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Topic 4 The Socialist Response

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  • 1. Responses to Capitalism Reformers, Unions, Socialists and Marxism Chapter 21: pages 706-710
  • 2. Topics
    • The Union and Reformer response
    • Utopianism
    • Marxism
  • 3. I. Unions and Reform movements.
    • Reformers want to address social problems
    • The Utopian Socialists
    • Robert Owens and Kinder Capitalism
    • Charles Fourier and Socialism
    • Workers organize Unions
    • Reform Laws
    • Other Reform Movements.
  • 4. A. Reformers wanted to address social problems
    • Economic inequality
      • Rich are very rich
      • What about the rest???
      • Problems of Poverty
    • Urbanization, immigration and crime
    • Eventually pollution and the environment
  • 5. B. The Utopian Socialists
    • Wanted to create ideal or utopian societies
      • Criticized for being idealistic dreamers
    • Saint Simonianism:
      • Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simon
      • Liberal French Aristocrat
      • Modern society should involve rational management
      • Wanted to manage wealth to solve problems, not redistribute
  • 6. C. Robert Owens
    • He was also a textile factory owner
    • Admired Locke and wanted to promote positive societies through positive environments
    • Wanted to build a Utopian Factory Town
      • He provided inexpensive housing for employees
      • He ended child labor and offered free school
    • Built a town in Indiana in 1825
      • Failed in 3 years
  • 7. D. Charles Fourier
    • Called for greater government regulation and ownership
    • Government centralized planning
      • Create communities
      • Government owned industries
      • Combine Industry and agriculture
      • Individuals rotate jobs to avoid boredom
      • Socialists hoped this would bring greater economic equality
  • 8. E. Workers Organize Unions.
    • Workers form Unions or associations to achieve common goals.
      • Safer working conditions, better pay.
      • Used Collective bargaining and strikes as tactics.
    • Early unions were outlawed.
    • Skilled vs Unskilled Labor.
  • 9. F. Reform Laws.
    • Factory Act of 1833 :
      • Illegal to hire children under 9.
      • Limited # of hours older children could work.
    • 1842 Mines Act prevented women and children from working underground.
    • Ten Hours Act of 1847 limited work day to 10 hours for woman and children.
  • 10. G. Other Reform Movements.
    • Abolitionism
    • Women’s Rights Movement
    • Reformers wanted to use the government to solve social problems.
  • 11. Problems Still Exist…
  • 12. II. Utilitarianism.
    • Founded by Jeremy Bentham.
    • Argued that ideas, institutions and actions should be judged based on their utility.
    • Government should promote the greatest good.
  • 13. III. Karl Marx
    • Scientific Socialism.
    • Dialectical Materialism.
    • History as class struggle.
    • Stages of history.
    • The end of capitalism.
    • Impact of Marx.
  • 14. A. Scientific Socialism.
    • Marx referred to these earlier reformers as Utopian reformers .
      • They were misguided dreamers.
      • They did not use science to back up their ideas.
    • Marx used Scientific Socialism , or the idea that scientific principles could be used to study history and society.
  • 15. B. Hegel’s Dialectic
    • Hegel argued that ideas were the driving force behind society.
    Thesis (The Idea) Anti Thesis (The opposite of that idea) Clash Synthesis
  • 16. C. Dialectical Materialism.
    • Marx believed materialism or the distribution of wealth divided people into classes and created conflict.
      • It was a rejection of Hegel.
    • From this Marx argues that all history is the history of class struggle.
  • 17. D. History as class struggle.
    • Marx believed that the unequal distribution of wealth divided people into classes.
      • The Bourgeoisie or the capitalists.
      • The Proletariat or working class.
    • The capitalist class will always exploit the workers.
  • 18. E. Stages of History.
    • Human society passed through stages.
      • Primitive Communism (Tribal).
      • Slave labor.
      • Feudal.
      • Capitalism.
      • Communist state.
    • Each stage contained the seeds of it’s own destruction.( Thesis vs Antithesis )
  • 19. F. The Demise of Capitalism.
    • Marx agreed that capitalism created wealth through the profit motive.
    • Marx believed that the value of all goods came from the labor put into making it, this is the Labor theory of value .
    • Problem in Capitalism, if raw material costs cannot be changed, only labor costs can be reduced to increase profit.
    • This forced capitalists to reduce wages to create a greater profit.
  • 20. Continued…
    • This disparity of wealth is so great that the proletariat will resent the bourgeoisie and revolt.
      • Workers of the World Unite
      • This is an internationalist movement
    • This is when the workers of the world would unite,abolish private property and begin social control of natural resources and the means of production.
    • Marx called for this in his book “The Communist Manifesto”.
  • 21. G. Impact of Karl Marx.
    • Who has he influenced?
      • Russian Revolution.
      • Chinese Revolution.
      • Much of the third world.
    • Has communism failed?
      • Maybe only the Soviet version.
      • Does his theories still describe society?
  • 22. Percentage of National income received 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.9 Bottom Fifth 9.6 10.2 10.8 12 4 th Fifth 15.9 16.8 17.4 17.6 3 rd Fifth 24 24.8 24.5 23.6 2 nd Fifth 46.6 44.2 43.3 42 Top fifth 1990 1980 1970 1960 Income
  • 23. Percentage of Total Wealth .0 Bottom fifth .1 Fourth Fifth .4 Third 5 th 4.4 Second Fifth 95.6 Top 20% 78.6 Top 5% 49.9 Top 1% Percentage Held Group
  • 24. Terms
    • Robert Owens
    • Charles Fourier
    • Unions
    • Skilled vs Unskilled labor
    • Factory Act of 1833:
    • 1842 Mines Act
    • Ten Hours Act of 1847
    • Karl Marx
    • Utopian reformers
    • Scientific Socialism
    • Bourgeoisie
    • Proletariat
    • Labor Theory of Value
  • 25. What we Know
    • Reformers and unions worked to address the worst side effects of the Industrial Revolution.
    • The Left disagreed on how to do this?
    • Marxism claimed scientific evidence to justify a social revolution.