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    Facilitation Facilitation Presentation Transcript

    • FACILITATION: Getting Your Group from A to B Bill Taylor University of Wyoming Community Development Area Educator
    • Reference
      • The Facilitator’s Fieldbook by Thomas Justice & David W. Jamieson, Ph.D.
        • Published 1999 by American Management Association
        • ISBN 0-8144-7038-6
    • Three Principles of Facilitation
      • Participation is important
      • Teams generally perform better than individuals
      • Process (how something is done) affects outcome (what is accomplished)
    • What is Facilitation?
      • Process to enable groups to succeed
      • Facilitation is the design and management of structures and processes that help a group do its work and minimize the common problems people have working together
    • Neutral Process
      • Facilitation is a neutral process (concerning content and participants) that focuses on:
        • What needs to be accomplished
        • Who needs to be involved
        • Design, flow and sequence of tasks
        • Communication patterns, effectiveness and completeness
        • Appropriate levels of participation and the use of resources
        • Group energy, momentum and capability
        • The physical and psychological environment
    • Focus
      • Facilitation focuses on the design and management of processes to enable groups to succeed.
      • Ensures:
        • Right resources at hand and being used
        • Useful information generated, shared, used
        • Quality decisions made
    • What Facilitators Do
      • Neutral guides who take active roles in process management
      • They work in 3 main areas:
        • Preparation for meetings
          • Includes meeting agenda, processes planned, meeting room preparation
        • Working with the group
        • Follow-up
    • Core Processes
      • Analyzing information
        • Purposes, outcomes, work context, participants – determining best approach
      • Designing meetings
        • Enable group to succeed using structures, processes, sequences
      • Establishing group climate, norms, processes
    • Core Processes (cont.)
      • Creating and implementing structures and processes
      • Intervening to manage group dynamics
        • Enforce norms, influence what members do, how they do it
      • Coaching/training group leaders and members
    • Core Processes (cont.)
      • Evaluating meeting and facilitation effectiveness
      • Navigating decision processes through established organizational structure
      • Ensuring follow-up action
        • Production & distribution of meeting record, results, communication with stakeholders, and implementation of decisions.
    • Knowledge Base
      • 3 basic areas of knowledge that are helpful for facilitation:
        • Basic principles of adult learning
        • Group dynamics and decision making
        • Process consultation
      • Parliamentary procedure is a specialized subject
        • Necessary when group function based around parliamentary law
    • Fundamental Skills
      • Contracting
      • Designing structured activities and processes
      • Listening, paraphrasing, observing, clarifying, elaborating
      • Interpreting verbal and non-verbal behavior
      • Confronting others
    • Fundamental Skills (cont.)
      • Managing differences
      • Collaborating with others
      • Project management
      • Meeting management
      • Logistic management
    • Personal Characteristics
      • Steadiness (serenity – calm and centered)
      • Confidence
      • Assertiveness
      • Openness
      • Flexibility
      • Authenticity
    • Personal Characteristics (cont.)
      • Humility
      • Optimism
      • Result-oriented attitude
    • Understanding Group Dynamics & Decision Making
      • Facilitator must identify group dynamics
        • Stages of group maturity are:
          • Forming, storming, norming, performing
        • Development of roles during group stages
        • Psycho-social issues – trust, control or power, inclusion, identity or status, autonomy, tolerance, structure, competition, intimacy
    • Understanding Group Dynamics & Decision Making (cont.)
      • Facilitator must identify group dynamics (cont.)
        • Task progress – what, how, who, when, where
        • Leadership – who leads the group and creates the controls
        • Communication patterns
        • Participation
        • Conflict management
        • Decision-making processes
    • Facilitation Fundamentals
      • Listen intently
      • Maintain good eye contact
      • Trust in the resource of the group – focus on the process
      • Always use people’s first names
      • Stay awake and present
      • Organize, connect and summarize data
    • Facilitation Fundamentals (cont.)
      • Protect each and every idea offered
      • Be a facilitator, not a performer
      • Encourage everyone to express themselves
      • Be a guide, not the group leader
      • Be constantly mindful of outcomes for the group and flexible in achieving those goals
    • Planning Meeting Tools
      • Vision Statement – a word picture of how the group will perform, what conditions will exist, what the ideal situation will be, etc.
        • Look 5-10 years in the future
      • Mission Statement – What the group will do to accomplish the vision.
        • Provides direction/boundaries for the group/organization
      • Values – guiding principles that are important to the operation of the group.
    • Planning Meeting Tools (cont.)
      • Strategic Planning – outlines what a group intends to do to successfully accomplish its mission in the environment it operates.
        • Strategies are created based on analysis and interpretation of the environment
    • Building a Data Base
      • To better understand the nature of a given problem so the right solution is made
      • Several options:
        • Brainstorming – generate many ideas in response to problem
        • Dialogue
        • Conversations with no intent other than to gain meaning or understanding
    • Building a Data Base (cont.)
      • Several options (cont.):
        • Reflective Listening – dialoging technique to encourage deeper conversations prior to problem solving – reflect on a question posed by another person
        • Focus Groups – gain input from groups about their preferences for decisions or actions
    • Decision Mode
      • Individual – limited to high risk decisions
      • Consultative – use group members as consultants to a designated leader to reach quality decisions
      • Consultative Consensus – involves consultative while building consensus in the group’s decisions
        • Combines Consultative and Consensus decision techniques
    • Decision Mode (cont.)
      • Modified Consensus – enables the group to achieve a type of consensus that ensures that each member of the group is willing to support the decision
      • Absolute Consensus – all group members in absolute agreement that decision is best for the group
    • Decision Mode (cont.)
      • Voting – to reach a group decision when you do not need to build consensus, or when you can’t reach consensus or when operating with a formal voting process
    • Group Conflict
      • This is a normal part of facilitating any group
      • Since it was covered last time we will go on with the assumption you understand that conflict is a normal stage in any group’s development (especially the “storming” stage) and a facilitator should not be taken by surprise when it happens.
    • Reviewing Group Progress
      • Several Methods:
        • Meeting pluses and minuses
        • Evaluation form
        • Review accomplishments
    • Follow-up
      • Five primary tasks:
        • Preparing the meeting record and output
        • Communicating with and informing others
        • Obtaining approval of the group’s work
        • Monitoring interim and implementation work
        • Identifying the need for additional group work
    • Meeting Minutes
      • Record agenda items and actions and assignments
      • Other types of data can be incorporated into meeting minutes such as:
        • Members present, absent, others attending
        • Leader of the meeting
        • Next meeting date
        • Summaries of discussions
        • Motions and votes if parliamentary law is used
    • Questions?