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Drugs And The Brain (2)
 

Drugs And The Brain (2)

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    Drugs And The Brain (2) Drugs And The Brain (2) Presentation Transcript

    • Drugs and the brain Frans Koopmans, MA De Hoop Foundation
    • Drugs and the brain
      • The Brain
      • The brain is highly organized into a number of different regions with specialized functions
        • Hindbrain (maintenance of life: breathing control, wakefulness)
        • Midbrain (motivation, learning, reinforcing pleasurable behaviour)
        • Forebrain (abstract thought, planning, associations of thoughts and memories)
    • Drugs and the brain
    • Drugs and the brain The Brain
    • Drugs and the brain The Brain – major regions
    • Drugs and the brain The Brain – areas of the cerebral cortex
    • Drugs and the brain The Brain – the reward system
    • Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
    • Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
    • Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Neurotransmitters
      • Communication in the brain through chemical messengers (neurotransmitters)
      • Neurotransmitters have specific structures and functions.
        • Which chemical is released depends upon the type of neuron.
        • Each specific neurotransmitter binds to a specific receptor (lock/key)
    • Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
    • Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Psychoactive substances
      • Psychoactive substances mimic the effects of neurotransmitters or interfere or even block normal function
        • PA substances that bind and enhance the function of receptors: agonists
        • PA substances that block normal functioning: antagonists
    • Drugs and the brain Drugs change the way Neurons communicate
    • Drugs and the brain Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, april 2007)
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Dependence
      • Dependence is the result of a complex interaction of the physiological effects of substances on brain areas associated with motivation and emotion, combined with ‘learning’ about the relationship between substances and substance-related cues.
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Mesolimbic dopamine pathway
      • Many psychoactive substances activate the mesolimbic dopamine pathway (located in the midbrain)
      • Most strongly implicated in the dependence-producing potential of psychoactive substances
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Mesolimbic dopamine pathway (MDP)
      • MDP closely involved in motivational processes
        • Motivation : allotment of attentional and behavioral resources to stimuli in relation to their predicted consequences
        • Incentives : stimuli that elicit a response on the basis of their predicted consequences
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Two important areas
      • Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) – rich in neurons containing dopamine (emotions, thoughts, memories, planning, executing behavior)
      • Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) – related to motivation and learning, signalling the motivational value of stimuli
    • Drugs and the brain Source: NIDA website http://www.drugabuse.gov/pubs/teaching Mesolimbic dopamine pathway
    • Drugs and the brain Major brain regions with roles in addiction Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, april 2007)
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Brain regions and function
      • The prefrontal cortex is the focal area for cognition and planning.
      • The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) are key components of the brain’s reward system.
      • The VTA, NAc, amygdala, and hippocampus are major components of the limbic system, which coordinates drives, emotions, and memories.
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Brain Imaging Techniques
      • Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
      • Functional MRI
      • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)
      • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
      • Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
    • Drugs and the brain
      • Brain Imaging Techniques  knowledge:
      • Brain anatomy and tissue composition
      • Biochemical, physiological and functional processes
      • Neurotransmitter activity
      • Energy utilization and blood flow
      • Drug distribution and kinetics
    • Drugs and the brain Brain Imaging Techniques used in drug abuse research Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, april 2007)
    • Drugs and the brain The Brain on cocaine
    • Drugs and the brain The Brain on cocaine
    • Drugs and the brain The Brain on opiates
    • Drugs and the brain The Brain on THC
    • Drugs and the brain Drugs of abuse all activate the reward system via increasing dopamine neurotransmission