Garden Prep/Planting

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  • PLANT SCIENCE REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • Work into loose granular structure on top. No clods, provide seed contact. However – Overworking destroys structure Working wet destroys structure. Ends up worse than before. Two schools of thought. Only work surface to receive seed, but don’t disturb structure and microbes of lower layer – works well in loose soils w/ plenty of OM. Double digging. Work deeply to break up hardpan and loosen for root penetration. I subscribe to this one in our hard, clay soils.
  • Other fertilizer concerns here to combat high pH and salts – S, Fe, Zn Percent of primary nutrients must be on front label by law Example recommendations: Nitrogen 2.4 lb/1000 sq. ft. Phosphorus -4.0 lb/1000 sq. ft. In this example would choose fertilizer with high N and lower P & K
  • If use 25-5-5 divide N %age into 100% to find out how many pounds of fertilizer for every pound of N. 100% / 25% = 4 lbs. of fertilizer to apply 1 lb. of N Multiply total N needed by amount of fertilizer per pound of N: 2.4 x 4 = 9.6 lbs. Fertilizer per 1000 sq. ft. Multiply by number of 1000s of sq. ft. Garden 20’ x 30’ = 600 sq. ft. 600/1000 = .6 1000s sq. ft. .6 x 9.6 lbs./1000 sq. ft. = 5.76 lbs. fertilizer
  • HANDOUT: “Fertilizer Sample Problem”
  • Hardiness zone based on coldest temperatures.
  • Planting depth depends on seed size. Larger seed has more food to grow further until leaves make food. Lettuce – barely scratch in Beet – ¼ to ½ inch Bean – ½ to 1 inch At planting compact soil and water Can soak corn, beans, peas to decrease germination time.
  • Adequate moisture Won’t sprout if dry. Sufficient temperature If too cold won’t sprout. Oxygen If too wet will rot.
  • Water at seeding, but do not saturate. Keep moist if crusting occurs until seedling emerge. After establishment Water less often, but longer periods to provide deep water for root growth and penetration.
  • Carrots, beets, lettuce After seedlings well established, thin to proper spacing, trying to leave strongest. Or begin using some plants when small in between larger plants.
  • Check for underground and overhead utilities or obstructions. Look for sufficient clearance to sidewalks, driveways, buildings, etc. when tree is mature. Check with local authorities for restrictions when planting along street or near intersection. No deeper than height of root ball – 1” less better.
  • Handle only by rootball, not trunk. Lower into center of site. Roll rootball rather than lifting by trunk. Do not drop and break rootball. Check for upright and straight. Add soil at base to stabilize if necessary.
  • Be careful not to damage trunk when cutting wire and twine.
  • Use knife to cut away as much of burlap as you can without rootball breaking apart. Start at top near trunk and work down and around side of rootball. Remove burlap from hole.
  • Add water as you add soil. Use blade of shovel to poke into soil and eliminate air pockets. Add soil and water until soil is level with surrounding soil and top of rootball.
  • Mulch with wood chips, synthetic, or fabric mulch.
  • TIPS Avoid clay-pot syndrome by roughening sides of planting hole with pick of shovel. Gentle but firm. Protecting foliage, lay tree on side with rootball near planting hole. Loosen root ball carefully. Check rootball for circling roots. If found gently separate them, shortening very long roots using clean cuts. Guide downward or outward. Once tree is standing in hole stand back and check position before filling. Regular watering is important during first few growing seasons.
  • Stake only if windy area. Remove after one or two years. 2-3 stakes, wide nylon bands, loose wire or rope so trunk can move. Wire and twine through holes or grommets in band, not around tree.
  • Keep roots damp. Water bucket, damp sand, wet burlap.
  • DEMONSTRATE PRUNING EQUIPMENT
  • Flush cuts and wound dressings stimulate large callus that rolls inward and prevents wound closure. Flush cuts start over 14 serious tree problems.
  • Garden Prep/Planting

