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Arab World Higher Education Situation Analysis And Options
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Arab World Higher Education Situation Analysis And Options

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Multiple global external trends are shaping the future and will have major implications on higher education in the Arab World.

Multiple global external trends are shaping the future and will have major implications on higher education in the Arab World.

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Arab World Higher Education Situation Analysis And Options Arab World Higher Education Situation Analysis And Options Presentation Transcript

  • Arab World Higher Education Situation Analysis and OptionsAbout Us Tahseen Consulting is an advisor on strategic and organizational issues facing governments, social sector institutions, and corporations in the Arab World. You can read more about our capabilities at tahseen.ae ▲Public Sector Our views on the important issues and what needs to be doneSocial SectorCorporate ResponsibilityCONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARYAny use of this material without specific permission of Tahseen Consulting is strictly prohibited www.tahseen.ae |
  • The Arab World trails in most higher education indicators Only 5% of all global spending on higher education occurs …Resulting in stress on systems, with 71 student-faculty in the Arab World (61% in NA & EU)… ratio in Business Schools, at 5X OECD average Student-Faculty Ratio in Arab World [OECD Avg: 16] Higher Education enrollment rate at 24% is higher than However, a disproportionate number (46%) graduate from developing countries but lower than developed nations Arts, and only 8% hold Masters or PhD degreesEvolution of Gross Higher Education Enrollment Graduates by Graduates byCountry 2003 2004 ChangeAlgeria 14.98 20.00 5.02 Field Degree LevelBahrain 25.20 34.00 8.80Djibouti 0.36 2.00 1.64Egypt 39.00 33.00 -6.00 Masters PhD 6% 2%Iraq 13.57 15.00 1.43Jordan 28.62 39.00 10.38 17%Kuwait 21.08 22.00 0.92Lebanon 36.67 48.00 11.33 BusinessLibya Developed countries 51.17 55.00 3.83Mauritania typically have enrollment 5.60 3.00 -2.60 46%MoroccoOman rates of 60% or higher 9.34 4.70 11.00 13.00 1.66 8.30 Arts 92%Palestinian Territories 25.95 38.00 12.05 37% [OECD BachelorsQatar 27.66 18.00 -9.66Saudi Arabia 22.44 28.00 5.56 Science & Avg: 25%]Sudan 6.85 NA NASyria 6.09 NA NA TechnologyTunisia 19.30 29.00 9.70UAE 12.10 22.00 9.90Yemen 10.77 9.00 -1.77Total (%) 19.07 24.39 5.32
  • Higher education in the Arab world is facing several challenges starting from its underlyingenvironment through to demand and consumption Higher Education – Key Findings Consumption and Environment, Funding and Institutions Related Beneficiaries Infrastructure (Education Supply) (Education Demand) Big spenders on education in order of magnitude: Universities account for at least 86% of the total More females than males are enrolled in higher Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Morocco number of students in higher education education; Only five countries in the Arab World have more male students Avg. regional expenditure per student is US$ 2,444, Teaching is didactic, with no emphasis on students Education is more developed in Jordan, Lebanon, OECD countries average US$ 14,027 per student becoming independent learner and critical thinkers Libya, and the Palestinian Territories, where enrollment is near 40% or above Many universities do not have sufficient Universities that teach in Arabic have limited institutional resources for teaching and research choices regarding texts and teaching material The higher the degree level, the larger the proportion who study abroad: 5.7% at the BA Current system does not reward faculty level, 13.0% at MA level, and 34.4% at Ph.D. level Centralized educational systems are organized to performance and full time engagement in facilitate expansion rather than performance- academia The bigger education spenders in the region have oriented systems with emphasis on quality higher quality domestic labor markets Arab scholarly, scientific, and professional Governments lack experience in policy and strategy organizations operate at a low level of activity Few partnerships between the private sector and development as well as in planning and education institutions which produce graduates management of higher education systems Institutions rely on faculty members educated with new and adaptable skills and who possess the abroad with a variety of intellectual background ability to continuously upgrade their skills Leaders require accurate data to compare and educational practices institutions, promote more informed decision There have been attempts to link higher education making about programs, and formulate policies 100,000 faculty members in institutions of higher to development and social issues but they center education; 60% of them have PhDs; (40%) have on public awareness campaigns rather than on key Profit-oriented, private institutions are not M.A.’s, but only a few (15.5% of both groups) hold changes in the curriculum or the community adequately accommodated in educational policy professorial titles and there are no governmental quality standards Legend Favorable Satisfactory Unsatisfactory | 3
