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Measuring Skill Gaps in Qatar and the Arab World

Measuring Skill Gaps in Qatar and the Arab World



This presentation was invited by Qatar University’s Training Managers Forum as an input to its foundation meeting. The Arabization of the concept of knowledge economy is discussed along with ...

This presentation was invited by Qatar University’s Training Managers Forum as an input to its foundation meeting. The Arabization of the concept of knowledge economy is discussed along with typology to classify the source of skills gaps in the Arab World. The presentation closes with observations on the difficulty of scientifically measuring skills gaps in the region with a specific emphasis on operationalizing a measurement mechanism in Qatar.



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    Measuring Skill Gaps in Qatar and the Arab World Measuring Skill Gaps in Qatar and the Arab World Presentation Transcript

    • Measuring Skill Gaps in Qatar and the Arab WorldAbout Us Tahseen Consulting is an advisor on strategic and organizational issues facing governments, social sector institutions, and corporations in the Arab World. You can read more about our capabilities at tahseen.ae Observations on the difficulty of scientifically measuring skills ▲Public Sector gaps in the region with a specific emphasis on QatarSocial SectorCorporate ResponsibilityCONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARYAny use of this material without specific permission of Tahseen Consulting is strictly prohibited www.tahseen.ae | 1
    • Popular theories suggests intangibles are becoming a more important driver of modern economic growth in the transition to knowledge-based economies Knowledge-based Through public policy and institutions, Economic governments influence long-run growth Development Financial and Intangible capital other tangible capital Economic Computerized Capital markets Infrastructure Capital equipment Innovative property information (programs Competencies and databases) Brand equity R&D (patents, licenses and Economic growth can be affected by public policies (investments to retain or gain general know-how) and market share and investment mineral exploration and Institutions concerned with in brand names) • International trade and openness Organizational capital Creative property (investments in strategic • Education and training policies planning, adaptation, (innovative/artistic content in commercial copyrights, • Domestic and foreign Investment climate organizational structures and licenses and designs) business processes) • Macroeconomic and competitive policy • Financial markets • Institutional quality of government Firm-specific human capital (employee • Security skills) • The availability of public services and infrastructure Knowledge Components of KBESource: Corrado, Hulten and Sichel (2006) | 2
    • Knowledge-based economic development emerged as a policy goal in the early 90s dueto the regional commonality of several economic, socio-political, and cultural factors Regional Drivers Illustrative Regional Development Challenges 1 • Dependence on foreign technologies • Shortages/difficulty in finding/developing qualified employees • Low capacity to transfer technologies • Capital formation has not led to higher value industry or exports Economic • Low levels of total factor productivity • Suboptimal environment for business, entrepreneurship, and FDI • Volatile oil prices leading to regional booms and busts • Low R&D spending Knowledge- 2 based Economic Development • Youth bulge • Supply of highly educated youth has outpaced job creation Socio-political • Education systems are not well suited to the needs of KBED • Political reform has proceeded at varying rates • Work of international organizations has encouraged KBED 3 • Religious importance of the quest for learning and knowledge Cultural • Brain drain of prominent academics and scientists • Perception the region is lagging behind in developmentSources: Al-Ali 1991, Sawhel 2009, Djeflat 2009, Program 2002, Hertog 2010, Program 2003, United Nations Educational 2010, Dhillion and Yousef 2009, Program 2010, Foundation and Program 2009, House2011, Miller and Holmes 2011 | 3
    • Knowledge-based economic development in the Arab World is closely intertwined with economic and social development issues Emerging Thinking on Knowledge-based Empirically Established Links Between Human Economic Development in the Arab World Capital and Social and Economic Development Closely intertwined with policies that support Several social and economic benefits are attributed to higher levels of human capital:  Economic integration and diversification  Innovation Social Outcomes  Technology development  Entrepreneurship • Higher levels of educational attainment  Job creation/workforce skills development • Increased health  Education and training system reform • Efficiency of consumer choices  Environmental sustainability • Higher levels of savings and charitable giving  Social development • Social cohesion  Healthcare reform • Increased self-reliance and econ. independence  ICT infrastructure development • Reduced Crime Economic Outcomes Significant emphasis on • Growth and competitiveness human capital • Enabling comparative advantage • Increased productivity • Domestic innovation • Speeding technology adoptionSources: Powell and Snellman 2004, Planning 2010, Rischard 2009 | 4
