Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Working with Tribal Members to Interpret Native American Themes in the National Park Service

1,725

Published on

In recent years the National Park Service has made a concerted effort to broaden its interpretation of American Indian cultures at NPS sites; their traditional connections with the land, their …

In recent years the National Park Service has made a concerted effort to broaden its interpretation of American Indian cultures at NPS sites; their traditional connections with the land, their difficult interactions with Euro-Americans, and their contemporary culture. This presentation will highlight interpretive planning, exhibit, landscape, and building projects that involve indigenous community themes, motifs, and stories.

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,725
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Click to advance this slide. Laptop and screen both set up, connected, and on. Go to Slide Show > Set Up Show > Screen > choose monitor without white bar for audience screen. 3. Go to View > presenter tools 4. Leave presenter’s intro slide on until they are ready. Then click the slide to advance Right as they start talking. 5. Try to quickly click the timer at upper left simultaneously so they get the timer function.
  • JPJ profile by MLH. Click to advance.
  • • There is no place without a Native American story in this entire country. Indigenous people have been here a long, long time.
  • The Elders of every Indigenous community know every habitat; know every plant; know every animal; know the water; they know the dirt; they know the rocks; they know the sky; clouds, and the wind.
  • The America Government has tried repeatedly to eliminate Indigenous people in many different ways: war, relocation, special training and schools. Harm done by these attempts at assimilation are profound– but Native Americans are still here - they have survived. • There
  • There is also a rich, magnificent ancient Indigenous architectural heritage here in this country that can and should be used in current Indigenous landscape and architectural planning and design.
  • I love our American Indigenous architecture heritage.
  • However, much of what the Indigenous ancestors have given is verbal – songs, ceremonies, storytelling, dances, poems, and art.
  • But it ’s the verbal and art stories that are most important. It ’s these stories/gifts from the Elders that should be used to create Indigenous site and architecture design, and be used to interpret Native American people.
  • As an American Indian architect involved in Native American site and architectural design, I try to find and use the verbal stories. I try to “ stand” in the ancestor’s ways and beliefs – not in themes or motifs.
  • My Choctaw Grandmother and Mother verbally passed on to me Four Ancient Gifts. I use them in all my Native American planning and design projects; Natural World, Animal World, Spirit World and our Human World.
  • Here are some of my Native American planning & design projects (case studies) in which I ’ve tried to go beyond the sterotypical Native American themes and motifs– beginning with the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C.
  • We needed to create a place that respected the circular nature of life and show the diversity of Native People in this country.
  • The Southern Ute Tribal Cultural Center & Museum • The Southern Ute Tribal Board asked us to listen to their Tribal Elders, then plan and design a site & building that respected their “Circle of Life” story.
  • • Create a place to “sustain” their Southern Ute culture and their “Circle of LIfe” story in southern Colorado on their land for their Tribal community & outside visitors.
  • The Landbridge at Fort Vancouver, Washington • It ’s a “Re-Connect place”! A design for re-connection to the Columbia River, and a re-connection of an ancient Indigenous trading place, and an honoring/ceremony place.
  • And a re-connecting of existing modern communities, land to river and river to land, and people to a special historic place.
  • The Evergreen State College Longhouse Educaiton & Cultural Center - Olympia, Washington • First Native American Center on a college campus in the U.S., 20 years ago • A re-emerging cultural place of welcome, and a place to teach Indigenous knowledge.
  • -Re-emerging “Coast Salish” longhouse architecture & art
  • Northwest Native Canoe Center - Lake Union, Seattle, Washington • Teach & celebrate the Native NW Coast Canoe Craft • A place to share the NW Coast Canoe Story
  • The Agua Caliente Tribal Cultural Museum - Palm Springs, California • A place that physically shares their ancient story and gifts. • Native people have woven their lives into the non-Native culture of North American for hundreds of years – It ’s now time to re-establish their identity in planning and design. They have many ancient gifts, verbal & architectural that they can share with us that just might be helpful in solving some of our country ’s difficult environmental, social, and cultural problems. And, they are worth interpreting! Thank You !
  • Q & A on JPJ ’s talk. Click to advance.
  • JNS introduction by MLH. Click to advance.
  • This case study begins at Fort Bowie NHS. located in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeast Arizona, The area is part of the traditional homeland of the Chiricahua Apache people. It contains a year-round flowing spring. It was the location of a US army fort, And in 1886, the surrender of Geronimo and the Chiricahua Apache happened there.
