Highly Confidential W T E I G E Turning Sewage into Power or DieselApril, 2010
Key Points Produces significant amounts of transportation fuel from almost worthless inputs: Sewage sludge Municipal solid waste (MSW) Low grade coal (lignite) Biomass WET-EIG provides best technology & develops the project Lower capital, operating, maintenance costs than competitors Modular from 12 to 600 tonnes/day feedstock Super low emissions, operates too cool to for CO or NOx Best in class @ 65%+ conversion efficiency 2
Disclaimer 3 This presentation (the “Presentation”) is being solely issued to those persons having professional experience in matters relating to investments and who are investment professionals as specified in Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (“Financial Promotion”) Order 2001 (the “Financial Promotions Order”). THIS PRESENTATION AND THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS CONFIDENTIAL AND MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED, CIRCULATED, DISTRIBUTED OR PUBLISHED (IN WHOLE OR IN PART) OR DISCLOSED BY RECIPIENTS TO ANY OTHER PARTY. The Presentation does not constitute or form any part of any offer or invitation to sell or issue or purchase or subscribe for any shares in Energy Invest Group (“WET-EIG” or the “Company”) nor shall the Presentation or any part of it, or the fact of its distribution, form the basis of, or be relied on in connection with, any contract with the Company relating to any securities. Any decision regarding any proposed subscription for shares in the Company must be made solely on the basis of document to be produced in due course. The Presentation is not intended to be distributed or passed on, directly or indirectly, or to any other class of persons. This document is being supplied to you solely for your information and may not be reproduced, forwarded to any other person or published, in whole or in part, for any other purpose. No reliance may be placed for any purpose whatsoever on the information contained in this document or on its completeness. Any reliance on this document could potentially expose you to a significant risk of losing all of the property invested by you or incurring by you of additional liability. No representation or warranty, express or implied, is given by the Company, its Directors or employees, or their professional advisors as to the accuracy, fairness, sufficiency or completeness of the information, opinions or beliefs contained in this document. No liability is accepted for any loss, cost or damage suffered or incurred as a result of the reliance on such information, opinions or beliefs. This document is exempt from the general restriction on the communication of invitation or inducements to enter into investment activity and has therefore not been approved by an authorised person as would otherwise be required by section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. Any investment to which this document relates is available to (and any investment activity to which it relates will be engaged with) only to those persons described above. Persons who do not fall within this category of investors should not take any action upon this document, but should return it immediately to WET-EIG, 18b Charles Street, Mayfair, London W1J 5DU. It is a condition of your receiving this document that you fall within, and you warrant to the Company that you fall within, the category of person described above. If you are in any doubt about the investment to which this Presentation relate, you should consult a person authorised by the Financial Services Authority who specialises in advising on securities of the kind described in this document.
Process Overview Ultra-Clean Gasifier Small Scale FT Process WET-EIG’s Technology 4
Human Sludge Processing Dewater Originally sewage is ~80% water, so de-water to ~40% Waste heat will reduce this to ~30% before entering gassifier Gasify & Clean Scrub away sulphur (H2S), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) Produce clean synthesis gas (CO and H2) Burn to generate electricity or condense into diesel Generates ~1.2 MWhr/tonne of dewatered sludge, or Produces ~230 litres/tonne of dewatered sludge 5
Technology Background Since 1990 the Company has installed over 1000 low NOx burners It has set the California’s emissions standards 4 times, currently < 9ppm NOx, < 50ppm CO First experience in gasification in Daoling, China in 1993 Makes 24,000 gals/day of fuel from tyres Pyrolizetyers at 400-450°C to make black oil suitable as coal substitute for power production, but not good for autos, more like light bunker fuel with ~0.4% sulfur Built a similar 12,000 g/d tyre plan in Nankang, Taiwan in 2000 Produces a cleaner fueld Italy glass recycling plant Since 4yrs, 100 kg/hr, remove plastic & metals from auto glass Heat used for power generation to run the plant, though still in pilot Larger plant being designed at 500 kg/hr 220 kg/hr plant in Oregon generates 265kW net power Human sludge plant in Los Angeles (Carson), demo plant @ 50 kg/hr Has led to orders for 4 plants at 1-10 ton/hour for Brazil, China, Malaysia, India 6
