Wey-Han Tan Thesis Presentation

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This is the presentation of my MA thesis "Playing (with) Educational Games: First and Second Order Gaming", held on Nov 11th 2009.
The complete thesis will be downloadable at http://blogs.epb.uni-hamburg.de/metagames/

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Wey-Han Tan Thesis Presentation

  1. 1. Thesis Presentation Playing (with) Educational Games First and Second Order Gaming Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  2. 2. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Starting points Guiding questions • Promises of game based learning: What are the traits of game and play? • Educational game design: How to achieve an integrated experience? • Game contents and games as medium: How to challenge criticism and change? Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  3. 3. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Pathways What this thesis is about • 1. Games and play Virtuality, expressive choice, repeatability • 2. First order gaming Integrated educational game design • 3. Second order gaming Metagaming, transmediality, unusability Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  4. 4. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming 1. Games and play Important game traits • Virtuality • Expressive choice • Repeatability Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  5. 5. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Virtuality A game breaks, makes and takes ‚reality‘. «Playing is a complex sequence of anarchistic toying, innovative game creation and rule- complying gaming, of turning aspects of reality into virtuality.» [p.8] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  6. 6. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Virtuality A game breaks, makes and takes ‚reality‘. «Playing is a complex sequence of anarchistic toying, innovative game creation and rule- complying gaming, of turning aspects of reality into virtuality.» [p.8] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  7. 7. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Virtuality A game breaks, makes and takes ‚reality‘. «Playing is a complex sequence of anarchistic toying, innovative game creation and rule- complying gaming, of turning aspects of reality into virtuality.» [p.8] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  8. 8. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Virtuality A game breaks, makes and takes ‚reality‘. «Playing is a complex sequence of anarchistic toying, innovative game creation and rule- complying gaming, of turning aspects of reality into virtuality.» [p.8] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  9. 9. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Expressive choice A game is a sequence of decisions. «Playing is about choices and the communication of these choices: What I choose to do within a game – and that I choose to be in a game in the first place.» [p.8] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  10. 10. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Expressive choice A game is a sequence of decisions. «Playing is about choices and the communication of these choices: What I choose to do within a game – and that I choose to be in a game in the first place.» [p.8] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  11. 11. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Expressive choice A game is a sequence of decisions. «Playing is about choices and the communication of these choices: What I choose to do within a game – and that I choose to be in a game in the first place.» [p.8] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  12. 12. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Expressive choice A game is a sequence of decisions. «Playing is about choices and the communication of these choices: What I choose to do within a game – and that I choose to be in a game in the first place.» [p.8] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  13. 13. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Repeatability A game is played often - but is always different. « (...) playing is not about finding the one true path, but about mapping the terrain.» [p.16] „The Sims“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  14. 14. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Repeatability A game is played often - but is always different. « (...) playing is not about finding the one true path, but about mapping the terrain.» [p.16] „The Sims“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  15. 15. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Repeatability A game is played often - but is always different. « (...) playing is not about finding the one true path, but about mapping the terrain.» [p.16] „The Sims“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  16. 16. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming 2. First order gaming Integrated educational game design • Moderat constructivist approaches • Narrative design • Rule design • Problem: bias of design Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  17. 17. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Theories Moderate constructivist approaches • Situated cognition (Brown et al.) Culturally embedded knowledge acquisition • Anchored instruction (Bransford et al.) Narrative delivery of problem and method • Cognitive flexibility (Spiro et al.) Different perspectives and configurations, on a complex domain by the same learner Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  18. 18. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Games as micromedium «While classic media deliver structured information, games provide a structure for the experimental formation of structured information.» [p.13] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  19. 19. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Narrative design Providing context and meaning «(...) narratives help understand and play (...) games, and render moves and strategies expectable, understandable, and meaningful, while at the same time stabilising the culture the game is played in.» [p.20] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  20. 20. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Narrative design Providing context and meaning What... Destroy TradeHunting War Teams Progress Competition Growth 1. Visual and behaviour association Gathering 2. Micronarrative Protect 3. The Vantage Point 4. The Path 5. The Tree How... 6. The Garden 7. The Field 8. The Market 9. The World Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  21. 21. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Rule design ‚Objective‘ boundaries and consequences «If the closed, simplified game environment has to resonate the actual field of application, then the required mechanics to perceive, judge and act should do, too.» [p.22] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  22. 22. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Rule design ‚Objective‘ boundaries and consequences Mode of cooperation What is the role of co-players, opponents, allies, or friends? cooperation | comptition Mode of jurisdiction What moves are allowed, and what are the consequences? algorithmic | interpretative Role of information Is possession of knowledge or its generation important? Examples... depletion | replenishment Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  23. 23. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Rule design ‚Objective‘ boundaries and consequences Mode of cooperation What is the role of co-players, opponents, allies, or friends? cooperation | comptition Mode of jurisdiction What moves are allowed, and what are the consequences? algorithmic | interpretative Role of information Is possession of knowledge or its generation important? Examples... depletion | replenishment Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  24. 24. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Rule design ‚Objective‘ boundaries and consequences Mode of cooperation What is the role of co-players, opponents, allies, or friends? cooperation | comptition Mode of jurisdiction What moves are allowed, and what are the consequences? algorithmic | interpretative Role of information Is possession of knowledge or its generation important? Examples... depletion | replenishment Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  25. 25. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Problem: bias of design Moderate constructivist approaches «(...) there is the problem of a cultural bias ingrained in the choice of fitting rules and narratives (...) that tend to produce questions already answered. What is seen as an asset for effective first order game design is a liability for criticism and reflection in face of a given, invisible framing.» [p.32] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  26. 26. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming 3. Second order gaming • Radical constructivist approaches • Metagaming • Transmediality • Unusability Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  27. 27. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Theories Radical constructivist approaches • (Un)decidable questions (von Foerster) Creating and/or discovering knowledge • Medium as formative space (Luhmann) The (usually) invisible, pre-selected and given environment of thought, creation and communication • Contexts, choice & conflicts (Bateson) Questioning expectations and breaking habits Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  28. 28. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Games as accessible medium «(...) how to challenge and support a reflective and creative ‘stepping out’ from within (...) to raise awareness for the medium “game”, as well as for its specific limitations, manipulative dangers and stereotypes (?)» [p.32] Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  29. 29. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Metagaming Pop up the hood. • Cheats and walkthroughs • Exploits and emergent gameplay • Skinning • Extensions and conversions • Integrated (re)creations Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  30. 30. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Metagaming Pop up the hood. «With metagaming a game’s frame of reference is temporarily or indefinitely transcended, modified and embraced anew.» [p.45] Exploit Skinning Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  31. 31. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Metagaming Pop up the hood. «With metagaming a game’s frame of reference is temporarily or indefinitely transcended, modified and embraced anew.» [p.45] Exploit Skinning Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  32. 32. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Metagaming Pop up the hood. «With metagaming a game’s frame of reference is temporarily or indefinitely transcended, modified and embraced anew.» [p.45] Exploit Skinning Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  33. 33. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Transmediality When it‘s worth to be retold. «(...) a game created as potential educational toy should facilitate transmedial play as well as digital networked game genres would do: Both are accepted as in principle polymorph, constantly changing in their forms and inspiring respectively spawning new ones.» [p.45] Machinima „Turning real“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  34. 34. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Transmediality When it‘s worth to be retold. «(...) a game created as potential educational toy should facilitate transmedial play as well as digital networked game genres would do: Both are accepted as in principle polymorph, constantly changing in their forms and inspiring respectively spawning new ones.» [p.45] Machinima „Turning real“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  35. 35. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Transmediality When it‘s worth to be retold. «(...) a game created as potential educational toy should facilitate transmedial play as well as digital networked game genres would do: Both are accepted as in principle polymorph, constantly changing in their forms and inspiring respectively spawning new ones.» [p.45] Machinima „Turning real“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  36. 36. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Unusability You don‘t want to play it again. «(...) game design decisions which deliberately and unbeknownst by the user turn a game unworkable, aporic, disbalanced and disturbing, where it should be intuitive to use, guiding, fair and entertaining.» [p.45] „September 12th“ „Starpower“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  37. 37. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Unusability You don‘t want to play it again. «(...) game design decisions which deliberately and unbeknownst by the user turn a game unworkable, aporic, disbalanced and disturbing, where it should be intuitive to use, guiding, fair and entertaining.» [p.45] „September 12th“ „Starpower“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  38. 38. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Unusability You don‘t want to play it again. «(...) game design decisions which deliberately and unbeknownst by the user turn a game unworkable, aporic, disbalanced and disturbing, where it should be intuitive to use, guiding, fair and entertaining.» [p.45] „September 12th“ „Starpower“ Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  39. 39. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Conclusion Media specific design | second order gaming support • Playing is both a compliant and anarchic form of perception and action • First order gaming: Integrated game design for a consistent experience of content and game • Second order gaming: Challenging games and content to be seen and treated as created, modifiable toys Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009
  40. 40. Games and play | First order gaming | Second order gaming Leaving the frame of presentation. Wey-Han Tan • MA Thesis Presentation | ePedagogy Design | Visual Knowledge Building • UIAH | UHH • Nov 11th 2009

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