  • We were asked to create a long range interpretive plan for the site. This report would create new interpretive themes and make recommendations based on them that would guide the park for the next 10 years. We used an innovative process to involve descendants of the Chiricahua Apache in consultation.
  • The park wanted to include the perspective of the Apache to create more balanced interpretive themes. Based on our experience with many other tribes, we felt that a long sit-down meeting with multiple stake-holders would not be effective. In addition, the four associated Apache bands no would need to travel from as far as Oklahoma to attend the meeting. So we really needed to take advantage of their efforts.
  • We decided to invite descendants of the Chiricahua Apache for a day on the site. At this time we didn ’t include other stakeholders. The setting was informal, outside. We met briefly and then walked with them throughout the park. Through informal conversation we got a lot of insight about their perspectives on the events that took place here.
  • 1. The park encompasses a 1.5 mile walk from parking lot to visitor center. Along the way are many historic sites.   2. we walked as a group to some of the locations significant to the Apache.   3. One of the sites we stopped at was the spring —it ’s actually named Apache spring. (PAUSE)
  • At Apache Spring, one Apache woman knelt and touched and spoke with the spring and it told her that it needs to breathe. This showed a deep stewardship of natural resources that is relevant today, and is an opportunity for interpretation.
  • In another location, the group critiqued the wayside panels. This panel about “The bascom affair” shows strong ethnocentric bias. The panel relays that Bascom and Cochise “collided” over the kidnapping of a young boy, But it doesn ’t mention that Bascom wrongly accused Cochise’s band of the kidnapping. Insulted and framed, Cochise used his knife to cut the army tent and escape. To the Apache, this event is known as “Cut the Tent.”
  •   What Bascom and other Euro-Americans did not know is that the Apache had multiple bands with multiple leaders. Expanding the story here would bring cross-cultural awareness and perspective.
  • The Apache representatives expressed frustration at the stereotypical portrayal of their ancestors as “Warlike” and “Warriors.” Fort Bowie presents an opportunity to challenge some of the stereotypes of the Apache prevalent in mainstream culture. They envisioned a more nuanced interpretation of their survivalist skills as very transferrable to the role of a warrior.
  • Some panels reinforce the stereotype where they could be focusing on universal themes. Imagine that you were confined to a small area where you couldn ’t make a living and forced to desperate measures for survival. Would you consider this a fair and accurate description of the situation – that you are “ renewing hostilities for another decade”
  • 1. The Apache representatives spoke about the spiritual connection to their homeland even though they have been separated from it for many years.   2. This idea reinforces the continuity of their culture and connects past to present.
  • We were able to take away so much from this consultation.   The resulting report.   In this theme, dealing with tension and conflict, the original concept uses the phrase “clash of cultures,” which we rejected as too simplistic.
  • The new theme paints a more detailed picture of the goals of each side that led to conflict. It also emphasizes that the story is still being interpreted today from multiple perspectives.
  • This theme deals with the land and the spring. It only describes the spring ’s location as significant.   We again felt that “many important historic events” as well as “those living in southeast Arizona and beyond” were too generalized.
  •   1. The new theme sets out to emphasize the water and the spring as a vital, central resource and cast it as the setting for every event that happened here.   2. The new report also makes a recommendation to restore the spring and asks the park if a new name might be considered – Apache Spring National Historic Site.
  • 1. We were initially surprised to find that not all park staff were in agreement with the input we received from the Apache Representatives.   2. In the appendix of the report, we provided some raw material from discussions or emails that were part of the process. Many of these were statements and rebuttals.
  •   Some staff members have a career of scholarship on these topics. Some created the existing interpretive elements. It was important to create space for these exciting new stories to be told, but also space for discussion and dissent to happen.
  • Lesson learned: process is key. this innovative approach led to an honest and insightful interchange with the representatives of the Apache people. Tribal representatives and other stakeholders had input at further stages of the process.
  • Don ’t be too excited to go out the old, in with the new. You risk alienating people if you bulldoze through old truths, or tip the focus too much on new information.
  • Multiple perspectives paint the most accurate picture. There are multiple truths about situations with conflict. Multiple perspectives also take into account the visitor – making them part of the conversation.
  • We are very excited about the results of our work and how the report will influence the interpretation of this site for visitors. Q & A of JNS presentation. Click to advance.
  • MW introduction by MLH. Click to advance.
