The Road To Revolution Chapter 7Presentation Transcript
The Road to Revolution Chapter 7
Intro Victory in the Seven Years War put Britain in debt. Stationing ten thousand troops on the American frontier cost Britain more money Starting in 1763 the British government tried to convince the colonies to help pay for the empire This enforced a distinct American polical identity and pushed Americans towards revolt.
The Deep Roots of Revolution Settlers in America were less bound by tradition then those born in Europe's unchanging society. Republicanism-the idea that all members of a society submit to the general good before their own desires. This was first tried by the Greeks and Romans. It was not compatible to hierarchy or monarchy and hence had not thrived in Europe. It depended on the courage, generosity, and civic participation of a societies members. The whigs warned that people should be wary of corruption and conspiracy, leading the colonies to be alert to any threats to their rights. American colonies were given freedom to run there own affairs due to there distance from Britain(distance weakens authority) and were unhappy with the British intrusion in 1763 Land and political life were more attainable in America then in Britain
Mercantilism and Colonial Grievences American colonies were not well planned up The theory of mercantilism stated the Britain could control the colonies because wealth was power and colonies boosted wealth by importing raw materials and providing a market for exports. Britain wanted the colonists to provide raw materials and buy British goods, staying away for beaver hats and wool for export, the colonies were not to be economically self sufficient or politically independent. The first act Parliament made concerning mercantilism was the Navigation Law of 1650, which mandated that all colonial bound or made goods must be transported in either British or Colonial ships to prevent the dutch from gaining a piece of the trade. Later laws mandated selling exports to Britain as a middleman or selling products such as tobacco to only Britain. To pay for importing more from Britain then exporting from the colonies, colonists had to trade illegally with the French west Indies and Spain A money shortage still developed and paper money needed to be printed. Britain bans paper money, and colonists are upset that there well being fell to British's merchant's interests. Britain could veto any colonial law, but rarely did. Still colonists resented the ability
The Merits and Menace of Mercantilism Until 1763 the Navigation laws were only loosely enforced. Many American merchants ignored the laws entirely. John Hancock amassed his fortune through smuggling Britain paid ship builders generously, and the southern colonies enjoyed and a monopoly on the British tobacco market. Colonists benefited from British army and navy Mercantile system makes colonies dependent on English middle men Colonists feel they are being treated as though they are children Benjamin Franklin writes, "We have an old mother that peevish is grownShe snubs us like children that scarce walk aloneShe forgots we're grown up and have sense of are own. "
The Stamp Act Uproar After the seven Years war Britain had the biggest empire in the world. Britain had also incurred a debt of 140 millon pounds, half of whitch had been incurred defending the colonists In 1763 George Grenville, prime minister of Britan, ordered the Navigation Acts enforced In 1764 the Sugar act is passed. It was the first act taxing the colonies to raise money for the crown The Quartering act of 1765 demanded certain colonies provide food and lodging for British troops The Stamp Act is passed in 1765 British dwelling citizens had been paying a heavier stamp act then the colonists for two generations Some colonial assemblies refuse to obey Quartering act The manner of enforcing the acts brought into questions colonists rights as Englishmen Those who disobeyed the sugar or stamp were trued in admirality courts, where there was no trial by jury or presumption of inncocence Colonists disliked having British soldiers stationed in America No taxation without representation becomes tagline of unhappy colonists Grenville insisted the colonists had "virtual representation" is parliament"
Forced Repeal of the Stamp Act 1764-Stamp Act Congress meets in New York(27 delegates and 9 colonies) to protest stamp act The Congress had little effect on the Stamp Act, but began to bring about colonial unity Colonists begin to make there own clothing, as to not import British goods Occasionally violence accompanied protests The Sons and Daughters of Liberty enforced non-importation agreements, often through tarring and feathering The Tax collectors had all been forced to resign by 1765, making the stamp act unenforablw Stamp act was reluctant repealed in 1766 Parliament passes declaratory act, insisting they have power over the colonies
The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston "Massacre" "Champagne Charley" Townshend takes control of British ministry in 1767 He promises to, "pluck feathers from the colonial goose with a minimum of squawking" In 1767 the Townsend acts are passed, taxing glass, paper, paint, and tea. New York Legislative body is suspended in 1767 for failure to comply with the quartering act Non importation policies are less effective then they were under the stamp act, as there was less cooperation and much smuggling in of tea Smugglers increase there activity, especially in Massachusetts. In 1768 the British station two regimens of soldiers in Boston Bostonians mocked the often drunk and rowdy soldiers March 5 1770-sixty townspeople begin to mock ten soldiers in anger of the shooting of an eleven year old boy in an earlier protest against a merchant importing British goods 11 of the crowd were killed or