    • Similar to Qatar in the QNV 2030, many Arab countries have embraced knowledge-basedeconomic development while stressing similar human capital development goals Justification for Knowledge-based Specific Human Capital Objectives Identified Economy as a Goal in National Development Plan in National Development PlanCountry Improving Access Improving Health, Increasing Female Economic Economic Environmental Social and Quality of Safety, and or Private Sector Increasing Job Creation Integration Diversification Sustainability Development Education Environment Labor Participation EntrepreneurshipAlgeriaBahrainEgyptIraqJordanKuwaitLebanonLibyaMoroccoOmanPalestineQatarSaudi ArabiaSudanSyriaTunisiaUAE Explicitly stated as a justification for knowledge-based economic development goals or as a supporting human capital objective Not stated as a justification for knowledge-based economic development goals or as a supporting human capital objective | 5
    • Many of the Arab countries , including Qatar, face workforce skills deficiencies that slow knowledge-based economic development and negatively impact high skill industries 10 (as proxied by the World Bank Knowledge Economy Index Ranking) High Skills Equilibrium United Kingdom Germany 9 How does Ireland Employer Demand for higher, knowledge-intensive skills Estonia • Strong demand for high level skills High Qatar make Czech Republic Spain Hungary Korea, Rep. • Skills formulation institutions and the 8 Lithuania enabling environment work in tandem the transition? Latvia Slovak Republic Poland Croatia Portugal Greece • Knowledge-based economies with Chile Bulgaria lower levels of skills gaps 7 United Arab Emirates Qatar Romania Uruguay Bahrain Malaysia Costa Rica Kuwait 6 Brazil Russia Serbia Turkey • The perception of Arab employers Medium Saudi Arabia Jordan Oman Mexico Africa South may deter entry into knowledge- Belarus based industries which are perceived 5 Colombia Lebanon China to require skills unavailable in the Egypt Tunisia Sri Lanka Philippines national workforce or too costly to Morocco Botswana Azerbaijan build internally 4 Bolivia Vietnam Cape Verde Indonesia Syria Honduras India Guatemala Swaziland 3 Kenya Algeria Senegal Uganda Pakistan Ghana Low Skills Equilibrium Zambia Yemen Tanzania Lesotho Burkina 2 Nepal • Employers face few skill gaps in a Low Faso Mozambique Cambodia Bangladesh Ethiopia Eritrea predominantly low skilled workforce Rwanda Guinea • Little incentive to participate in 1 education and training and raise qualification levels and aspirations 0 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% Low Medium High % of firms with sufficient internal skills levelsSource:Author’s analysis of World Bank Enterprise Survey | 6
    • Employers, particularly in the GCC, face both “skills shortages” as well as “skills gaps” thatlimit performance and achievement of business objectives My Research Focus Skills Shortages Skills Gaps Skill Shortage Skills Gap Desired Quantity of Internal Workers Workforce With a Quantity of Current Skill Level Particular Workers Internal Skill With a Workforce Required Particular Skill Level Skill Available • Genuine lack of adequately skilled individuals available • Employers feel that their existing workforce has inadequate in the labor market with the type of skill being sought skill types/levels to meet their business objectives • Employers unable to recruit staff with the skills they • New entrants to the labor market trained and qualified for are looking for at the going rate of pay occupations but still lack a variety of the skills required 7 | 7
    • Skills deficiencies have severely negative impacts on firms in the region Internal firm deficiencies External labor market deficienciesSkills Well Functioning Labor Markets Employers Require EffectiveFormation Require Allocative Efficiency Firm-level Utilization of Workforce SkillsObjective Workforce skills levels meet the expectations of Preparation of individuals with the skills, work experience, employers either in terms of full occupationalDescription and qualifications in the quantity and quality to meet laborof Objective proficiency or in the ability to meet business market needs objectives with current workforce skills levelsImpact on Skills shortages requiring expatriate reliance for Even when employees are hired, many still have skillsfirm if skills technical/commercial roles such as gaps requiring remediation through measures such asformation Technical Roles Commercial Roles Discipline Engineering Finance • Increased training and trainee programssystem is Geology/Geophysics Business Analysis • More staff appraisals / performance reviewsweak Process Engineering Contracting & Procurement • Implementation of mentoring / buddying schemes Product/Process Human Resources • More