    1. 1. GARDENING PREPARATION, PLANTING, CARE Owen Miller Master Gardener Weston County Extension Service
    2. 2. SEEDBED <ul><li>LOOSE GRANULAR STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FREE OF CLODS, OLD STEMS, ETC. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OVERWORKING DESTROYS STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>WORKING TOO WET DESTROYS STRUCTURE </li></ul>
    3. 3. FERTILIZATION <ul><li>POUNDS NUTRIENT/1000 FT 2 </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY CONCERN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus (P) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FERTILIZER BAG LABEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentages of N, P, & Potassium (K) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25-5-5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10-10-10 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. FERTILIZER CALCULATION <ul><li>Recommendation: N – 2.4 lb./1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Garden Size: 20’ X 30’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer Used: 25-5-5 ( N-P-K ) </li></ul><ul><li>100% / 25% = 4 lbs. fert. for a lb. of N </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 lbs. N needed X 4 lbs. fert. = 9.6 lbs. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>20’ X 30’ = 600 sq. ft. in garden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 / 1000 = 0.6 1000s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>0.6 1000s X 9.6 lbs. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. = 5.76 lbs. fert. (6 lbs.) </li></ul>
    5. 5. FERTILIZER CALCULATION (cont.) <ul><li>Same recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Same garden </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer used: 10-10-10 </li></ul><ul><li>100% / 10% = 10 lbs. fert. for a lb. of N </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 lbs. N needed X 10 lbs. fert. = 24 lbs. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>0.6 1000s X 24 lbs. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. = 14.4 lbs. fert. (14½ lbs.) </li></ul>
    6. 6. FERTILIZER SAMPLE PROBLEM <ul><li>Garden size: 25’ X 50’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer recommendation: 4.3 lb N per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer purchased: 20-8-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate how much to apply to your garden. </li></ul>
    7. 7. FERTILIZER SAMPLE PROBLEM SOLUTION <ul><li>25 ft. X 50 ft. = 1250 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>1250 sq. ft. / 1000 = 1.25 1000s of sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>100% / 20 % = 5 lbs. of fert. for 1 lb. of N </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 lb. N recommended X 5 lb. fert. for a lb. of N = 21.5 lb. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>21.5 lb. fert. for 1000 sq. ft. X 1.25 1000s of sq. ft. = 26.875 (27) lb. fert. needed for the garden </li></ul>
    8. 8. TIMING <ul><li>NEWCASTLE GROWING SEASON - 101-136 days </li></ul><ul><li>PLANT WHEN GROUND IS WARM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool seasons earlier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radishes, carrots, beans, potatoes, onions, peas, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm seasons later - warm nights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Squash, pumpkins, melons, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>LENGTHEN SEASON W/ INDOOR OR COLD FRAME PLANTING </li></ul>
    9. 10. WHAT TO PLANT <ul><li>HARDINESS ZONE 3b-4a </li></ul>
    10. 11. USDA PLANT HARDINESS ZONES UNITED STATES
    11. 12. USDA PLANT HARDINESS ZONES WYOMING
    12. 13. WHAT TO PLANT (cont.) <ul><li>DISEASE AND INSECT RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V - Verticillium wilt resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F - Fusarium wilt resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N - Nematode resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T - Tobacco mosaic virus resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PRECIPITATION 14” </li></ul><ul><li>ELEVATION 5000’ </li></ul>
    13. 14. SEED QUALITY <ul><li>USE NEW SEED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store 2-3 years in refrigerator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HIGH QUALITY SEED, WELL KNOWN SUPPLIER </li></ul>PLANTING DEPTH <ul><li>SMALL SEED - SHALLOW </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE SEED - DEEPER </li></ul>
    14. 15. GERMINATION <ul><li>REQUIRES: </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE MOISTURE </li></ul><ul><li>SUFFICIENT TEMPERATURE </li></ul><ul><li>OXYGEN </li></ul>
    15. 16. WATERING <ul><li>WATER AT SEEDING </li></ul><ul><li>LIGHTLY & OFTEN UNTIL SEEDLINGS EMERGE </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER ESTABLISHMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less often, longer periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check soil 1”-2” below surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OVERWATERING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowing, root rot, fungus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNDERWATERING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stunting, wilting, leaf burning, small or shriveled fruit </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. THINNING <ul><li>NECESSARY FOR SMALL SEEDED CROPS WHICH CANNOT BE PLANTED FAR ENOUGH APART </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER SEEDLINGS WELL ESTABLISHED, LEAVE STRONGEST </li></ul><ul><li>USE THINNED PLANTS IN SALADS, ETC. </li></ul>
    17. 18. REPLANTING, STAGGERING <ul><li>SHORT SEASON CROPS CAN BE REPLANTED SEVERAL TIMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STAGGER PLANTING TO EXTEND HARVEST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant more every 7-10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lettuce, Corn </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. WEEDING <ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for water & nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents weeds from going to seed or reproducing </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. PLANTING BALLED ROOTS <ul><li>CAREFULLY CHOOSE SITE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots beyond fall line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidewalks, driveways, sewers, buildings, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul>
    20. 29. PLANTING BALLED ROOTS (cont.) <ul><li>MAY BUILD WATER WELL </li></ul><ul><li>STAKE IF NEEDED 1 ST AND 2 ND YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>DEEP WATER EACH SUMMER MONTH </li></ul>
    21. 30. PLANTING BARE ROOTS <ul><li>KEEP ROOTS DAMP </li></ul><ul><li>SAME HOLE PROPORTIONS AS BALLED ROOT </li></ul><ul><li>SMALL MOUND OF SOIL IN CENTER </li></ul><ul><li>PLACE TREE AND SPREAD ROOTS </li></ul><ul><li>FILL & COMPLETE AS BALLED ROOT </li></ul>
    22. 31. PRUNING FRUIT TREES <ul><li>PROVIDES ROOM, LIGHT, ENERGY FOR FRUIT </li></ul><ul><li>LARGER, HEATHIER FRUIT </li></ul><ul><li>VERTICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8”-12” apart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RADIAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel spokes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAIN LEADER TO SIDE BRANCH WHEN DESIRED HEIGHT IS REACHED </li></ul>
    23. 32. PRUNING FRUIT TREES (cont.) <ul><li>CROTCHES 45° OR MORE </li></ul><ul><li>REMOVE ALL DEAD, INJURED, DYING </li></ul><ul><li>ELIMINATE DOUBLE TOPS </li></ul><ul><li>REMOVE RUBBING, CROSS-OVERS </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT REMOVE MORE THAN  -  LIVE WOOD </li></ul>
    24. 34. Inside view of pruning cuts that removed collar (flush cut) left, and proper cut, right.

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