Sample Questions3. One of the fundamental tenets of modern quality management is:A. Inspect the quality and then build it in.B. There is no need to design and build in the quality until you do the inspection, if it’s needed.C. Break all rules: Deliver the product in a timely fashion and then work on the quality.D. Plan, design, and build in quality as opposed to inspecting it in.
  71. 71. Sample Questions4. Which of the following is not the input to the QA process?A. Quality metricsB. Quality control measurementsC. Work performance informationD. Recommended corrective actions
  72. 72. Sample Questions5. You are the project manager for the ABC project. You are going to meet with your project team to discuss how to ensure that the project will be completed without any deviations from the project requirements. Which of the following processes are you performing?A. Quality controlB. Quality planningC. Quality assuranceD. Conduct procurements
  73. 73. Sample Questions6. You are directing and managing the project execution. You see that there are some change requests that some stakeholders are pushing for implementation. However, these change requests have no record of being approved. These change requests:A. Should be sent through the approval process and only implemented if approvedB. Should be sent to the QA departmentC. Must be opposed if they are going to change the scope, schedule, or cost of the projectD. Should be accepted if they come from an influential stakeholder
  74. 74. Sample Questions7. You are the project manager of the Green Driving project. Your supervisor has asked you to make some self checks and inspections before the stakeholders ask for a formal inspection. It is time to perform which process?A. Plan QualityB. Perform Quality ControlC. Inspect QualityD. Perform Quality Assurance
  75. 75. Sample Questions8. Quality audits are part of which of the following quality management processes?A. Quality assuranceB. Quality controlC. Quality planningD. Quality inspection
  76. 76. Sample Questions9. Which of the following is generally the best conflict- resolution technique in most situations?A. AvoidanceB. CompromiseC. AccommodationD. Collaboration
  77. 77. Sample Questions10. Karl, one of your team members, is arguing with you over how to perform a specific task. At the end of a long discussion, you say, “Karl, please do me a favor and do it this way for my peace of mind.”Which conflict resolution technique are you using?A. AvoidanceB. CompromiseC. AccommodationD. Forcing
  78. 78. Sample Questions11. Which of the following is not a situation well suited for team development efforts?A. The kickoff meetingB. A conflict between two groups within the teamC. Low team moraleD. Changes in the budget
  79. 79. Sample Questions12. You are in the beginning of executing your project, and you need to make assignments to individuals who will do the project work. Which process should you perform?A. Develop Human Resource PlanB. Develop Project TeamC. Acquire Project TeamD. Make Staff Assignments
  80. 80. Sample Questions13. Virtual teams are a tool and technique used in which of the following processes?A. Develop Human Resource PlanB. Develop Project TeamC. Acquire Project TeamD. Manage Project Team
  81. 81. Sample Questions14. You heard in the hallway that the project manager of The Da Vinci Code project, named Pappu Gloria, has very poor soft skills. If this is true, Pappu Gloria needs to improve his:A. Software skillsB. Interpersonal skillsC. Ways of handling equipmentD. Capability to use scheduling software
  82. 82. Sample Questions15. Which of the following is usually not the tool or technique you need to acquire a project team?A. DELPHI techniqueB. NegotiationsC. Virtual teamsD. Acquisition
  83. 83. Sample Questions16. Shilpa Bedi, the engineering manager, receives daily progress reports from all the engineers she manages. She also visits the cubicles of the engineers several times a day to ensure that they are working and not just browsing the web. Most of the engineers agree that she is a micromanager. What kind of management theory is she applying?A. Theory AlphaB. Theory XC. Theory YD. McClelland’s achievement motivation theory
  84. 84. Sample Questions17. Gary Travis, the engineering manager, receives weekly progress reports from all engineers he manages. He encourages them to take ownership of their assignments. Most of the engineers agree that he trusts his engineers. What kind of management theory is he applying?A. Theory AlphaB. Theory XC. Theory YD. McClelland’s achievement motivation theory
  85. 85. Sample Questions18. Lois Travis, the project manager, receives weekly progress reports from all engineers she manages. She rewards the achievements of her employees and always gives the credit to her employees for their accomplishments. She is always interested in mentoring her team members and putting them on a career path. She also helps the good performers get the assignments and projects of their choice. What kind of management theory is she applying?A. Theory AlphaB. Theory XC. Theory YD. McClelland’s achievement motivation theory

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