supervision Research Information Technology • Changing working practices and redefining jobs Production Engineering Sales & Marketing • Reallocation of work within the company Production Technology Supply & Distribution • Outsourcing to external providers Project/Facilities Trading • Using government resources / funding Engineering O&G • Incentives/rewards/recognition Reservoir/Petroleum Example • Sending employees for certification Engineering • Providing cross functional exposure to the business Well EngineeringInfluence on Medium to severe, but recruiting from outside Severe because skills gaps influence manybusiness Qatar is a short-term solution to what is a large- aspects of current operations includingoperations scale, systemic problem efficiency, service, and profitability | 8
    • The changing demands of knowledge-based economic development create a need forinterdependence and collaborative networks for effective skills formation WORK IN PROCESS Education and Training System Business Community • Ensuring Relevancy and Employability • Workforce Investment • Quality Assurance Qualitative and • Workforce Development quantitative • Expanding Access supply-demand match Facilitate regular, on-the-job National Skills training and participation Link Formation System in skills economic for Knowledge- formation development based • Coordination with E&T Development • Aligning system • Investment Optimization Macroeconomic Policy Address policy, informational, or With Skills financial sources of • Lifelong-learning Formation underinvestment • Broad-based, Critical Government Coordination Points Inclusive Skills Formation Government Individuals | 9
    • Yet several failures of the skill formation system can lead to skills gaps Market and Institutional 1 2 3 Failure Induced Skills Gaps Transitional Skills Gaps Structural Skills Gaps A gap caused by structural policy or A temporary gap between the skills of A mismatch between employee skills and government institutional failure due to: current employees and the skills needed to requirements of employers due to: meet business objectives which decreases Poor Macroeconomic Policy as employees gain confidence in their jobs Poor Staff Development and Retainment • Misalignment of education system with or complete training due to: development due to rapid technical and Staff Development organizational change or industrial policy Incomplete Orientation and Integration • Failure to train and develop staff • Lack of experience • Inability of older staff to acquire Education & Training System Misalignment • Recently recruited necessary new knowledge and skills • Lack of funds, bureaucratic management, • Training program only partially completed • Low or no training budget poor remuneration, and low standards • Recent merger/acquisition • Lack of commitment by senior leaders to leading to irrelevant curricula, poor teaching, employee learning and development and an emphasis on abstract rather than Lack of Motivation practical training • Staff lack motivation Staff Retainment • Firms may hire staff requiring more training • High staff turnover in the face of skills shortages • Retrenchments • Lack of specialized institutions to provide appropriate training Evolving Business Objectives • Lack of interaction between firms and specialized training institutions Strategy-skill lag • Changes in company strategy, goals, Insufficient Individual Investment markets or business models • Individuals may not know the future value of • New products and services skills investments • New working practices • Preference for more certain short term • New technology returns to available jobs • Training offering no certification less Changing job requirements attractive as value to other firms is reduced • Inability of workforce to keep up with change • Legislation that raises wages above the • Scope of job increasing market level reduces training investment • When pay and status are not linked to qualifications incentives are reducedSource: (Acemoglu and Pischke 1996; Research 1996; Lall 1999; Ziderman 2003) | 10
    • The GCC countries, in particular, appear to have significant levels of skills gapsRank Country and Survey Year % of Total Firms Suveyed Which Have a Major or Rank Country and Survey Year % of Total Firms Suveyed Which Have a Major or Observations Very Severe Skills Gap Very Severe Skills Gap 1 Brazil 2009 73.03% 42 Oman 2007 MBRF 33.00% 2 Kuwait 2007 MBRF 68.00% 43 Chile 2006 32.06% 3 4 Egypt 2007 MBRF Chad 2009 66.00% 57.33% 44 45 Uzbekistan 2008 Peru 2006 31.97% 31.33% • Kuwait, Egypt, KSA, UAE 5 6 Belarus 2008 CapeVerde 2009 55.31% 53.85% 46 47 China 2002 Dominican Republic 2005 30.73% 30.67% amongst the top ten 7 Saudi Arabia 2007 MBRF 53.00% 48 Estonia 2009 30.40% 8 UAE 2007 MBRF 51% 49 Tunisia 2007 MBRF 30.00% 9 Kazakhstan 2009 50.18% 50 Malawi 2009 30.00% • Maghreb countries and 511011 Russia 2009 Argentina 2006 48.90% 48.35% 52 Thailand 2004 Egypt 2004 29.96% 29.80% Egypt moved up the1213 Morocco 2007 MBRF Romania 2009 47.00% 46.21% 53 54 Kyrgyz Republic 2009 Guatemala 2006 29.36% 29.31% ranking significantly14 Algeria 2007 