  • The Arab World has also not implemented a number of the international best practices inhigher education Higher Education in Arab World compared to International Best Practices International Best Practices Current State in the Arab World Institutions deliver curricula with a strong linkage to the There is a lack of relevance of higher education programs skills demanded by labor markets and curricula to development needs and the labor market Education institutions provide leadership development Anecdotal evidence suggests that universities are not opportunities through extra curricular activities and providing sufficient levels of leadership opportunities in curricula enrichment comparison to global standards Faculty engaged in knowledge based society through Faculty is reluctant to engage in academia fulltime, publication in journals and professional associations; relevancy is ensured through training in technology and impacting knowledge production; scholarly/professional participative teaching methods organizations are weak Education is integrated with social development to Efforts have centered on public awareness rather than on increase community engagement key changes in the curriculum or the community Governments promote quality at the national and Emphasis has typically been on quantitative expansion institutional levels through policies and systems of rather than educational quality and systems of continuous institutional oversight improvement | 4
  • Worldwide there are 105 million tertiary students with 11.8% average world enrollment;only 4 Arab countries fall significantly below the world average Territory size shows the proportion of people worldwide enrolled in tertiary education.Source: Worldmapper | 5
  • Regionally enrollment is 24% with large variation between countries; Enrollment is higherthan developing countries but lower than developedEvolution of Gross Higher Education Enrollment Total Full and Part Time Enrollment in Tertiary Public and Private InstutionsCountry 2003 2004 Change Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Algeria 14.98 20.00 5.02 CountryBahrain 25.20 34.00 8.80 Algeria ... 549,009 624,788 682,775 716,452 755,463Djibouti 0.36 2.00 1.64 Bahrain ... ... ... 19,079 18,524 18,841Egypt 39.00 33.00 -6.00 Djibouti 190 496 728 906 1,134 1,696Iraq 13.57 15.00 1.43 Egypt ... ... ... 2,153,865 2,512,399 2,594,186Jordan 28.62 39.00 10.38 Iraq 288,670 ... 317,993 ... 412,545 424,908Kuwait 21.08 22.00 0.92 Jordan 142,190 ... 162,688 186,189 214,106 217,823Lebanon 36.67 48.00 11.33 Kuwait ... 34,779 36,982 37,153 36,866 38,630Libya 51.17 55.00 3.83 Lebanon 116,014 134,018 142,951 144,050 154,635 165,730Mauritania 5.60 3.00 -2.60 Libya 290,060 324,603 359,146 375,028 ... ...Morocco 9.34 11.00 1.66 Mauritania ... 9,033 8,173 8,941 9,292 8,758Oman 4.70 13.00 8.30 Morocco 276,375 310,258 315,343 335,755 343,599 366,879Palestinian Territories 25.95 38.00 12.05 Oman ... ... 36,204 36,826 41,578 48,483Qatar 27.66 18.00 -9.66 Palestinian Territories 71,207 80,543 88,930 104,567 121,928 127,214Saudi Arabia 22.44 28.00 5.56 Qatar ... 7,808 7,831 7,826 9,287 9,760Sudan 6.85 NA NA Saudi Arabia 404,094 432,348 444,800 525,344 573,732 603,671Syria 6.09 NA NA Sudan 204,114 ... ... ... ... ...Tunisia 19.30 29.00 9.70 Syrian Arab Republic ... ... ... ... ... ...UAE 12.10 22.00 9.90 Tunisia 180,044 207,388 226,102 263,414 291,842 311,569Yemen 10.77 9.00 -1.77 United Arab Emirates 43,459 58,656 63,419 68,182 ... ...Total (%) 19.07 24.39 5.32 Yemen 173,130 ... ... ... 192,071 201,043 Total All Arab States 5,545,811 5,610,541 5,939,658 5,874,484 6,519,997 6,782,849For Comparison 2004Countries in Transition 54%Developed Countries 65%Developing Countries 16% Key Takeaways • From 2003 to 2004 enrollment rates climbed by 5%. In the region tertiary education is more developed in Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, and the Palestinian Autonomous Territories, where higher education enrollment is near 40% or above. • Egypt has nearly 40% of the entire Arab higher education student population.Source: UNESCO | 6
  • While enrollment is high, regional spending is low; 61% of spending occurs in NorthAmerica and Western Europe; Only 5% occurs in the Arab World Territory size shows the proportion of all spending on tertiary education worldwide that is spent there, when measured in purchasing power parity US$.Source: Worldmapper | 7