  • The land we today call Glacier National Park Just celebrated 100 years as a national park Native people have called this land home for over 10,000 years Glacier interpretive theme on cultural resources
  • First new exhibits since VC built in 1966 Only park VC with a permanent exhibition Some controversy over choosing a cultural theme vs. wider natural history
  • We worked with several tribes – Blackfeet, Kootenai, Salish, Pend d ’Oreille Exhibits needed to provide balanced perspective of each Avoid generic names like “Plains Indians”
  • Equal recognition presented design challenges – 3 or 4 views on each exhibit Desire of tribes to be even more specific Flags issue
  • Bringing tribes together can create conflicts – traditional or new Blackfeet vs west side tribes
  • Stories about the same resources or history not likely to agree This can require good negotiation skills to get to an acceptable place
  • Have exhibits speak from tribal perspective, not your interp of tribal ideas Most important part of our project – this drove design
  • NPS intro in first panel and then got out of the way Tribal leaders recorded welcomes to visitors at first exhibit Chief, cultural leaders, young Blackfeet girl
  • Embrace controversial topics from the start and plan them into your exhibition Some of these may be known at start – others come up during consultation Be flexible!
  • Ceded Strip and Hellgate Treaty Ceded Strip (1895) – still very much a current concern Our first full exhibit – give it a place of importance; don ’t hide away
  •   Recognize communication protocols with each tribe Involve the highest level person in your organization if possible
  • Tribal perspective is enhanced when members literally provide their own voice Use video interviews or voice recordings so tribes literally speak for themselves
  • Most powerful part of our exhibition Nine short videos spoken from the heart Working on DVD for sales item and education outreach
  • Embrace ambiguity and the diversity of tribal viewpoints Often times 2+2 does not equal 4
  • To provide balance, may need to include conflicting viewpoints Time line idea wasn ’t going to work Blackfeet vs Kootenai – who was here first?
  • You may be surprised by ideas and views that are very new and different Example – Divide – delta – VC location
  • No other tribe should be represented in exhibit because of Divide connection Almost stopped the entire project
  • Tribes are not living in the past – vibrant modern cultures Good to include historic views, but not by themselves
  •   Having special events in association with exhibits shows modern perspectives Blackfoot Confederacy – NAS - Dancers
  • Exhibits as good interpretation – NAI awards Building relationships with local tribes – most important
  • Q & A of MW presentation. Click to advance.
  • CD introduction by MLH. Click to advance. Richard West tie in
  • CD introduction by MLH. Click to advance.
  • Thank you to our partners in this project.
  • For Fort Spokane Visitor Center is located in Guardhouse, one of only 4 remaining buildings Last of the forts of western expansion Its purpose was to keep peace between tribes on the reservations to the north and encroaching Euro-American settlement to the south. Fort operated from 1880 to 1898
  • Second story is that of Boarding School which operated using fort buildings from 1900-1907 The boarding school was part of a nation-wide effort at coerced assimilation of American Indian children into the dominant culture. Children as young as 3 were taken from their homes and forced to attend boarding schools often many days travel from their homes. This effort was backed by a odd assortment of people including progressive thinkers who believed it was the only way American Indians would survive.
  • Fort Spokane is located on the south side of the Spokane river at its confluence with the Columbia. On the north side of the Spokane River
  • Representatives of the Spokane Tribe and of the Confederated Colville Tribes participated in the early planning process reviewed all phases of design Provided important input including language expertise Boarding school was a very traumatic experience for many children, and it is beginning to be recognized the long-term impacts and cultural disruption that the boarding school movement caused to tribes across the country. At the beginning several representatives expressed reluctance to interpret the boarding school story afraid it would open up too many painful memories A
  • Representatives of the Spokane Tribe and of the Confederated Colville Tribes participated in the early planning process reviewed all phases of design Provided important input including language expertise Boarding school was a very traumatic experience for many children, and it is beginning to be recognized the long-term impacts and cultural disruption that the boarding school movement caused to tribes across the country. At the beginning several representatives expressed reluctance to interpret the boarding school story afraid it would open up too many painful memories A
  • Worked with tribes to establish an overall exhibit theme of At the Confluence. To provide context we felt a historical timeline was important Tribal representatives expressed that their view of time was different than the linear approach of a timeline
  • For this reason several elements were added An introduction, including an audio welcome, in their own voice A traditional calendar ball was added: women in the tribe add a bead or a shell for important family or tribal events. Then they can unravel the ball and recount the stories and events. A graphic representation of the calendar ball runs the length of the timeline linking tribal events.