Pyrolysis Step Processes carbonaceous material, such as coal, wood chips or sewage sludge into carbon monoxide and hydrogen (CO + H2) Partial vacuum – reduces oxygen content in the chamber Reducing oxygen content reduces CO2 + SOX formation Patented burner system leads to lowest NOX emissions in the world Rotating feed column circulates coal in reactor over a period of time (30mins -55mins) Inert ash is collected at the base of the reactor Ideal feedstock Water content ~25% Increases hydrogen production Low ash / high calorific condition Low Sulphur Reduce cost of clean up stage 7 C + H2O -> H2 + CO
Low Temp Gasifier Technology Gasifies organic matter, coal or pet-coke at 750-1000 F to produce syngas (H2, CO and CO2) Syngas used to create synthetic diesel and other petroleum products Remainder used to generate electricity for plant Operates too cool to for CO or NOx 400-650°C (750-1200°F) vs 980-1650°C (1800-3000°F) 12 proven units in the field operating various feedstock Coal, pet-coke, municipal solid waste (MSW), tires, plastics Automatic augur system removes slag Less maintenance, longer catalyst life 8
Steam Reforming step The F-T process requires a ~2:1 hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio Most coal types do not produce enough hydrogen Additional hydrogen is created in the reforming step Pyrolysis step also produces a large amount of methane, perfect for reforming with steam CH4 + H2O 3H2 + CO CH4 + 2H2O 4H2 + CO2 Depending on operating conditions either reaction 1 or 2 will be favoured. Reaction 2 generates more hydrogen but as a consequence generates more CO2 % gas composition after pyrolysis 9
Fischer-Tropsch Process As previously stated the H2 and CO must be fed into the reactor as 2:1 ratio to maximise conversion efficiency All sulphur and other contaminants must be removed to prevent poisoning the catalyst The process uses a floating bed reactor with a high boiling point fluid to transport the F-T catalyst Encourages mixing and reduce chance of carbon deposits on catalyst There are 2 types of catalyst WET-EIG Asia promotes Iron Oxide Cheaper but more susceptible to pressure changes. Produces lighter hydrocarbon chains Cobalt Produces a constant stream of product not depending on pressure. Also catalyst tends to produce heavier compounds, ideal for refinery specification Reaction formula: 10 (2n+1) H2 + nCO -> CnH2n+2 + nH2O
50kg/hr Test Plant 11 In addition to sewage sludge, the company has gassified over 75 types of coal, a dozen different plastics, rubber, rail road ties, municipal solid waste, medical waste and biomass (rice straw, grass, wood chips, soy bean shells, switch grass), chicken manure, cow dung, etc. Test burn of synthesis gas Burner / Gasifier Fischer Tropsch Unit Synthetic Diesel
Sewage Sludge-to-Diesel Pilot Plant 12 Human sludge plant in Los Angeles (Carson), demo plant @ 100 kg/hour Has run 24 hours/day almost continuously since January, 2009 Avoids $70/ton transport charge to San Diego Reduces volume by 92%, lose 1.8%, remaining residue (carbon/phosphorus) makes good fertilizer Give back surplus water Currently planning for 60 ton/hour plant for 3.5 million population of Long Beach and surrounding area
Sludge Plant @ ~150,000 L/day Once started the plant is Auto-Reforming. Output depends upon feedstock. For 150,000 litres/day: 370 tons of Plastic 540 tons of Coal (8,000 btu/lb Lignite) 700 tons of human sludge (@ 40% water) 750 tons of Biomass Note: plant can be configured for 75,000 L/day or 35,000 L/day Footprint: 12,000 ft2 (1,115 m2 ) 14
Sewage Plant Capacity Plant size depends upon size of legacy deposit and on-going population needs 15 Note: on a wet basis the figures above will be 5x larger
Versatile FT system No water for sewage sludge Other feed stocks require little water (1.5 litres water / litre diesel) Competing systems use up to 24 L water / L diesel High yield (~65% efficiency, best in class) Actual conversion depends energy content of the feedstock Testing with many dozen types of coal, waste, biomass and sewage sludge Sulphur content easily removed Coal illustrates that yield depends upon heat value of feedstock Sewage sludge varies by diet, but is roughly 10,000 BTU/lb or 5,600 kcal/kg 16
Plant can be configured to produce just electricity, just fuel or a combination Factors to consider Generating electricity is less expensive, but power is very difficult to store Better overall conversion efficiency, though it also depends upon turbine efficiency A range of fuels can be produced In addition to diesel, the plant can produce gasoline, jet fuel and, if there is demand for it, then certain waxes Output: Power vs Fuel 17
Sewage to Power Economics 18 Note: Capex depends turbine cost (ranges $0.7-1.3m/MW); returns also depend upon sales price of power ($/kWhr).
Sewage to Fuel Economics 19 Note: Returns depend upon sales price of fuel ($/L).
Summary WET-EIG offers best in class technology Has set strict California emissions standards four times Smaller scale and modular Major supplier Sasol/Lurgi plants start at 6,000-10,000 tons per day with capital cost of $750-$1,000 million WET-EIG’s technology ranges from 24-600 tons per day @ $6-60 million Feedstock determines yields High calorific, low moisture, low ash feedstock produce more diesel Conversion efficiencies of ~65% feedstock calories to diesel 20
For More Information Contact Fred Sayle or Nigel Harper email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org 21