  • While regional government educational budgets have increased, spending in theAmericas and Europe were 15 times that of the Arab World Territory size shows the proportion of all increases in spending on tertiary education between 1990 and 2001.Source: Worldmapper | 8
  • In the Arab World, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Morocco spend the most; Data suggests spending is correlated to the quality of labor markets Key Takeaways Public Expenditure on Tertiary Education As a % of Total Government Education Expenditures • Big spenders on education relative are in order of magnitude: Country 1990 1998-2000 2005 Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Egypt NA 33.30% NA Morocco. Jordan 35.10% 33.00% NA Quality of Domestic Labor Market Lebanon NA 28.50% 11.00% • Arab States compare very well Syria 21.30% NA NA Rank Country Score with non-Arab ones. Relative to Bahrain NA NA NA 1 Jordan 66 Kuwait 16.00% NA 12.70% their GNP standing, many invest in 2 Lebanaon 64 Oman 7.40% 1.60% 24.20% education more than France. 3 Egypt 62 Qatar NA NA NA S. Arabia 21.20% NA 27.60% 4 Morocco 60 • There is a continued trend UAE NA 2.40% 27.40% 5 Saudi Arabia 60 toward increased government Algeria NA NA NA 6 Tunisia 58 budgets for higher education in Libya NA NA NA 7 West Bank and Gaza 57 the region. Morocco 16.20% 16.30% 27.20% 8 Kuwait 51 Tunisia 18.50% 22.80% 20.80% 9 Algeria 46 • Higher spending may be Mauritania 24.90% NA NA 10 UAE 43 correlated to the quality of the Yemen NA NA NA 11 Bahrain 38 domestic labor market as shown Iran 13.60% 19.40% NA 12 Qatar 38 in the snapshot below from the Comparator Countries 13 Oman 36 2007 Arab Business Intelligence 1990 1998-2000 2005 14 Yemen 26 Report. The bigger spenders in the Malaysia 19.90% 31.90% NA Overall 52 region generally have higher quality domestic labor markets. France 13.80% NA 10.90% Spain 15.40% 20.10% 11%Sources: UNESCO, Arab Human Development Report, PricewaterhouseCoopers Arab Business Intelligence Report | 9
  • Lower spending levels in the Arab World are reflected in student spending: average regional expenditure per university student is US$ 2,444, while OECD countries average US$ 14,027 per tertiary studentUniversity Expenditure Per Student in the Arab World (1995-96) Key Takeaways Total Students (BA, • The Spending variance is vast: the highest is Oman, at $15,701, and theCountry Total Expenditure in $000 Cost/Student ($) MA & Ph.D. (in 000) lowest is Yemen, at $515. Second to Oman, the most expensive students areEgypt 907 $1,079,900 $1,191 invariably in the oil-rich States: Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, UAE, andIraq 158 $358,000 $2,270 Qatar. All these States, with the exception of Saudi Arabia, are small inJordan 76 $216,400 $2,855 population and in student bodies.Palestine 37 $62,700 $1,717Lebanon 82 $251,300 $3,067 • Those countries with the largest numbers: Egypt, Morocco, Algeria andSyria 173 $186,800 $1,082 Syria, spend much less.Bahrain 4 $43,100 $10,351Kuwait 25 $279,700 $11,313Oman 5 $75,900 $15,701Qatar 8 $57,400 $7,620 A Note on Financing Education in the Arab WorldS. Arabia 231 $2,283,000 $9,868U.A.E. 14 $126,100 $8,731 • Arab Countries as a group have historically, at least since 1980, spentAlgeria 224 $484,600 $2,161 slightly more per capita on education than other developing nations, butLibya 66 $135,000 $2,055 significantly less than developed countries.Morocco 255 $372,200 $1,462Tunisia 93 $180,000 $1,930 • Meeting the combined demands of increased access, assuring relevance,Sudan 108 $66,900 $621 and improving quality in the face of diminishing resources will severely testYemen 111 $56,500 $511 governments and educators.Djibouti 2 $1,800 $978Mauritania 9 $8,900 $974 • Political pressures recommend against increasing the private costs ofSomalia 5 $2,400 $517 education. However, most countries will not be able to finance theTotal 2590 $6,328,600 $2,444 improvements necessary. More countries will need to explore cost recovery at the tertiary level, at least for students from higher income families. Source: UNESCO, OECD | 10
  • Less spending also means that many Arab universities do not have sufficient institutionalresources for teaching and research The Situation The Most Pressing Institutional Resource Challenges Include • Most Arab countries have proven unable to meet the Information and Telecommunication Technologies needs of all students desiring to pursue higher education because of dramatic increases in student enrollment and • Globalization dictates the increasing use of technology, which is the most efficient means insufficient resources. for production and communication of knowledge • Establishing educational institutions is hard and costly, • Arab countries score below world averages on all connectivity indicators. especially in rural areas which need such facilities. • Anecdotal evidence suggests Arab universities are lacking in this area. • Institutions require significant investment for buildings, equipment, labs, libraries, and