  • The timeline was divided up into some broad historical eras Each with an introduction, seeking to provide a balanced account of Euro-American and Tribal impacts. Too often histories only account for Euro-American perspectives.
  • 3D relief model depicted the confluence, the fort, and a native American encampment. Provides visitors with a mental picture of the area and proximity of the two Central piece of the exhibit Scenes from Ft. Spokane series of immersive exhibits depicting life at the fort and life at the boarding school
  • For both the fort and boarding school stories, an introductory panel A composite character was created for each to personalize the exhibits A composite was selected for two reasons: difficult to find first person accounts that cover the whole story tribes requested a composite to protect the privacy of individuals
  • Children arriving at the fort were forbidden from speaking their native tongues, and their long hair was cut. Each immersive “vignette” included a backdrop of a historical photo, interactive elements (iron, laundry folding) and an interpretive panel. These two: vocational training the children received, and dormitory life
  • This vignette depicts the academic schooling the children received. Each vignette also included a binder of historical photos and a period phone set on which visitors can listen to Sipi ’s narration about her experiences. The final vignette is in a surviving solitary cell.
  • A final vignette, located in actual surviving solitary cells, Describes Sipi ’s experience.
  • Separating fort and boarding school vignettes is a display case of artifacts depicting items familiar to children from their own cultures and those they were expected to wear and use at boarding school.. The day before the exhibit opened to the public . . . .
  • • The process can facilitate cross-cultural dialogue and understanding. • The process can catalyze intra-tribal discussion and awareness . • The process, and the completed exhibit, can provide opportunities for cultural healing and pride . • Creation of artifacts and artworks for the exhibit supports local tribal economies and helps build pride in the community.
  • • The process can facilitate cross-cultural dialogue and understanding. • The process can catalyze intra-tribal discussion and awareness . • The process, and the completed exhibit, can provide opportunities for cultural healing and pride . • Creation of artifacts and artworks for the exhibit supports local tribal economies and helps build pride in the community.
  • • The process, and the completed exhibit, can provide opportunities for cultural healing and pride . • Creation of artifacts and artworks for the exhibit supports local tribal economies and helps build pride in the community.
  • Q & A of CD presentation. Click to advance.
  • MKB introduction by MLH. Click to advance.
  • Nez Perce NHP – non traditional park with 38 sites in four states that encompass 13,000 years of Nez Perce history and culture. Administer directly three battlefields associated with the 1877 conflict between Nez Perce and US Army: White Bird (ID), Big Hole (MT), and Bear Paw (MT). Big Hole separately legislated site from 1910. Folded into NEPE orbit in 1992.
  • Battlefield largely intact. Footprint includes sites associated with the Nez Perce (village site) and the soldiers (memorial site).
  • Money came in for targeted changes, but anticipate money for replacement so it was repurposed for theme workshop facilitated by Aldrich-Pears and John Paul Jones.
  • Stars aligned for project – renovation of VC coincides with exhibit project. Mission 66 facility upgraded and improves habitability of the bldg. and replaces outdated exhibit with more appropriate materials.
  • Exhibit space odd angles; crowded lobby; inadequate and outdated exhibits that were a product of outdated historical views/historiography and really didn ’t do much to prepare the visitor for the story.
  • New exhibit repurposes space; decreases foot print of lobby and provided more extensive exhibits that did a better job in preparing the public for what they were about to experience.
  • Lobby – welcoming space; well lit with sky lights and provides something to entice visitors in
  • Accessible, interactive map – 1877 about an event that transcends space and time
  • NP voices
  • Repurpose old exhibit room as theater
  • Tie in exhibit with resource
  • Exhibit brings story to modern times – audio stations and exhibit for visitor comments
  • Q & A of MKB presentation. Click to advance to last slide.
  • Final Slide.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Interpreting NativeAmerican Connectionsin National ParksFive case studiesModerated by Mary Lou Herlihy,NPS Pacific West Regional Office
    • 2. Johnpaul Jones, FAIAJones + Jones
    • 3. Indigenous Design: Emerging Gifts Johnpaul Jones, FAIA
    • 4. There is no place without a story.