wounded Crispin Attucks is killed John Atoms defends soldiers in trial, two soldiers are found guilty of man slaughter, branded on the hand, and then released The Seditious Committee of Correspondence King Geroge was an inefficient ruler and surrounded himself with "yes men" including prime minister Lord North Townshend acts produced less then 300 pounds in a year, and all taxes except the tax on tea were repealed Continued enforcement of the Navigation Laws created discontent in the colonies Samuel Adams becomes a major supporter of colonial rights, resorting to illegal activities if needed Sam Adams was unimpressive in appearance, lack so much as a decent suit, and failed in the brewing buisness, but was never the less a passionate and charismatic leader in the events leading up to the American revolution Samuel Adams formed the committees of correspondence to spread the "spirt of resistance" by exchanging letters. This soon became a inter-colonial affair
Tea Brewing in Boston British East India Company is given a monopoly on American tea trade in 1773 in order to avoid bankruptcy and cost the British government tax revenue Ships with tea are forced to turn back in Philidelphia and New York, ships are burned in Maryland. In Boston the British governor, Thomas Hutchinson, would not send the ships back. Hutchinson agreed the Tea tax was unjust, but felt the colonists must obey the law, despite having his house burned down by stamp act protesters a few years before A published letter from Hutchinson stated that English liberties would need to be limited to keep colonies under control, infuriated colonists December 16 1773-100 Bostians disguise themselves as Indians and through 342 chests of tea into the harbor Tea became a symbol for colonists to rally around There were mixed reactions to the Boston Tea Party
Parliament Passes the "Intolerable Acts" Intolerable Acts are passed in 1774 to punish Boston, including the Boston Port Act, which closed the Boston Harbor, restrictions on town meetings, allowing British soldiers who killed in the line of duty to be tried in Britain, and a quartering act. Quebec law is passed in 1774, allowing conquered French Canadians to keep there religion and customs, including lack of trial by jury and increased the land of Quebec to the Ohio River. The lack of trial by jury and loss of land worried Americans
Bloodshed Colonists respond with sympathy to the Boston Port Act, and send food to Boston In 1774 the Continental Congress meets; all colonies but Georgia and 55 delegates come. The Congress decides the create "The Association" to boycott British goods If the taxes were appealed then all was well, if not the Congress was to meet again in May 1775 Those who don't obey the association are tarred and feathered, men begin to gather guns and train for battle April 1775-A British Commander sent troops to seize gunpowder and rebel ringleaders in Lexington and Concord, starting the battles of Lexington and Concord.
Imperial Strength and Weakness Britan had 3 times the population and a much stronger military then the colonies Britain had a 50,000 man army as well as hired Hessians(30,000) as well as loyalists and native Americans British troops had to be kept in Ireland to prevent rebellion there France wanted revenge against Britain for the Seven Years War The British government was inept Some British supported the Americans, and many did not want to fight them. William Pitt withdrew a son from the army, and the whigs heralded American victories British generals in America were mediocre and soldiers mistreated by officers. One solider received 800 stripes for striking an officer Provisions for soldiers were scarce. Biscuits captured in the French and Indian War, were once softened with cannonballs The distance between America and Britain slowed the speed of reinforcements and information. The colonies covered a vast distance and had no central base to be destroyed. Conquering cities had little effect as it bought America time When 150 patriots were killed at Bunker hill roughly 60,000 American babies were born
American Pluses and Minuses The colonies had astounding leadership George Washington Benjamin Franklin Eventual aid from France Lafayette becomes general at 19 and helps secure french aid Colonists agricultural society could sustain them Colonists had morale belief in there cause Colonies, including continental congress, were disorganized Several states did not want to be controlled by congress Lack of coined money necessitated making paper money, which quickly looses value. The phrase "not worth a Continental" is coined, one barber papered his shop with the money debtors payed off debts with worthless money husbands and fathers desert army to support families
A Thin Line of Heros Military supplies for Continental army were scarce Food and uniforms were also scarce, soldiers occasionally went days without food or fainted from hunger The American military was untrained Baron von Steuben and other strict drillmasters help organize and discipline army By the wars end more then 5,000 blacks had enlisted in the army To counter this effect British royal governer, Lord Dunmore of Virginia, promised freedom to any slave who joined the British army
1650-First Navigation Laws to Control colonial commerce1696 Board of Trade assumes governance of colonies1763 Seven Years War Ends1764 Sugar Act1765 Quartering Act Stamp Act Stamp Act congress1766-Declaratory Act1767-Townshend Acts New York Legislature suspended by Parliment1768-British troops occupy Boston1770-Boston Massacure1772-Commitees of Corrospendence formed1773-British East India Company granted tea monopoly Governer Hutchinson's actions provoke Boston Tea party1774-Intolerable acts Quebec Act First Continental Congress The Association Boycotts British Goods1775-Battles of Lexington and Concord