technology. Capital Less Than Adequate Libraries expenditure data is scarce in the Arab World, though the box below shows that facility spending is lacking versus • Some Arab universities now have modern libraries, but there are many university comparator countries in the developed world. libraries still providing outmoded forms of service. • Studies to determine the adequacy of the collection size of university libraries have Education spending by purpose as a % of revealed that the majority do not meet the [American] Association of College and total government education spending Research Libraries Standards, even in the affluent Arab countries. Services, books, Country Salaries other operating Capital •Seating capacity tends to be inadequate Expenditures expenses Kuwait 50.8 33.2 16.0 Research and Laboratory Facilities Lacking or Underutilized Lebanon 97.8 1.8 .4 Morocco 72.3 19.8 7.8 Average 73.63 18.27 8.07 • In many Arab countries, instruction is based on theoretical training. Comparator Countries • Research and laboratory facilities which promote more experiential learning are either Services, books, Capital unavailable or underutilized. Country Salaries other operating Expenditures expenses Australia 54.2 36.7 9.1 Hong Kong 73.5 22.3 4.2 Japan 46.8 38 15.2 Capital spending on Arab higher education institutions is Malaysia 41.7 47.3 11 Korea 44.6 37.5 17.9 comparatively low. This indicates a lack of resources to Brazil 72.2 24.5 3.3 spend on capital improvements such as those mentioned France 71.6 16.7 11.8 above. The more developed countries generally have capital Germany 64.8 26.4 8.8 expenditure rates of 10% or higher. US 55.6 33.8 10.6 India 98.8 0.1 1 South Africa 9.2 90.6 0.1 | 11
  • In addition to lack of resources and spending, regional demographics also put significant stress on the higher education system in the Arab World Age Distribution for All Students Arab UK 45% 40% Approximately 56% of students in the Arab World are 20 to 29, the age demographic most Total Number of Students 35% typically enrolled in tertiary education; In OECD countries only 24.9% of the population between 30% 20 and 29 is enrolled in education. 25% 20% The low rate of students beyond 29 enrolled in higher education as compared to the UK is indicative of a lack of a lifelong learning culture in the Arab World. 15% 10% 5% 0% Under 20 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 and overSource: United Nations Development Programme / Regional Bureau for Arab States ,“Enhancement of Quality Assurance and Institutional Planning in Arab Universities,” Conducted in 2004 and 2005 | 12
  • Regional spending focus is on increasing access and not programs; BA degrees dominate (91.8%) with MAs (6.0%) and PhDs (2.2%) a small proportion Graduates from Technical Institutes and Universities with S&T Rates 1994-1995 Tech. Inst. Bachelor Masters Ph.D. Totals Country Number % in S&T Number % in S&T Number % in S&T Number % in S&T Number % in S&T Egypt 28,984 26 91,511 20 5,984 76 3,421 68 100,916 25 Iraq 24,784 38 29,564 32 652 84 709 61 30,925 34 Jordan 13,280 45 13,930 38 1,324 31 391 34 15,645 37 Palestine 1,665 42 5,492 38 695 38 76 55 6,263 40 Lebanon 4,687 41 9,501 34 666 43 116 37 10,283 35 Syria 14,415 45 14,170 62 495 87 90 63 14,755 62 Bahrain 409 54 1,139 41 77 52 8 63 1,224 42 Kuwait 3,260 34 6,225 23 205 50 25 32 6,455 23 Oman 948 55 1,221 32 27 26 27 48 1,275 32 Qatar 143 28 1,289 22 23 39 10 60 1,322 23 S. Arabia 1,706 25 26,687 14 1,280 34 450 30 28,417 15 UAE 1,073 43 1,691 29 57 54 53 51 1,801 58 Algeria 15,850 62 31,187 53 3,605 50 784 66 35,576 53 Libya 874 39 9,603 35 391 31 0 0 9,994 35 Morocco 6,114 34 27,959 39 1,111 68 485 64 29,555 40 Tunisia 3,941 39 12,166 32 2,599 20 349 54 15,114 28 Sudan 895 41 11,005 23 670 33 223 59 11,898 25 Yemen 3,367 14 8,298 21 39 31 31 55 8,368 21 Djibouti 0 0 516 7 23 26 8 38 547 8 Mauritania 163 28 2,163 20 115 47 17 47 2,295 22 Somalia 125 45 553 45 0 0 0 0 553 45 Total 126,683 39% 305,870 30.6 20,038 53% 7,273 6% 333,181 33 % of Total 91.8% 6.0% 2.2% Key Takeaways Technical Institutes and University Colleges in the Arab World • The higher the degree the larger the proportion of those who graduate in • Higher education includes institutions other than universities, notably the S&T fields: 30.6% at the BA, 53.4% at the MA, and 60.2% at the Ph.D. level. University College (UC) and the Technical Institute (TC). UCs focus on one discipline like agriculture, engineering, computer science, or pharmacy. TCs • In the Arab World, the trend is for more 4 year Universities and more offer two year post secondary programs leading to a middle college diploma. Technical Institutes but for less University Colleges. • The UC model was common in the North African States of Algeria and • The states which had the highest proportion of their students in Technical Morocco, and also in the UAE, Lebanon, and Iraq. The decrease of UCs is due Institutes were the following: Bahrain Iraq, Oman, Kuwait, Jordan, Syria, in most cases to their reorganization into universities. The expansion in the Algeria, Tunisia, UAE, and Lebanon. number of Technical Institutes in the region is worth noting.Source: UNESCO, OECD | 13