    • 5. Natural World Animal WorldSpirit World Human World
    • 6. National Museum of the American Indian
    • 7. National Museum of the American Indian
    • 8. Southern Ute Cultural Center & Museum
    • 9. Southern Ute Cultural Center & Museum
    • 10. Vancouver Land Bridge
    • 11. Vancouver Land Bridge
    • 12. Evergreen State College Longhouse Education and Cultural Center
    • 13. Evergreen State College Longhouse Education and Cultural Center
    • 14. Northwest Native Canoe Center
    • 15. Agua Caliente Cultural Museum
    • 16. Johnpaul Jones, FAIAJones + Jones
    • 17. Julie Sayigh EDX: Edquist Davis ExhibitsProject: Fort Bowie National Historic SiteLong-Range Interpretive Plan
    • 18. Fort Bowie National Historic Site
    • 19. Long – Range Interpretive Plan
    • 20. PROCESS Looking critically at consultationLong-distance travel
    • 21. PROCESS Informal meetings, free-form discussion
    • 22. PROCESS Walking the site
    • 23. Visit to Apache Spring
    • 24. One-sided interpretationmay omit information…
    • 25. One-sided interpretation can reinforce stereotypes.
    • 26. “…every time I come hereI sit and find [Cochise’s] spirit.” Authentic voices can reinforce a continuity of culture.
    • 27. RESULTSOld interpretive theme:The clash of cultures between Chiricahua Apaches andAmericans resulted in expanded opportunities for Americanentrepreneurs at the expense of the Chiricahua Apaches,who lost their homeland.
    • 28. RESULTSOld interpretive theme:The clash of cultures between Chiricahua Apaches andAmericans resulted in expanded opportunities for Americanentrepreneurs at the expense of the Chiricahua Apaches,who lost their homeland.New interpretive theme:The protracted conflict that pitted the US army’s intent to gaincontrol over the area against the Chiricahua Apache people’sdesire to retain their homeland escalated at Apache pass,continued with the capitulation of the Chiricahua Apache inSkeleton Canyon, and is echoed today in the form of multipleperspectives that paint a complex picture of these events.
    • 29. RESULTSOld interpretive theme:The proximity of Apache Pass to Apache Springgave rise to an environment conducive to many importanthistoric events that continue to affect the destiniesof those living in southeast Arizona and beyond.
    • 30. RESULTSOld interpretive theme:The proximity of Apache Pass to Apache Springgave rise to an environment conducive to many importanthistoric events that continue to affect the destiniesof those living in southeast Arizona and beyond.New interpretive theme:Apache Spring represents the life-giving qualities of water inthe harsh, arid deserts of the American West. Drawingprehistoric indigenous people and later the Chiricahua Apachepeople, the U.S. Army, Euro-American settlers, and thosetraveling on trade routes, the spring endures as a place wherecultures met and conflict arose, altering lives and destinies.
    • 31. RESULTSFrom the report appendix:Stereotyped as “brutal and warlike”,Apache representatives expressed that while proudof the historic prowess of their people,they view their warlike nature as an outgrowthof the skills needed to survive in a harsh land…
    • 32. RESULTSFrom the report appendix:Stereotyped as “brutal and warlike”,Apache representatives expressed that while proudof the historic prowess of their people,they view their warlike nature as an outgrowthof the skills needed to survive in a harsh land…Response by a park staff member:“This overlooks what early anthropologists refer to asthe “Novice Complex” where Apache youth wererigorously trained in warfare…”
    • 33. LESSONS LEARNED A process tailored to the stakeholders can yield better results and build stronger relationships.
    • 34. LESSONS LEARNED Rewriting history may not be possible. But acknowledging multiple truths about history is essential.
    • 35. LESSONS LEARNED A multi-perspective story provides a richer experience of history for all visitors, promoting inquiry and involvement.
    • 36. Julie Sayigh EDX: Edquist Davis ExhibitsProject: Fort Bowie National Historic SiteLong-Range Interpretive Plan
    • 37. Mark WagnerGlacier National ParkProject: St. MaryVisitor CenterExhibits
    • 38. Mark WagnerGlacier National ParkProject: St. MaryVisitor CenterExhibits
    • 39. Charles Davis, AIAEDX: Edquist Davis Exhibits Project: At the Confluence Fort Spokane Interpretive Exhibits
    • 40. Linus: That cloud looks like the profile of Thomas Eakins, the famous painter and sculptor . . . And over there gives me the impression of the Stoning of Stephen . . . There’s the Apostle Paul standing to one side . . .Charlie Brown: I was going to say I saw a duckie and a horsie but I’ve changed my mind . . .