MBRF 45.00% 55 Vanuatu 2009 28.91%15 Mauritius 2009 44.97% 56 Yemen 2010 28.72%16 Micronesia 2009 44.12% 57 58 Kenya 2003 27.64% • Levant countries and17 Ukraine 2008 43.48% Slovak Republic 2009 27.64%18 Lithuania 2009 43.12% 59 Samoa 2009 27.52% Bahrain in the lower 20s19 Moldova 2009 42.98% 60 Venezuela 2006 27.40%20 Tonga 2009 42.67% 61 El Salvador 2006 27.27%2122 Latvia 2009 Jamaica 2005 41.70% 41.57% 62 63 Georgia 2008 Turkey 2008 27.08% 26.82% • Qatar and Oman in 30s23 Gabon 2009 41.34% 64 Bolivia 2006 26.26%24 Congo 2009 40.40% 65 Algeria 2002 25.47%25 Guyana 2004 40.37% 66 Honduras 2006 25.46% • Though there are some26 Bahrain 2007 MBRF 40.00% 67 Colombia 2006 25.40%27 Niger 2009 38.67% 68 Benin 2009 25.33% differences in the data that2829 Lebanon 2006 Jordan 2007 MBRF 37.96% 37.00% 69 70 Czech Republic 2009 Laos 2009 25.20% 25.00% are hard to reconcile30 Syria 2003 36.33% 71 Malaysia 2002 25.00%31 Paraguay 2006 36.22% 72 Armenia 2009 24.06%32 BurkinaFaso 2009 35.79% 73 Namibia 2006 23.71%33 Zambia 2002 35.75% 74 Uruguay 2006 23.51%34 Cameroon 2009 35.26% 75 Botswana 2006 22.22%3536 Qatar 2007 MBRF Tajikistan 2008 35.00% 35.00% 76 77 Mauritania 2006 Croatia 2007 22.03% 21.64% • 35% of private sector37 Oman 2003 34.63% 78 SriLanka 2004 21.33% employers in Qatar38 Poland 2009 34.51% 79 Morocco 2004 21.06%39 Albania 2007 33.88% 80 Mali 2003 20.78% indicate a skills gap40 Ecuador 2006 33.13% 81 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2009 20.50%41 Ivory Coast 2009 32.32% 82 Bulgaria 2009 20.14% Data Source: MBRF-PWC Report World bank Enterprise Survey | 11
    • If generalizable to Qatar, graduates are lacking in both hard and soft skills Percentage of HR managers who agreed that newly hired Hard Skills students have appropriate skills Soft Skills University Vocational 29 Graduates 16 Graduates Egypt 26 12 22 10 Jordan 25 16 33 36 Morocco 28 25 51 41 Saudi Arabia 45 38 29 23 Yemen 26 19Source: e4e Employer Survey | 12
    • If generalizable to Qatar, training by employers is focused primarily on hard skills Percentage of HR managers who indicated their firm provides training Hard Skills in hard vs. soft skills Soft Skills 94 Egypt 45 79 Jordan 32 87 Morocco 42 71 Saudi Arabia 26 93 Yemen 50Source: e4e Employer Survey | 13
    • However, it is unclear what the normative threshold to which internal skills levels should be compared: Should surveys be measuring skills levels relative to proficiency performing a particular job or relative to achieving macro firm-level goals? Skills deficiencies internal • to the firm How do firms prioritize training needs in an environment with significant hard and soft skills gaps? Do firms train to meet business objectives or for occupational proficiency? WhoSkills should pay for general skills training?Formation Effective Firm-level UtilizationObjective of Workforce Skills • Is the training preference for hard skills more associated with meeting business objectives?Description Workforce skills levels meet the expectations ofof Objective employers either in terms of full occupational • Soft skill training is risky due to proficiency or in the ability to meet business poaching. Is there a bias towards objectives with current workforce skills levels hard skill training due to employee poaching , preferences for public Lack of sector employment, and the wage conceptual premium in the public sector?Evidence of Skills Gaps claritya Deficiency • Are competency assessments based • Current workforce has inadequate skill types/levels on occupational proficiency and the to meet business objectives assumption of adequate soft skills OR suitable in an environment where • Employers perceive current employees to be less there are large gaps in hard and soft than fully proficient to perform their current jobs skills? | 14
    • The NDS advances several initiatives aimed at existing skills formation weaknesses, but feware aimed at employees disadvantaged by previous skills formation failuresPriority Target Satements Initiatives and Key Deliverables and Milestones Target 1: Include work skills in the national • Align the national curriculum with the objectives for creating effective curriculum including implmenting initiatives toIncrease awareness participants in the knowledge economy foster student exposure to work environmentsof skills required infuture work Target 2: Operationalize work skills in the • Encourage schools to hold workshops with key employers to learn aboutenvironments national curriculum and enhance the their skill requirements and gaps in the skills of new graduates performance of academic and vocational • Career counselors in schools to advise on education and career paths guidance in schools Target 1: Increase the proportion of students • Launch a campaign aimed at increasing enrolment in courses suitablePrepare Qataris for graduating with qualifications needed in the for a knowledge economyemployment in the knowledge economy by 65%-75% • Incentivize Qatari enrolment in knowledge economy coursesknowledge economy Target 2: Provide diverse post-secondary • Conduct studies on workforce needs and assess the gap