  • Expanded access has favored less resource intensive subjects: Arts account for (45.5%) of graduates, followed by S&T (36.9%) and Business (17.6%) Cumulative Ratios of Bachelor Graduates in the Arab World and Their Distribution by Major Fields of Study (1980-1995) Country Science Engineering Medicine Agriculture Total S&T Business/Econ Arts Total H&SS Total (in 000s) %Egypt 5.4 9.3 7.9 6.7 29.3 24 46.7 70.7 1583.5 42Iraq 9.8 14.1 7.6 8.2 39.7 18.6 41.6 60.3 315.34 8Jordan 12.4 20.4 11.3 4 48.1 18.3 33.6 51.9 135.04 4Palestine 18.2 10.8 5.7 1.6 36.4 16.4 47.2 63.6 48.89 1Lebanon 14.8 10.7 6.3 1.3 33.2 13.9 52.9 66.8 146.88 4Syria 11.1 23.9 14.1 7. 56.2 7.6 36.2 43.8 203.08 5Bahrain 12.8 21.1 3.2 .2 37.3 26.8 35.9 62.7 12.54 0Kuwait 10.4 10.3 5.6 0.0 26.3 21.2 52.5 73.7 48.16 1Oman 12.7 13.7 6.2 8.1 40.8 11.4 47.8 59.2 9.1 0Qatar 9.7 6.6 3.3 .2 19.8 10.2 70. 80.2 10.29 0S. Arabia 8. 7.6 6.4 2.7 24.7 9.7 65.5 75.3 174.55 5U.A.E. 10.3 11.6 2.6 2. 26.5 20.8 52.7 73.5 15.37 0Algeria 15.3 22. 15.2 4.6 58.1 10.2 31.7 41.9 315. 8Libya 8.9 7.9 5.8 5.3 27.8 11.3 60.9 72.2 109.45 3Morocco 25.1 4.1 6.3 1.5 37. 8.4 54.6 63. 318.78 8Tunisia 29.2 9.8 12.1 2.9 54. 16. 30. 46. 120.11 3Sudan 5.9 7.2 26.4 8.7 48.3 17.1 34.6 51.7 161.58 4Yemen 6.6 10.6 10.3 6.8 34.3 16. 49.7 65.7 53.27 1Djibouti 9.2 1.3 2.4 .3 13.2 13.2 73.7 86.8 3.8 0Mauritania 11.2 11.5 2.8 1.1 26.5 4.7 68.8 73.5 17.08 0Somalia 12.3 7.9 2.6 9.4 32.1 11.9 56. 67.9 15.91 0Total (in 000s) 400.81 439.27 359.41 208.26 1,407.25 672.84 1,737.13 2,409.97 3,817.72 100% 10.5 11.5 9.4 5.5 36.9 17.6 45.5 63.1 Comparison With the OECD Approximately 25.3% of students in OECD countries graduate in Arts/Humanities fields, 37.7% in science and technology fields, and roughly 36.6% in business, law, and the social sciences.Source: UNESCO, OECD, Arab Human Development Report | 14
  • A regional study also concluded that S&T and business administration students are under represented relative to arts students in the Arab World Distribution of Students by Subject Area and Course Level Students at the Subdegree and First Degree Level Students at the Intermediate and Doctorate Level 18% 17.9% 17.6% Proportion of Total Number of Students 16% 14% 12% 10.0% 9.7% 10% 9.1% 8.6% 8% 6% 4.7% 4.4% 4% 3.1% 2.6% 2.1% 2.1% 1.9% 1.7% 2% 1.6% 1.5% 1.3% 0% w n g es es re n es ry La in es io e ng es Te ture s es ig n gi tu in di ie er ist at nc tio nc es nc lo ni ra di ic ud tu uc ne nt ie ta ul an cie no tu D ed te ls cie De Ed st Sc ric gi en ls Li ch d Pl M lS cia En rS an e Ag m ica d d al tiv d to ica So an an cu an te ic ts ph ra d d og pu ys Do Ar an e lie s ist g so ge in Ph ol in om al e in es d ilo ic Bi ild tiv ua m an ts ed C nc Ph Bu ea Ad ng ec nd M ns ie Cr nd La bj Sc e, d io la Su an ur la at ica y ct ic ar ica s ite es un at rin or m ch sin m te st he m Ar Ve Bu Hi Co at M s as MSource: United Nations Development Programme / Regional Bureau for Arab States, “Enhancement of Quality Assurance and Institutional Planning in ArabUniversities,” Conducted in 2004 and 2005 | 15
  • Lack of regional postgraduate programs force students to study abroad; the higher the degree level, the larger the proportion who study abroad: 5.7% at the BA level, 13.0% at the MA level, and 34.4% at the Ph.D. level University Students in Arab World by Level, Faculties, and Proportion Studying Abroad 1995- 1996 Bachelor Master’s Ph. D Total Country Faculties Total % Abroad Total % Abroad Total % Abroad Total % Abroad Key Takeaways Egypt S&T 152,153 2 28,222 2.3 14,749 14.4 195,124 3. H&SS 683,902 0.3 14,982 .5 5,773 12.6 704,657 .4 • Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Oman, and Total 836,055 0.6 43,204 1.7 20,522 13.9 899,781 .9 Kuwait send a large proportion of Iraq S&T 48,142 9.2 2,597 7.2 2,427 6. 53,166 8.9 their students abroad, particularly H&SS 106,818 7.4 2,361 5.6 1,119 3.8 110,298 7.5 those studying in S&T fields at the Total 154,960 8 4,958 6.5 3,546 5.4 163,464 7.9 Ph.D. level. Jordan S&T 34,248 29.1 1,960 12.4 805 100. 37,013 30.8 H&SS 46,809 12.8 3,771 17. 1,238 87.2 51,818 15,4 Total 81,057 19.7 5,731 15.5 2,043 89.3 88,831 21.8 • Jordan has an exceptionally high Palestine S&T 17,926 46.2 1,513 88.1 252 100. 19,691 50.1 rate of out-of-state students: all its H&SS 31,854 17 1,279 79.7 169 100. 33,302 19.8 students in S&T fields at the Ph.D. Total 49,780 27.5 2,792 84.2 421 100. 52,993 31.1 level go abroad. The same applies to Lebanon S&T 23,967 21.3 1,244 48.7 262 97.3 25,473 23.6 Bahrain, Kuwait, UAE, Djibouti, H&SS 47,253 6.4 1,262 51.9 328 63.4 48,843 9.2 Mauritania, Oman and Qatar which Total 71,220 11.4 2,506 50.4 590 78.5 74,316 14.1 have all their Master’s students Syria S&T 64,041 8.3 2,417 46. 