    • 41. Fort SpokaneLake Roosevelt NationalRecreation Area Fort Spokane: 1880-1898
    • 42. FORT SPOKANE INDIANBOARDING SCHOOL: 1900-1907
    • 43. Lessons Learned:Design/consultation process:• contributes to cross-cultural dialogue andunderstanding.• can catalyze discussionand awareness within the tribe.
    • 44. Lessons Learned:Design/consultation process:• contributes to cross-cultural dialogue andunderstanding.• can catalyze discussionand awareness within the tribe.• can provide opportunity forcultural pride and healing.• supports tribal artisans andthe local economy.
    • 45. My ancestors suffered fromhere to here in order to bewhere we are today—educated, able to sitdown as equals,at this table,and be heard.Tim Brookes, ColvilleConfederated Tribes Charles Davis, AIA EDX: Edquist Davis Exhibits Project: At the Confluence Fort Spokane Interpretive Exhibits
    • 46. Marc K. Blackburn, PhD.Nez Perce National Historical Park Project: Big Hole National Battlefield Visitor Center
    • 47. Revisiting the PastExhibit Replacement at Big Hole National Battlefield
    • 48. The Place: Nez Perce National Historical Park
    • 49. The Park: Big Hole National Battlefield
    • 50. The Process: Scoping
    • 51. ! "#$ & (#))*$ Engaging0Our% &, #&The % Process:+, - . - /, - $ 1& Partners $. 2 )
    • 52. The Gift And in with the new Out with the old
    • 53. The Challenge: Objects with no context
    • 54. The Challenge: Misused Space
    • 55. The Results: Compelling and smart exhibit plan Unobstructed View of battlefield Repurposed exhibit room – now theater AND objects New airlock
    • 56. The Results: Inviting Lobby
    • 57. The Results: ADA Accessible Map
    • 58. The Results: The Voices of the Nimiipuu
    • 59. The Results: Objects in Context
    • 60. The Results: Direct Visual Connection With Resource
    • 61. The Results: Relevance, Relevance, Relevance
    • 62. Making Connections . . . . . [April 2012] K. : "While I have sympathy for the Native Americans who suffered, much of what is put forth here is inaccurate. Most of the bands slated as having strong, amicable relationships were at constant odds with each other. They were poorly led and their own hierarchy left much to be desired. Few had much, most were destitute diseased and often starving. They were not peaceful in nature, stealing, killing, kidnapping were all part of their culture. This display is lovey, but mush, much too one sided. History is not changed by wishful thinking."
    • 63. Making Connections . . . . . Joe from Helena: "I am disturbed by the critical entry on April 2012. To refer to what is shared here as "mush" is a sad commentary on what happened here. The "stealing, killing, and kidnapping" the writer refers to as part of white American culture at that time. In fact stealing and killing were clearly displayed in the breaking of the 1863 treaty and in a brutal attack on a sleeping village. No culture or society is perfect in the way lives are lived and actions carried out. But the onslaught of the dominant white invaders, beginning with the Vikings and in some forms continue to this day, is at least addressed honestly here and a balance is achieved. Am I—a white male—responsible for what happened here? No. But I am responsible for understanding what happened here and its significance. And I am responsible for applying what I learn to my own life."
    • 64. Success• Collaboration with Tribal Partners driving the narrative.• Using partners’ subject matter expertise to drive content creation.• Having the courage to tell the truth and make a strong emotional statement.• Making planning process inclusive and transparent. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA
    • 65. Lessons• Get thematic consensus as early as possible.• Include ALL stakeholders, not just Tribal Partners.• For project continuity, try to get the same participants at each meeting.• Select the right contractors and keep an open line of communication.• BE PATIENT. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA
    • 66. Dena from Long Beach, California:"May we never forget the love Chief Joseph had for hispeople.May we learn that conflict is not the answer. Let usunderstand what the Native Americans understoodabout our land, earth and animals that live with us.Thank you for telling the story.Draw it to your heart and share with the young and notborn- we must never forget the pain that was felt on thishallowed ground." EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA
    • 67. Marc K. Blackburn, PhD.Nez Perce National Historical Park Project: Big Hole National Battlefield Visitor Center
    • 68. Interpreting NativeAmerican Connectionsin National ParksFive case studiesModerated by Mary Lou Herlihy,NPS Pacific West Regional Office

    ×