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  • 1. Highly Confidential
    Turning Sewage into Power or DieselApril, 2010
  • 2. Key Points
    Produces significant amounts of transportation fuel from almost worthless inputs:
    Sewage sludge
    Municipal solid waste (MSW)
    Low grade coal (lignite)
    WET-EIG provides best technology & develops the project
    Lower capital, operating, maintenance costs than competitors
    Modular from 12 to 600 tonnes/day feedstock
    Super low emissions, operates too cool to for CO or NOx
    Best in class @ 65%+ conversion efficiency
  • 3. Disclaimer
    This presentation (the “Presentation”) is being solely issued to those persons having professional experience in matters relating to investments and who are investment professionals as specified in Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (“Financial Promotion”) Order 2001 (the “Financial Promotions Order”). THIS PRESENTATION AND THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS CONFIDENTIAL AND MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED, CIRCULATED, DISTRIBUTED OR PUBLISHED (IN WHOLE OR IN PART) OR DISCLOSED BY RECIPIENTS TO ANY OTHER PARTY.
    The Presentation does not constitute or form any part of any offer or invitation to sell or issue or purchase or subscribe for any shares in Energy Invest Group (“WET-EIG” or the “Company”) nor shall the Presentation or any part of it, or the fact of its distribution, form the basis of, or be relied on in connection with, any contract with the Company relating to any securities. Any decision regarding any proposed subscription for shares in the Company must be made solely on the basis of document to be produced in due course. The Presentation is not intended to be distributed or passed on, directly or indirectly, or to any other class of persons. This document is being supplied to you solely for your information and may not be reproduced, forwarded to any other person or published, in whole or in part, for any other purpose.
    No reliance may be placed for any purpose whatsoever on the information contained in this document or on its completeness. Any reliance on this document could potentially expose you to a significant risk of losing all of the property invested by you or incurring by you of additional liability. No representation or warranty, express or implied, is given by the Company, its Directors or employees, or their professional advisors as to the accuracy, fairness, sufficiency or completeness of the information, opinions or beliefs contained in this document. No liability is accepted for any loss, cost or damage suffered or incurred as a result of the reliance on such information, opinions or beliefs.
    This document is exempt from the general restriction on the communication of invitation or inducements to enter into investment activity and has therefore not been approved by an authorised person as would otherwise be required by section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. Any investment to which this document relates is available to (and any investment activity to which it relates will be engaged with) only to those persons described above. Persons who do not fall within this category of investors should not take any action upon this document, but should return it immediately to WET-EIG, 18b Charles Street, Mayfair, London W1J 5DU. It is a condition of your receiving this document that you fall within, and you warrant to the Company that you fall within, the category of person described above.
    If you are in any doubt about the investment to which this Presentation relate, you should consult a person authorised by the Financial Services Authority who specialises in advising on securities of the kind described in this document.
  • 4. Process Overview
    Ultra-Clean Gasifier
    Small Scale FT Process
    WET-EIG’s Technology
  • 5. Human Sludge Processing
    Originally sewage is ~80% water, so de-water to ~40%
    Waste heat will reduce this to ~30% before entering gassifier
    Gasify & Clean
    Scrub away sulphur (H2S), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2)
    Produce clean synthesis gas (CO and H2)
    Burn to generate electricity or condense into diesel
    Generates ~1.2 MWhr/tonne of dewatered sludge, or
    Produces ~230 litres/tonne of dewatered sludge
  • 6. Technology Background
    Since 1990 the Company has installed over 1000 low NOx burners
    It has set the California’s emissions standards 4 times, currently < 9ppm NOx, < 50ppm CO
    First experience in gasification in Daoling, China in 1993
    Makes 24,000 gals/day of fuel from tyres
    Pyrolizetyers at 400-450°C to make black oil suitable as coal substitute for power production, but not good for autos, more like light bunker fuel with ~0.4% sulfur
    Built a similar 12,000 g/d tyre plan in Nankang, Taiwan in 2000
    Produces a cleaner fueld
    Italy glass recycling plant
    Since 4yrs, 100 kg/hr, remove plastic & metals from auto glass
    Heat used for power generation to run the plant, though still in pilot
    Larger plant being designed at 500 kg/hr
    220 kg/hr plant in Oregon generates 265kW net power
    Human sludge plant in Los Angeles (Carson), demo plant @ 50 kg/hr
    Has led to orders for 4 plants at 1-10 ton/hour for Brazil, China, Malaysia, India
  • 7. Pyrolysis Step
    Processes carbonaceous material, such as coal, wood chips or sewage sludge into carbon monoxide and hydrogen (CO + H2)
    Partial vacuum – reduces oxygen content in the chamber
    Reducing oxygen content reduces CO2 + SOX formation
    Patented burner system leads to lowest NOX emissions in the world
    Rotating feed column circulates coal in reactor over a period of time (30mins -55mins)
    Inert ash is collected at the base of the reactor
    Ideal feedstock
    Water content ~25%