337 84.9 66,795 10. abroad in all fields S&T and H&SS. H&SS 104,434 2.5 236 32.6 158 57. 104,828 2.7 Total 168,475 4.7 2,653 44.9 495 76. 171,623 5.5 Bahrain S&T 2,809 37 155 2.3 31 100. 2,995 39.5 H&SS 2,441 28.5 118 44.1 15 100. 2,574 29.8 Total 5,250 33 273 61.9 46 100. 5,569 35. Kuwait S&T 7,141 25.9 499 49.9 55 100. 7,695 27.1 H&SS 18,863 7.7 350 51.1 85 100. 19,298 10.2 Total 26,004 12.7 849 50.4 140 100. 26,993 15. Oman S&T 2,206 17.2 27 100. 79 100 2,312 100. H&SS 4,208 28.5 59 100. 73 100 4,340 100. Total 6,414 24.6 86 100. 152 100 6,652 100. Qatar S&T 1,851 8.5 35 100 37 100 1,923 11.9 H&SS 5,626 19.1 43 100 20 100 5,689 20. Total 7,477 16.5 78 100 57 100 7,612 17.9 S. Arabia S&T 36,834 2.7 1,909 16.1 885 89.5 39,628 5.3 H&SS 186,165 .4 3,661 6.3 1,341 33.3 191,167 0.8 Total 222,999 .8 5,570 9.7 2,226 55.7 230,795 1.6 Study abroad statistics continued on next slideSource: UNESCO, OECD | 16
  • Several of the countries in the Arab World send all of their PhD students abroad; manyof these students do not return home, they brain drain Bachelor Master’s Ph. D TotalCountry Faculties Total % Abroad Total % Abroad Total % Abroad Total % Abroad Key TakeawaysUAE S&T 4,888 28.6 116 100 163 100. 5,167 32.5 H&SS 9,803 10.5 97 49.5 131 100. 10,031 12. • Several of the countries in the Arab Total 14,691 16.6 213 77 294 100. 15,198 19. World send all of their PhD studentsAlgeria S&T 137,861 10 7,771 9.5 3,171 52.4 148,803 10.9 abroad. Examples include Palestine, H&SS 98,536 13.5 5,610 7 1,489 38.3 105,635 13.5 Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE. Total 236,397 11.5 13,381 8.4 4,660 47.9 254,438 12 This fact highlights the need for ArabLibya S&T 24,725 208 764 32.2 176 93.2 25,665 4.2 universities to expand vertically to H&SS 40,664 1.7 1,103 19.3 150 88.7 41,917 3.1 include more options for advanced Total 65,389 2.1 1,867 24.6 326 91.1 67,582 3.5Morocco S&T 80,078 18.8 4,544 66.4 2,688 71.9 87,310 22.9 PhD studies and research. H&SS 177,878 50 16,385 6.5 1,267 69.1 195,530 5.5 Total 257,956 9.3 20,929 19.5 3,955 71 282,840 10.9 • On the basis of rather incompleteTunisia S&T 29,244 14.2 2,464 22. 1,058 58.1 32,766 16.1 UNESCO statistical information, H&SS 62,160 5.4 4,207 3.2 696 35.5 67,063 5.5 estimates are that 12,000 Arabs earn Total 91,404 8.2 6,671 9.4 1,754 49.1 99,829 9. PhDs abroad annually. 85%, or more,Sudan S&T 39,455 2.3 736 11.7 571 21 40,762 2.8 of these do not return home: they H&SS 64,319 0.9 3,075 1.7 802 7.7 68,196 1.1 brain drain. This is a loss to the Arab Total 103,774 1.5 3,811 6.6 1,373 13.3 108,958 1.7 world of around 10,000 PhDYemen S&T 12,641 11.8 49 65.3 90 87.8 12,780 12.6 H&SS 99,564 1.1 98 31.6 69 85.5 99,731 1.2 graduates annually. Total 112,205 2.3 147 42.9 159 86.8 112,511 2.5Djibouti S&T 182 100 14 100 8 100 204 100. • There are 60,000 to 80,000 Arab H&SS 2,199 16.3 27 100 11 100. 2,237 17.7 PhDs working in the Arab world, Total 2,381 22.7 41 100 19 100. 2,441 24.6 compared with an estimated 150,000Mauritania S&T 2,432 23 211 100 47 100 2,690 30.4 abroad. The Arab brain drain in H&SS 7,818 7.1 185 100 46 100 8,049 9.7 absolute terms is comparable to that Total 10,250 10.8 396 100 93 100 10,739 15. of China and greater than that ofSomalia S&T 3,142 41.6 0 0 0 0 3,142 41.6 India, despite the striking H&SS 4,320 35.1 0 0 0 0 4,320 35.1 Total 7,462 37.8 0 0 0 0 7,462 37.8 demographic differences. Bachelor Master’s Ph. D Total Total % Abroad Total % Abroad Total % Abroad Total % Abroad S&T 725,966 11 57,247 17.1 27,901 36.6 811,104 12.3 Totals H&SS 1,805,634 3.5 58,909 89.1 14,980 34. 1,879,523 3.9 Total 2,531,000 5.7 116,156 13 42,871 34.4 2,690,627 6.4Source: UNESCO, OECD | 17
  • At the tertiary level, more females than males are enrolled in higher education; Only five countries in the Arab World have more male studentsPercentage of Females Among Tertiary Education Students (%)By Levels of Higher Education, Arab World and Comparator Countries Gender Parity Index in Higher Education Lower than first First university Higher % of females in higher Country F/M RatioCountry university degree degree degrees education Algeria 1.08Algeria NA NA NA NA Bahrain 1.84Bahrain NA NA NA 60.01 Djibouti 0.82Comoros 33.77 56.47 NA 41.88 Egypt NADjibouti 23.73 57.25 NA 46.84 Iraq 0.59Egypt NA NA NA NA Jordan 1.1Iraq NA NA NA 34.05 Kuwait 2.72Jordan 47.11 67.98 24.62 51.41 Lebanon 1.12Kuwait 67.96 53.64 67.66 Libya 1.09Lebanon 53.35 39.22 32.39 51.72Libya 50.59 45.23 41.98 48.62 Mauritania 0.31Mauritania NA NA NA NA Morocco 0.87Morocco 43.13 33.05 31.12 42.3 Oman 1.37Oman NA NA NA NA Palestinian Territories 1.04Palestine 45.96 53.69 20 46.52 Qatar 3.05Qatar NA NA NA 71.85 Saudi Arabia 1.5Saudi Arabia 55.64 94.78 36.66 55.93 Sudan NASomalia NA NA NA NA Syria NASudan NA NA NA 47.2 Tunisia 1.36Syria NA NA NA NA UAE 3.24Tunisia 49.28 40.13 49.28 48.29 Yemen 0.38UAE NA NA NA NAYemen 22.07 13.26 6.25 20.75 Weighted AveragesComparator Countries Arab States 0.95China NA NA 22.1 NA Developing Countries 0.87India NA NA NA NA World 1.03Israel 58.12 54.88 51.11 57.3Republic of Korea 35.1 35.57 23.83 35.18 Countries highlighted in yellow have higher proportions of men enrolled than women.Source: UNESCO, Arab Human Development Report | 18
