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BONES AND  JOINTS Basic Anatomy
The Skeleton <ul><li>The average human adult skeleton has 206 bones joined to ligaments and tendons  </li></ul><ul><li>For...
SKELETAL FUNCTION <ul><li>The skeleton plays an important part in movement by providing a series of independently movable ...
JOINTS <ul><li>Joints permit bodily movement and are held together by fibres called &quot;ligaments&quot;.  </li></ul><ul>...
JOINTS <ul><li>Joints are sturdy enough to hold the skeleton together while permitting a range of motions.  </li></ul><ul>...
Joint Types 1:  Ball and Socket <ul><li>The greatest range of joint movement is provided by a &quot;ball-and- socket&quot;...
Joint Types 2:  Hinge <ul><li>The simplest type of joint is the &quot;hinge,&quot; as found in the elbows and the joints o...
Joint Types 3: Pivot <ul><li>A pivot joint allows two bones to move in a rotational motion by twisting against each other ...
Joint Types 4: Gliding <ul><li>Gliding&quot; joints permit a wide range of mostly sideways movements - as well as movement...
 
Joint movement: Extension <ul><li>When two bones move away from each other, the action is known as EXTENSION </li></ul><ul...
Joint movement: Abduction <ul><li>When a joint moves away from the vertical centreline of the body, it is known as abducti...
Joint movement: Adduction <ul><li>When a joint moves towards the vertical centreline of the body, it is known as adduction...
Joint movement: Rotation <ul><li>This occurs when a bone rotates, either in a socket or relative to another bone. </li></u...
Joint movement: General For all joints except the knee and elbow <ul><li>Forward movement  is flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
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Bones and joints 1 1

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Transcript of "Bones and joints 1 1"

  1. 1. BONES AND JOINTS Basic Anatomy
  2. 2. The Skeleton <ul><li>The average human adult skeleton has 206 bones joined to ligaments and tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Forms a protective and supportive framework for the attached muscles and the soft tissues which underlie it. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor differences between male and female skeletons: men's bones tend to be larger and heavier than corresponding women's bones, and a woman's pelvic cavity is wider to accommodate childbirth. </li></ul>
  3. 3. SKELETAL FUNCTION <ul><li>The skeleton plays an important part in movement by providing a series of independently movable levers, which the muscles can pull to move different parts of the body </li></ul><ul><li>It supports and protects the internal body organs </li></ul><ul><li>It is an efficient factory which produces red blood cells from the bone marrow of certain bones and white cells from the marrow of other bones </li></ul><ul><li>The bones are also a storehouse for minerals - calcium, for example - which can be supplied to other parts of the body </li></ul>
  4. 4. JOINTS <ul><li>Joints permit bodily movement and are held together by fibres called &quot;ligaments&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Some joints, like those in the skull, allow no movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Others may permit only limited movement: for example the joints in the spine allow some movement in several directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Moveable joints are continuously lubricated to prevent friction. These joints have a variable range of movement, and these are called &quot;synovial&quot; joints. </li></ul>
  5. 5. JOINTS <ul><li>Joints are sturdy enough to hold the skeleton together while permitting a range of motions. </li></ul><ul><li>Joints are lubricated by &quot;synovial&quot; fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>The ends of these joints are coated with articular (or hyaline) cartilage, which reduces friction and cushions against jolts. </li></ul><ul><li>Between the bones, in a narrow space, is the joint &quot;cavity,&quot; which gives us freedom of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments then bind these bones to prevent dislocations and limit the joint's movements. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Joint Types 1: Ball and Socket <ul><li>The greatest range of joint movement is provided by a &quot;ball-and- socket&quot; joint, in which the spherical head of one bone lodges in the spherical cavity of another </li></ul>                  
  7. 7. Joint Types 2: Hinge <ul><li>The simplest type of joint is the &quot;hinge,&quot; as found in the elbows and the joints of the fingers and toes. </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge joints allow movement in only one direction. </li></ul>Elbow                 
  8. 8. Joint Types 3: Pivot <ul><li>A pivot joint allows two bones to move in a rotational motion by twisting against each other </li></ul><ul><li>The radio-ulnar joint in the elbow, or atlas/axis in the neck do this </li></ul>
  9. 9. Joint Types 4: Gliding <ul><li>Gliding&quot; joints permit a wide range of mostly sideways movements - as well as movements in one direction </li></ul><ul><li>The bones in the wrists and ankles slide against each other in a gliding motion </li></ul><ul><li>The spine is a series of gliding joints </li></ul>                     
  10. 11. Joint movement: Extension <ul><li>When two bones move away from each other, the action is known as EXTENSION </li></ul><ul><li>This would occur for example with straightening of the elbow or knee </li></ul>
  11. 12. Joint movement: Abduction <ul><li>When a joint moves away from the vertical centreline of the body, it is known as abduction. </li></ul><ul><li>This movement occurs when the arm is raised to one side </li></ul>
  12. 13. Joint movement: Adduction <ul><li>When a joint moves towards the vertical centreline of the body, it is known as adduction. </li></ul><ul><li>This movement occurs when the arm is lowered </li></ul>
  13. 14. Joint movement: Rotation <ul><li>This occurs when a bone rotates, either in a socket or relative to another bone. </li></ul><ul><li>It can occur at ball & socket or gliding type joints </li></ul>Lowering (blue arrow) is internal rotation. Raising is external
  14. 15. Joint movement: General For all joints except the knee and elbow <ul><li>Forward movement is flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Rearward movement is extension </li></ul>
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