    Increases hydrogen production
    Low ash / high calorific condition
    Low Sulphur
    Reduce cost of clean up stage
    C + H2O -> H2 + CO
  • 8. Low Temp Gasifier
    Gasifies organic matter, coal or pet-coke at 750-1000 F to produce syngas (H2, CO and CO2)
    Syngas used to create synthetic diesel and other petroleum products
    Remainder used to generate electricity for plant
    Operates too cool to for CO or NOx
    400-650°C (750-1200°F) vs 980-1650°C (1800-3000°F)
    12 proven units in the field operating various feedstock
    Coal, pet-coke, municipal solid waste (MSW), tires, plastics
    Automatic augur system removes slag
    Less maintenance, longer catalyst life
  • 9. Steam Reforming step
    The F-T process requires a ~2:1 hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio
    Most coal types do not produce enough hydrogen
    Additional hydrogen is created in the reforming step
    Pyrolysis step also produces a large amount of methane, perfect for reforming with steam
    CH4 + H2O  3H2 + CO
    CH4 + 2H2O  4H2 + CO2
    Depending on operating conditions either reaction 1 or 2 will be favoured. Reaction 2 generates more hydrogen but as a consequence generates more CO2
    % gas composition after pyrolysis
  • 10. Fischer-Tropsch Process
    As previously stated the H2 and CO must be fed into the reactor as 2:1 ratio to maximise conversion efficiency
    All sulphur and other contaminants must be removed to prevent poisoning the catalyst
    The process uses a floating bed reactor with a high boiling point fluid to transport the F-T catalyst
    Encourages mixing and reduce chance of carbon deposits on catalyst
    There are 2 types of catalyst WET-EIG Asia promotes
    Iron Oxide
    Cheaper but more susceptible to pressure changes. Produces lighter hydrocarbon chains
    Produces a constant stream of product not depending on pressure. Also catalyst tends to produce heavier compounds, ideal for refinery specification
    Reaction formula:
    (2n+1) H2 + nCO -> CnH2n+2 + nH2O
  • 11. 50kg/hr Test Plant
    In addition to sewage sludge, the company has gassified over 75 types of coal, a dozen different plastics, rubber, rail road ties, municipal solid waste, medical waste and biomass (rice straw, grass, wood chips, soy bean shells, switch grass), chicken manure, cow dung, etc.
    Test burn of synthesis gas
    Burner / Gasifier
    Fischer Tropsch Unit
    Synthetic Diesel
  • 12. Sewage Sludge-to-Diesel Pilot Plant
    Human sludge plant in Los Angeles (Carson), demo plant @ 100 kg/hour
    Has run 24 hours/day almost continuously since January, 2009
    Avoids $70/ton transport charge to San Diego
    Reduces volume by 92%, lose 1.8%, remaining residue (carbon/phosphorus) makes good fertilizer
    Give back surplus water
    Currently planning for 60 ton/hour plant for 3.5 million population of Long Beach and surrounding area
  • 13. 1,500 L/day modular plant
    • 2 pyrolysis units @ ½ ton/ hr capacity
    • 14. 2 venturi scrubbers
    • 15. Remove particulates
    • 16. Cool syngas
    • 17. 1 gas compression unit
    • 18. 1 desulphurization unit
    • 19. 3 towers if sulphur content is over 1%
    • 20. 1 reforming step – hydrogen production
    • 21. Steam injection
    • 22. 2 PSA (Pressure swing adsorption) units
    • 23. Captures and separates H2 and CO
    • 24. Enables plant operator to control gas ratio in F-T process
    • 25. 1 F-T reactor for liquid fuel production
    • 26. Final liquid upgrade and distillation
  • Sludge Plant @ ~150,000 L/day
    Once started the plant is Auto-Reforming.
    Output depends upon feedstock.
    For 150,000 litres/day:
    370 tons of Plastic
    540 tons of Coal (8,000 btu/lb Lignite)
    700 tons of human sludge (@ 40% water)
    750 tons of Biomass
    Note: plant can be configured for 75,000 L/day or 35,000 L/day
    Footprint: 12,000 ft2 (1,115 m2 )
  • 27. Sewage Plant Capacity
    Plant size depends upon size of legacy deposit and on-going population needs
    Note: on a wet basis the figures above will be 5x larger
  • 28. Versatile FT system
    No water for sewage sludge
    Other feed stocks require little water (1.5 litres water / litre diesel)
    Competing systems use up to 24 L water / L diesel
    High yield (~65% efficiency, best in class)
    Actual conversion depends energy content of the feedstock
    Testing with many dozen types of coal, waste, biomass and sewage sludge
    Sulphur content easily removed
    Coal illustrates that yield depends upon heat value of feedstock
    Sewage sludge varies by diet, but is roughly 10,000 BTU/lb or 5,600 kcal/kg
  • 29. Plant can be configured to produce just electricity, just fuel or a combination
    Factors to consider
    Generating electricity is less expensive, but power is very difficult to store
    Better overall conversion efficiency, though it also depends upon turbine efficiency
    A range of fuels can be produced
    In addition to diesel, the plant can produce gasoline, jet fuel and, if there is demand for it, then certain waxes
    Output: Power vs Fuel
  • 30. Sewage to Power Economics
    Note: Capex depends turbine cost (ranges $0.7-1.3m/MW); returns also depend upon sales price of power ($/kWhr).
  • 31. Sewage to Fuel Economics
    Note: Returns depend upon sales price of fuel ($/L).
  • 32. Summary
    WET-EIG offers best in class technology
    Has set strict California emissions standards four times
    Smaller scale and modular
    Major supplier Sasol/Lurgi plants start at 6,000-10,000 tons per day with capital cost of $750-$1,000 million
    WET-EIG’s technology ranges from 24-600 tons per day @ $6-60 million
    Feedstock determines yields
    High calorific, low moisture, low ash feedstock produce more diesel
    Conversion efficiencies of ~65% feedstock calories to diesel
  • 33. For More Information
    Contact Fred Sayle or Nigel Harper