  • 80% of the Arab World’s higher education institutions were established in the last 30 yearsand there is a trend towards more private institutionsUniversities in the Arab World by Date of Establishment and Control (2003) Before 1950 1973 1993 2003Country Government Private Total Government Private Total Government Private Total Government Private TotalEgypt 3 2 5 7 1 8 12 1 13 13 6 19Iraq 0 0 0 5 0 5 12 0 12 14 0 14Jordan 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 8 13 8 10 18Palestine 0 0 0 0 3 3 1 7 8 2 9 11Lebanon 0 2 2 1 4 5 1 8 9 1 18 19Syria 1 0 1 3 0 3 4 0 4 5 0 5Bahrain 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2Kuwait 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 2 3Oman 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 2Qatar 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1S. Arabia 0 0 0 4 0 4 7 0 7 8 0 8UAE 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 5 7Algeria 1 0 1 3 0 3 13 0 13 26 0 26Libya 0 0 0 2 0 2 11 0 11 14 0 14Morocco 1 0 1 3 0 3 13 0 13 13 1 14Tunisia 1 0 1 2 0 2 6 0 6 8 4 22Sudan 0 0 0 2 0 2 16 0 16 27 1 28Yemen 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 0 4 7 8 15Djibouti 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1Mauritania 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1Somalia 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 3Total 7 4 11 37 9 45 114 24 138 156 67 233Key Takeaways• Of the total 233 listed universities, 188 were established during the last 30 years extending from 1973 to 2003,• Of the 93 universities which opened since 1993, 51 were private, which is twice the number of all the private universities which existed in 1993.• The emerging trend in the Arab World towards private institutions was noticeable in the Nineties. Many of the private, non-governmental institutions have beenestablished in partnership with American or European institutions, and most are profit-driven and therefore, accessible only to those who can afford them.• Leaders by % of total tertiary students enrolled in private institutions are: Lebanon (50%), Oman, (28%), Kuwait (27%), Jordan (20%), Yemen (15%), Morocco (5%)Source: Guide of Arab Universities’ Association
  • The establishment of new, private universities in the region continues to increase Relative shares of public and private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions, 2004 Key Takeaways • The Arab countries, as well as most countries around the world, are unable to provide information on private spending for education at any level. • Private funding accounts for 24% of total education spending in OECD countries. • There is an increasing reliance on the private sector globally as shown in the graph to the right. New, private universities in the region continue to increase and fall into 4 categories: Institutions of higher education Branches of Western institutions Institutions with international Local institutions links  US-accredited, non-profits Elite profit oriented institutions Local institutions with an Consists of public universities offering a full range of programs international advisory connection that teach both in English and Best Western-style education Arabic Lag behind for several reasons: Such institutions face the Quality depends on extent of absence of faculty co-governance, challenge of integrating local commitment to quality and the These institutions are seeking local regulations on hiring locally, a culture and laws without losing depth of the affiliation with outside affiliations with international workload that hampers faculty academic integrity counterpart partner institution research and course preparation Examples: American University in Examples: Universities in Dubai Examples: American University of Examples: AL-Zaytoonah Beirut, the Lebanese American Knowledge Village and Qatar’s Kuwait, Gulf University of Science University in Jordan, Dar Al-Hekma University, American University in Education City; Cornell, Carnegie and Technology in Kuwait, al- College for Women in Saudi Arabia, Cairo, American University of Mellon, Sorbonne, Georgetown, Akhawayn in Morocco, the Arab Al-Akhawayn in Morocco Sharjah Texas A&M and Virginia American University in the Source: UNESCO, Staff Analysis Commonwealth Palestinian territories | 20
