STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR BOARDS Bill Taylor Community Development Area EducatorUniversity of Wyoming Extension
WHAT IS IT?A deliberative, disciplined approach to producingfundamental decisions and actions that shape andguide what an organization is, what it does, andwhy.(John M. Bryson in Strategic Planning for Public and NonprofitOrganizations, 2011)• To help leaders & managers successfully address major issues or challenges
HOW IS IT USED?• Gather, analyze, and synthesize information to frame choices• Determine desirable and feasible missions, goals, strategies, actions• Effectively address organizational issues & challenges• Enhance continuous organizational learning• Create public value
WHEN?• Upon formation – Can only forecast a few years in advance • Most strategic plans are 3-8 years, averaging around 5 years• When the present plan is close to expiration – Every 5 years?• Whenever a major change, internal or external, affects the organization – Reorganization, budget change, change in mission, purpose, clientele, etc.
MULTIPLE LEVELS• Management planning should be done on three levels – Strategic goals • Broad, general goals, directions, enterprises, thrusts for the organization – Tactical objectives • Objectives, plans which support each of the major goals or enterprises at the strategic level – Operational plans • Specific day-to-day tasks, assignments, timelines needed to carry out the tactical objectives
WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS?• Not all plans are made the same – Amount of detail depends somewhat on size, complexity, management style, etc.• Possible components – Strategic Level • Values • Vision • Mission • Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Challenges/ Threats (SWOC/T) Analysis • Broad Goals
– Tactical Objectives • A tactical level would exist for each strategic goal • Specific Objectives – To accomplish the strategic goal– Operational Plans • An operational level would exist for each tactical objective • Action Steps • Task Assignments • Timelines and deadlines– Implementation Plan– Monitoring, Measurement of Success
HOW LONG?• How long should the process take? – For a large, complex organization • Weeks to months – For a small board with a closely defined mission • Several hours to several days
VALUE DETERMINATION• Articulate how the organization will conduct itself. – How do we want to treat others and how do we want to be treated? – Which are the underlying qualities we hold as important or inviolate as we go forward?• E.g. honesty, transparency, customer service, fiscal responsibility, cooperation* ValuesStatementWorksheet
VISION STATEMENTThe vision statement includes a vivid description of theorganization as it effectively carries out its operations.• Draw on the beliefs, mission, and environment of the organization.• Describe what you want to see in the future.• Be specific to each organization.• Be positive and inspiring.• Do not assume that the system will have the same framework as it does today.• Be open to dramatic modifications to current organization, methodology, teaching techniques, facilities, etc.
EXAMPLE VISIONS• Oxfam: A just world without poverty (5 words)• Ducks Unlimited is wetlands sufficient to fill the skies with waterfowl today, tomorrow and forever. (13 words)• VFW: Ensure that veterans are respected for their service, always receive their earned entitlements, and are recognized for the sacrifices they and their loved ones have made on behalf of this great country. (32 words)*Vision StatementWorksheet
MISSION STATEMENT• Describes the overall purpose of the organization• How will this organization achieve the vision?• Separates the mission of this organization from other organizations• Management and employees can infer some order of priorities in how products and services are delivered• The statement against which all actions and programs of the organization should be referenced
EXAMPLE MISSIONS• "The mission of Catholic Charities is to provide service to people in need, to advocate for justice in social structures, and to call the entire church and other people of good will to do the same."• "The mission of the Science Museum of Long Island is to: – Stimulate and nurture childrens natural interest in science and help them to discover the power of science through the fun of science. – Provide science education through hands-on learning. – Elevate the level of science literacy"*MissionStatementWorksheet
SWOC/T ANALYSIS• Internal Strengths: Resources or capabilities that help an organization accomplish its mandates or mission – Examples: • Highly skilled and motivated staff • Board is well-connected to most major external stakeholders
• Internal Weaknesses: Deficiencies in resources or capabilities that hinder an organization’s ability to meet its mandates, fulfill its mission, and create public value. – Examples: • Poor internal and external communications • Unclear mission or vision • Structural misalignments • Noncompetitive pay scales • Low morale • Inadequate resources
• External Opportunities: Outside factors or situations that the organization can take advantage of to better fulfill its mission, meet its mandates, or create public value if any related challenges or threats can be mitigated. – Examples: • New funding source • New potential service partner • Chance to modify an outdated mandate • Opportunity to pay off or refinance debt
• External Challenges/Threats: Outside factors that can affect your organization in a negative way – making it harder to fulfill its mandates, or create public value. – Examples: • Loss of funding from an external source • New unfunded mandates • Poor organizational image or reputation • Poor union relations • Lack of public support for key programs*SWOC/T Worksheets
ANALYZE SWOC/T RESULTS• Use table, chart, board, etc. divided into 4 sections for each list: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Challenges/Threats• Determine interaction of factors and how to use strengths and opportunities, mitigate weaknesses and challenges• Determine Critical Success Factors
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS• The things the organization must do, or criteria it must meet, in order for it to be successful – With the external environment – With key stakeholders• List those competencies, capabilities, actions necessary to accomplish these factors *Critical Success Factor Worksheet
STRATEGIC GOALS • Long term outcomes • The broad strokes for the organization • Stated in general terms and answer: – “What is it we wish to accomplish over the next three to five years?” • Need to be SMART – Specific – Measurable – Attainable – Related – Time-based*SMART Goals Handout
GOAL COSTS • Each goal and objective should have a cost and timeline attached – “We will use the latest and most secure inventory program for customer satisfaction and convenience.” • Has little meaning until we know how much it will cost to achieve and when we intend to have it done • After each goal and objective has a cost and timeline, prioritize by importance, logical succession, and resources available (Each goal will have multiple tactical objectives)*Strategic Goals Worksheet*Strategic Goal List Worksheet
TACTICAL OBJECTIVES• Tactical objectives should exist for each strategic goal – Goal specific programs, efforts, projects which accomplish the goal – Use the same SMART questions to test your objectives – Establish a separate objective for each distinct effort toward goal accomplishment(Each tactical objective will have multipleoperational plans) *Tactical Objectives Worksheet
OPERATIONAL PLANS • Specific day-to-day plans to accomplish a tactical objective • Where the rubber actually meets the road • Tasks identified • Personnel assigned • Resources needed • Costs incurred • Task dates and timelines • Contingency plans*Operational Plans Worksheet
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN• A strategic plan is a waste of effort unless implemented• Write a plan describing how the Strategic Plan will be implemented – Steps, dates (for individual goals, for full implementation), responsibilities, resources needed, hurdles or challenges to meet, etc.
MONITORING PLAN• Develop a system to monitor the progress of the Strategic Plan• Look at the “Measurable” section of each Strategic Goal and Tactical Objective worksheet – Determine what needs to be measured to show success – Establish a monitoring schedule and method to check the progress of each Goal and Objective – Establish a reporting schedule or system to keep the organization informed of the progress in achieved those Goals and Objectives in the Plan
STRATEGIC PLAN• Pull all of these components together into one document to share with board members, stakeholders, clientele, sponsors and supporters, etc.• Use it as a constant monitor of activities and priorities• Periodically gauge the organization’s progress against the measurables (monitoring)• Hold the organization accountable to the Strategic Plan
REFERENCES• Bryson, John M. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement. John Wiley & Sons, 2011.• Bryson, John M.; Alston, Farnum K. Creating Your Strategic Plan: A Workbook for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, 2011.• Taylor, William R.; Hewlett, John; Weigel, Randy Enterprising Rural Families: Making it Work – Strategic Planning and Goal Setting. University of Wyoming Extension, 2007.