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Plant Science
 

Plant Science

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  • SOILS REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • Plant Types Seedling Monocot – single seed leaf
  • Grasses, small grains (corn, wheat, oats, barley, etc.)
  • Dicot – two seed leaves
  • Different requirements and care Monocots – high N use Dicots – lower N use Herbicides developed to affect one and not the other Spray grass out of garden Spray weeds out of lawn
  • Biennials Vegetative growth 1 st year, seed development 2 nd year Perennials May establish new plants from roots, stems, seeds, etc.
  • Stolon Adventitious roots
  • Rhizome Adventitious roots
  • Tuber Short, underground. Fleshy Bulb Short, flattened, many leaves. underground Corm Short, solid, vertical, enlarged, underground
  • Tap Growing mostly downward.
  • Stamen – male Pistil – female
  • Moves with water, excess watering washes out of root zone & contaminates water table.

Plant Science Plant Science Presentation Transcript

  • PLANT SCIENCE BILL TAYLOR Extension Educator University of Wyoming
  • SEEDLING TYPE
    • MONOCOT
  •  
  • SEEDLING TYPE (cont.)
    • MONOCOT
      • High N use
      • Narrow leaves
      • Grass, grain, corn
  •  
  • SEEDLING TYPE (cont.)
    • DICOT
  •  
  • SEEDLING TYPE (cont.)
    • DICOT
      • Broad leaves
      • Beans, beets, squash, potatoes
  •  
  • NITROGEN FIXATION
    • LEGUMES
      • Bacteria nodules on roots
      • Fix N from air
      • Beans, Peas
    • NON-LEGUMES
      • No fixation
  • LIFE SPAN
    • ANNUAL
      • 1 year
      • Regrows from seed each year
      • Corn, beans
    • Biennial
      • 2 years
      • Seed 2nd year
      • Carrots
    • Perennial
      • 3 or more years
      • Lawn grass, rhubarb, asparagus, Canada thistle
  • STEM TYPE
    • WOODY
      • Perennials
      • Raspberry, Apple tree
    • HERBACEOUS
      • Soft
      • All life spans
        • Annuals:Bean, Squash, Corn
        • Perennials: Lawn grass, Thistle
  • STEM TYPE (cont.)
    • STOLON
      • Horizontal, above ground
      • Starts new plants
      • Strawberry
  •  
  • STEM TYPE (cont.)
    • RHIZOME
      • Horizontal, below ground
      • Starts new plants
      • Iris, quackgrass
  •  
  • STEM TYPE (cont.)
    • TUBER – potato
      • Fleshy
    • BULB – onion
      • Many leaves
    • CORM – gladiolus
      • Solid
  • ROOT TYPE
    • TAP ROOT
      • Central main root
      • Secondary branches
      • Carrot, dandelion
  •  
  • ROOT TYPE (cont.)
    • FIBROUS ROOTS
      • Many, small, spreading
      • Shallow, hair-like
      • Grass, corn
  •  
  • LEAF VEINS
    • NET
      • Dicots
      • Cottonwood, bean
    • PARALLEL
      • Monocots
      • Corn, grass
  •  
  • LEAF SHAPE
    • SIMPLE
      • Single
      • Cottonwood, squash
  •  
  •  
  • LEAF SHAPE (cont.)
    • COMPOUND
      • Several leaflets
      • Rose, clover, carrot
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • FLOWER PARTS
  • FLOWER TYPE
    • COMPLETE
      • All parts present
        • stamen, pistil, petals, sepals
      • Tomato, peach
    • INCOMPLETE
      • 1 or more parts missing
      • Corn, squash
    • PERFECT
      • Both male & female parts
      • Tomato, rose
  • FLOWER (cont.)
    • IMPERFECT
      • Missing male or female part
      • Corn, watermelon, cottonwood
      • Monoecious
        • Male & female flowers on same plant
        • Corn, watermelon
      • Dioecious
        • Male & female flowers on different plants
        • Cottonwood
  •  
  •  
  • PLANT NUTRIENTS
    • 18 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS
    • 3 NUTRIENTS FROM AIR
      • Carbon
      • Oxygen
      • Hydrogen
  • PRIMARY PLANT NUTRIENTS
    • N - Nitrogen
    • P - Phosphorus
    • K - Potassium
  • NITROGEN
    • FUNTION IN PLANTS
      • Produces vegetative growth
      • Gives dark green color
      • Feeds soil micro-organisms during decomposition of organic matter
      • Increases efficiency of moisture
  • NITROGEN (cont.)
    • HUNGER SIGNS
      • Light green color or vegetative growth
      • Slow and dwarfed growth
      • Poor root system
    • SOIL MOVEMENT
      • Nitrate form moves with water
      • Ammonium form absorbed by clay and stable
  • PHOSPHORUS
    • FUNCTION IN PLANTS
      • Stimulates early root formation
      • Gives rapid and vigorous start
      • Hastens maturity
      • Stimulates blooming
      • Gives winter hardiness
  • PHOSPHORUS (cont.)
    • HUNGER SIGNS
      • Stunted growth
      • Slow maturity
      • Low yield of fruit and seed
      • Purpling of leaves, stems, branches
    • SOIL MOVEMENT
      • Very little
  • POTASSIUM
    • FUNCTION IN PLANTS
      • Increased vigor & disease resistance
      • Strong stalks
      • Essential for formation & transfer of starches, sugars, oils
      • Imparts winter hardiness
  • POTASSIUM (cont.)
    • HUNGER SIGNS
      • Burning of outer edges or tips of lower leaves
      • Premature loss of leaves
    • SOIL MOVEMENT
      • Little movement in clay soils
      • Movement in sandy soils
  • SECONDARY PLANT NUTRIENTS
    • CALCIUM
    • MAGNESIUM
    • SULFUR
  • PLANT MICRONUTRIENTS
    • ZINC
    • IRON
    • MANGANESE
    • COPPER
    • BORON
    • MOLYBDENUM
    • CHLORINE
    • COBALT
    • NICKLE