  • Government universities focus on S&T, while private universities focus on law/business/social sciences and humanities Number of Colleges in Arab Universities, Public and Private, by Field of Study (2003) Humanities and Religion Law, Soc. Sci., and Business Medical & Allied Eng., IT, Agr. Totals Country Gov. Private Total Gov. Private Total Gov. Private Total Gov. Private Total Gov. Private Total Egypt 29 7 36 48 10 58 58 12 70 23 10 33 158 39 197 Iraq 14 0 14 34 0 34 30 0 30 17 0 17 95 0 95 Jordan 14 11 25 16 18 34 23 16 39 12 9 21 65 54 119 Palestine 2 14 16 4 18 22 1 23 24 2 13 15 9 68 77 Lebanon 2 29 31 7 37 44 5 27 32 3 18 21 17 111 128 Syria 6 0 6 10 0 10 17 0 17 21 0 21 54 0 54 Bahrain 1 0 1 3 0 3 2 0 2 2 0 2 8 0 8 Kuwait 2 1 3 4 3 7 5 1 6 1 1 2 12 6 18 Oman 1 0 1 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 7 3 10 Qatar 2 0 2 2 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 6 0 6 S. Arabia 17 0 17 14 0 14 17 0 17 18 0 18 66 0 66 U.A.E. 5 3 8 4 7 11 3 2 5 5 8 13 17 20 37 Algeria 24 0 24 42 0 42 35 0 35 59 0 59 160 0 160 Libya 9 0 9 11 0 11 15 0 15 14 0 14 49 0 49 Morocco 10 1 11 7 1 8 10 0 10 7 1 8 34 3 37 Tunisia 12 0 12 11 0 11 5 0 5 16 0 16 44 0 44 Sudan 22 0 22 48 3 51 30 2 32 51 0 51 151 5 156 Yemen 11 11 22 18 15 33 13 11 24 11 6 17 53 43 96 Mauritania 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 3 Somalia 1 3 4 4 4 8 2 1 3 3 2 5 10 10 20 Total 185 80 265 290 117 407 274 96 370 269 69 338 1027 368 1395 % 18.2 22.1 19.2 28.5 32.3 29.5 26.9 26.5 26.8 26.4 19.1 24.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 % of Total 13.4 5.8 19.2 21.0 8.5 29.5 19.9 6.9 26.8 19.5 5.0 24.5 73.8 26.2 100.0 Key Takeaways Comparing private to government universities, about an equal proportion of colleges in both types go to Medicine and allied fields, but a larger proportion in government universities go to Engineering, Technology, and allied fields than in private Universities. • Private universities have larger proportions of their Colleges in the two categories of Law/Administration/Social Studies and Humanities/Religion (32.3% and 22.1% in private universities compared to 28.5% and 18.2% in government universities).* Source: compiled from the Association of Arab Universities’ (AARU) Online Information Center, www.aaru.edu.jo, 2003. | 21
  • Established universities adopted Arabic as their language of instruction, newer universities are adopting English or a mixture of Arabic and English Combination 12% Social Sciences French 4% Teaching Language for All Fields English 8% Combination 12% Arabic 76% French 4% Combination Combination, Science and Engineering 14% French 5% Arabic 42% English 18% Arabic 66% English 39% Combination, 4% Medicine French 7% Arabic 33% English 56% Key Take Away The duality in language use has consequences at several levels: in terms of self perception and cultural identity; in terms of research productivity and adding to the stock of knowledge produced locally, and in terms of the propensity it creates in the ranks of ambitious scholars to seek higher specialization in the West as their command of English or French makes this more possible, hence increasing the chances that their original countries may loose them permanently.Source: United Nations Development Programme / Regional Bureau for Arab States, “Enhancement of Quality Assurance and Institutional Planning in ArabUniversities,” Conducted in 2004 and 2005 | 22
  • • For Further Information About This ‫للمزيد من المعلومات عن هذا العرض التقديمي‬ • Presentation ‫للحصول على العرض التقديمي الكامل لهذا العرض التقديمي‬ To get a copy of the full presentation or to ‫يرجى االتصال بوليد العرادي على العنوان‬ discuss the findings, please contact Walid walid.aradi@tahseen.ae Aradi at walid.aradi@tahseen.ae• For Inquiries About Our Services and ‫• لالستفسار عن خدماتنا ولعرض أفكاركم علينا‬ Requests for Proposals ‫لالستفسار عن خدماتنا أو عرض أفكاركم علينا يرجى االتصال‬ To inquire about our services or submit a ‫بنا عبر اإلنترنت باستخدام النموذج أدناه أو إرسال بريد إلكتروني‬ request for proposal, please contact us using fikra@tahseen.ae ‫إلى‬ the online form or send an e-mail to fikra@tahseen.ae• For Organizations Interested in Alliances ‫• بالنسبة للمنظمات التي لديها اهتمام بالدخول في اتفاقيات شراكة‬ ‫وفي تحالفات مع شركة تحسين لالستشارات‬ We are interested in opportunities where our technical skills and expertise can be used to ‫إننا مهتمون بالفرص التي يمكن من خاللها استخدام مهاراتنا‬ complement or diversify those of potential ‫وخبراتنا الفنية لتكميل أو لتنويع مهارات وخبرات شركائنا‬ partners to pursue specific government funding ّ ‫المحتملين بما يمكن من السعي للحصول على تمويل حكومي أو‬ opportunities, commercial contracts, or RFPs. To begin a discussion about entering into an ‫عقود تجارية. لبدء نقاش حول الدخول في تحالف مع شركة‬ alliance with Tahseen Consulting, please contact ‫تحسين لالستشارات يرجى االتصال بوليد العرادي على العنوان‬ Walid Aradi at walid.aradi@tahseen.ae walid.aradi@tahseen.ae• For Members of the Press or Media ‫• بالنسبة للعاملين في الصحافة أو في وسائل اإلعالم‬ For media inquiries, please contact Wes ّ ‫لالستفسارات المقدمة من قبل وسائل اإلعالم يرجى االتصال بـ‬ Schwalje at wes.schwalje@tahseen.ae wes.schwalje@tahseen.ae ‫ويـزلي شـوالييه على العنوان‬
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