between education pathways to meet labor market needs education output and requirementsDevelop a regulatory • Appoint an oversight body and determine process model Target 1: Define and implement standards tor aframework to align • Determine the scope of the National Qualification Framework National Qualifications frameworktechnical education • Decide on the reference model and structureand vocational • Build on the existing vocational education training initiative in deciding ontraining with the Target 2: Develop and implement a system of international standards to be adopted by Qatareducation sector and occupational standards for relevant professions • Customize occupational standardslabor market needs • Appoint an oversight body and determine organizations and processes Target 1: Develop and implement a planAlign technical and • Determine and prioritize needs for the different types of TEVT aligning TEVT programs with the needs of thevocational training • Develop an implementation plan labor marketprograms andoutputs with the Target 2: Develop and industry partnership • Conduct a benchmarking study on best practices related to partnershipneeds of society and model accepted by all stakeholders • Determine key areas and projects for TEVT partnerships with industrythe labor market Target 3: Establish a first partnership • Integrate partnership into the regulatory frameworkIncrease prominence Target 2: Incorporate TEVT options into career • Develop a TEVT career counseling system, including the necessaryof TEVT programs counseling legislative and regulatory systems K-12 Higher Education Technical and Vocational Education | 15
    • International experience suggests several options for intervention in training markets Policy Options Government GovernmentReason for Intervention Subsidy of Training Provision of Training Complementary Policies Externalities None Property rights (employer Levy-grant schemes fear of poaching) Market imperfections Deal with sources of (economic and social imperfections if policy distortion) politically possible Inadequate Firm-based Build firm training training capacity; levy-grant schemes Weak private training Build up private provision training capacity Reduce subsidies to Create equal opportunity trainees peers, selective scholarships Targeted training Disadvantaged groups subsidies; employment creation; Source: Ziderman (2003) income redistribution | 16
    • There are several changes which appear necessary to improve the measurement andresponse to skills gaps; Here are a few thoughts … • There are potentially major flaws in current measurement approaches that lead to several sources of bias and necessitate a 360 degree approach – HR, employee, direct line managers, CxOs • To more effectively measure technical skills gaps, there needs to be standardization of occupational skills questions to go beyond identifying soft skills as a source of skills gaps • There is a need to more effectively link particular skills with the achievement of firm objectives rather than focus on occupational proficiency exclusively; This allows us to relate particular skill gaps to achieving both business and national economic development objectives  Skills gaps are generally resolved through training yet the criticality of a particular skills gap to achieving business objectives is usually not measured. This might mean training programs to resolve skills gaps are misguided in that they focus on skills which may not affect the macro level business objectives of the firm directly • There is a need to pinpoint the source of skills gaps to suggest and determine an appropriate response; It is not always the education system at fault and potentially there are intervening labor market, organizational behavior, and socio-cultural issues at play • There is a need for more rigorous academic work on the subject – single, direct question consulting surveys get headlines but don’t solve the problem • Supply-side interventions in the education and training system are unable to backfill previous skills formation system failures which impact firms in Qatar now. What do we do once we identify skills gaps? | 17
    • Questions for group discussion 1. Assuming there was a national survey of skills gaps in Qatar, what would be the most appropriate threshold against which to assess current workforce skills levels? Should we be measuring gaps relative to a firm’s workforce to perform their present job or relative to current workforce skills sufficiency to meeting business objectives? Should we be asking:  How many of your current employees are fully proficient to perform their current jobs? or  Is the a gap between the skills of current employees and the skills needed to meet business objectives? 2. What are the main causes of some of your employees having skills gaps (See slide 10 for some common causes)? 