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Drugs and the brain Frans Koopmans, MA De Hoop Foundation
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>The Brain </li></ul><ul><li>The brain is highly organized into a number of different regions w...
Drugs and the brain
Drugs and the brain The Brain
Drugs and the brain The Brain – major regions
Drugs and the brain The Brain – areas of the cerebral cortex
Drugs and the brain The Brain – the reward system
Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Communication in the brain through chemical messengers (ne...
Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Psychoactive substances </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoactive substances mimic the effects of neurotr...
Drugs and the brain Drugs change the way Neurons communicate
Drugs and the brain Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, april 2007)
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence is the result of a complex interaction of the physiolo...
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Mesolimbic dopamine pathway </li></ul><ul><li>Many psychoactive substances activate the mesoli...
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Mesolimbic dopamine pathway (MDP) </li></ul><ul><li>MDP closely involved in motivational proce...
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Two important areas </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral Tegmental Area  (VTA) – rich in neurons containi...
Drugs and the brain Source: NIDA website http://www.drugabuse.gov/pubs/teaching   Mesolimbic dopamine pathway
Drugs and the brain Major brain regions with roles in addiction Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, april 2007)
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Brain regions and function </li></ul><ul><li>The prefrontal cortex is the focal area for cogni...
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Brain Imaging Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) </li></...
Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Brain Imaging Techniques    knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>Brain anatomy and tissue composition...
Drugs and the brain Brain Imaging Techniques used in drug abuse research Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, apr...
Drugs and the brain The Brain on cocaine
Drugs and the brain The Brain on cocaine
Drugs and the brain The Brain on opiates
Drugs and the brain The Brain on THC
Drugs and the brain Drugs of abuse all activate the reward system via increasing dopamine neurotransmission
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Drugs And The Brain (2)

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Transcript of "Drugs And The Brain (2)"

  1. 1. Drugs and the brain Frans Koopmans, MA De Hoop Foundation
  2. 2. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>The Brain </li></ul><ul><li>The brain is highly organized into a number of different regions with specialized functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindbrain (maintenance of life: breathing control, wakefulness) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain (motivation, learning, reinforcing pleasurable behaviour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forebrain (abstract thought, planning, associations of thoughts and memories) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Drugs and the brain
  4. 4. Drugs and the brain The Brain
  5. 5. Drugs and the brain The Brain – major regions
  6. 6. Drugs and the brain The Brain – areas of the cerebral cortex
  7. 7. Drugs and the brain The Brain – the reward system
  8. 8. Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
  9. 9. Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
  10. 10. Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
  11. 11. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Communication in the brain through chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters have specific structures and functions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which chemical is released depends upon the type of neuron. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each specific neurotransmitter binds to a specific receptor (lock/key) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
  13. 13. Drugs and the brain Neurons, Brain Chemistry and Neurotransmission
  14. 14. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Psychoactive substances </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoactive substances mimic the effects of neurotransmitters or interfere or even block normal function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PA substances that bind and enhance the function of receptors: agonists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PA substances that block normal functioning: antagonists </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Drugs and the brain Drugs change the way Neurons communicate
  16. 16. Drugs and the brain Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, april 2007)
  17. 17. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence is the result of a complex interaction of the physiological effects of substances on brain areas associated with motivation and emotion, combined with ‘learning’ about the relationship between substances and substance-related cues. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Mesolimbic dopamine pathway </li></ul><ul><li>Many psychoactive substances activate the mesolimbic dopamine pathway (located in the midbrain) </li></ul><ul><li>Most strongly implicated in the dependence-producing potential of psychoactive substances </li></ul>
  19. 19. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Mesolimbic dopamine pathway (MDP) </li></ul><ul><li>MDP closely involved in motivational processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation : allotment of attentional and behavioral resources to stimuli in relation to their predicted consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives : stimuli that elicit a response on the basis of their predicted consequences </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Two important areas </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) – rich in neurons containing dopamine (emotions, thoughts, memories, planning, executing behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) – related to motivation and learning, signalling the motivational value of stimuli </li></ul>
  21. 21. Drugs and the brain Source: NIDA website http://www.drugabuse.gov/pubs/teaching Mesolimbic dopamine pathway
  22. 22. Drugs and the brain Major brain regions with roles in addiction Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, april 2007)
  23. 23. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Brain regions and function </li></ul><ul><li>The prefrontal cortex is the focal area for cognition and planning. </li></ul><ul><li>The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) are key components of the brain’s reward system. </li></ul><ul><li>The VTA, NAc, amygdala, and hippocampus are major components of the limbic system, which coordinates drives, emotions, and memories. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Brain Imaging Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) </li></ul><ul><li>Functional MRI </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography (PET) </li></ul><ul><li>Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Drugs and the brain <ul><li>Brain Imaging Techniques  knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>Brain anatomy and tissue composition </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical, physiological and functional processes </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter activity </li></ul><ul><li>Energy utilization and blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Drug distribution and kinetics </li></ul>
  26. 26. Drugs and the brain Brain Imaging Techniques used in drug abuse research Source: Science & Practice Perpectives (NIDA, april 2007)
  27. 27. Drugs and the brain The Brain on cocaine
  28. 28. Drugs and the brain The Brain on cocaine
  29. 29. Drugs and the brain The Brain on opiates
  30. 30. Drugs and the brain The Brain on THC
  31. 31. Drugs and the brain Drugs of abuse all activate the reward system via increasing dopamine neurotransmission
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