3. At which level does your organization face the most skills gaps? In which departments of your organization is the skills gap most evident? For example, CEOs/ Board/Business owners, Senior Managers, Middle Managers, Skilled Trades, Sales and customer services staff, Administrative/clerical staff, IT staff, Other 4. What action, if any, is your organization taking to overcome skills gaps? Some common approaches include: Increased training activity spend or increased/expanded trainee programs, Increased recruitment activity/ spend, More staff appraisals/performance reviews, Implementation of mentoring / buddying scheme, More supervision of staff, Recruiting expatriate workers, Changing working practices, subcontracting more work, Automating certain tasks, Redefining jobs, Reallocating work within the company, Sending employees for certification, Providing employees with cross functional exposure to business, Building up team spirit/motivation, Making staff redundant/Disciplinary action, Increasing salaries, Incentives/rewards/recognition | 18
    • Questions for group discussion 5. What barriers prevent your organization providing more training to overcome skills gaps? Some common reasons are: Lack of cover for training, Lack of time for training, Lack of funding for training, Lack of suitable courses, Unwillingness of staff to undertake training, High staff turnover, etc. 6. Do labor market conditions and preferences in Qatar shape the type of training firms provide? Is there a bias towards hard skill training in Qatar over general skills training due to employee poaching, early labor market exit by women, preferences for public sector employment, and the wage premium in the public and semi government sectors etc.? 7. In what ways do workforce skills gaps currently impact the performance of your organization? Some potential impacts might be: Loss of business or orders to competitors, Lower profits, Inability to meet business performance goals, Delay developing new products or services, Difficulties meeting quality standards, Increased operating costs, Difficulties introducing new working practices, Increased workload for other staff, Increased outsourcing of work, Difficulty meeting customer service objectives, Difficulties introducing technological change, The need to withdraw from offering certain products or services altogether, Restricted business development or withdrawal from markets, Loss of quality in the service, Loss of efficiency/increased waste, More strain on the management, Increased recruitment costs, More stress on employees, Lower staff morale, Losing some high performing employees etc. 8. What would be the most effective way to increase cooperation between the business community, education and training institutions, and the Qatari government to bridge current employee skills gaps? 9. What would be the most effective way to increase cooperation between the business community, education and training institutions, and the Qatari government to ensure firms are able to hire graduates with sufficient skills to avoid remedial training? Are the proposed interventions in the NDS enough? | 19
    • Mind map: Measuring and Resolving Skills Gaps in Qatar Proficiency vs. Business Objectives • Depends on the level of employee/industry• Lack of training • 2 levels of proficiency: Basic level – should be• Training needs not known due agreed by industry; Industry-specific: should to lack of JDs for example include more in depth skills in line with employee• Weak relationship between Causes proficiency and business objectives education and specific (Q2, Q6) National • At more senior levels business objectives more professions Survey important• Must raise cultural awareness (Q1) • Assess relative to perform their present job that each person is Remediation responsible for themselves • Restructuring training dep. and skills • Increased assessment• Lack of career counseling and • Career cent. to reposition emp. role models in high schools • Mentoring• Managers do not know themselves the skills needed Skills Org. • Conferences • e-learning = latency Gaps in Actions to • Certification• Culturally shaped lack of willingness to delegate Qatar Overcome Barriers• On the job training is not (Q4,Q5) • Fear of nationalization adequate • No mechanism or incentive to• Industry switchers need Impacts transfer expat knowledge training or a mentor • No link to KPIs/ comp. (Q3, Q7)• Older employees hesitant to Current Gaps training Bus, • IAD exists which is focused on public sector training E&T, Gov, • Government provides training funds through entities• Customer service, dealing with work • Community service stress, interpersonal skills Cooperation • Informal professional network to arrange visits and• Occur at all levels – entry level fresh grads, (Q8, Q9) experience sharing middle mgmt. to deal with senior and • Top down approach with MOE, MOL, and universities juniors, senior management due to Preventing Future Gaps • Dictionary of titles with skills reference points for centralized decision making • Work experience programs employers, schools, trainers etc.• Reputational risk • University must increase link to specific • Mandatory skills standards – Univ. encourages,• Departmental and organizational jobs roles through work experience, employers ensure, govt. defines performance career services center • Gov. and com efforts publicized | 20