The Legislative Branch Ch 10

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The Legislative Branch Ch 10

  1. 1. The Legislative Branch Chapter 10 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>The National Legislature </li></ul><ul><li>The House </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  3. 3. I. The National Legislature <ul><li>It Is Bicameral </li></ul><ul><li>Why Bicameral? </li></ul><ul><li>Terms and Sessions </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  4. 4. <ul><li>It Is Bicameral </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress is composed of two houses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Representatives </li></ul></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  5. 5. B. Why Bicameral? <ul><li>Historical : The British Parliament. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Lords </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practical : The Great Compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia Plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical : the Framers hoped that the Senate and House would check the power of each other. </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  6. 6. Cont…. <ul><li>The Framers were also convinced that the Congress would dominate the new national government. </li></ul><ul><li>As Madison wrote: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In a republican government the legislative authority necessarily predominates. The remedy for this inconveniency is to divide the legislature into different branches.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Federalist # 51 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  7. 7. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  8. 8. C. Terms and Sessions <ul><li>When congress meets it is called a session . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has to meet once a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It used to be part time, now it is full time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two regular sessions = a term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each term is numbered by its congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 109 th congress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President can also call for special sessions in times of emergency. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Senate has been called into special session 46 times, but not since 1933. the House has never been called alone </li></ul></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  9. 9. II. The House <ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>The Other Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>leadership </li></ul><ul><li>The Issue of Reapportionment. </li></ul><ul><li>The Reapportionment Act of 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Gerrymandering </li></ul><ul><li>Wesberry v. Sanders, 1964 </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  10. 10. 2004 Election 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  11. 11. 2006 House election 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  12. 12. A. Terms and Qualifications <ul><li>435 members voting members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 non voting delegates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 year terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said to be closest to the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticized for constantly campaigning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 years a citizen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 years of age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be an inhabitant of the state. </li></ul></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  13. 13. B. Other Qualifications… <ul><li>Historically, white, male and rich. </li></ul><ul><li>Now becoming more diverse including people of color and more woman. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But still rich. </li></ul></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  14. 14. C. Leadership <ul><li>Speaker of the House is very powerful. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presides over sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decides who may speaks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places bills into committees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also has Majority and Minority leaders </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  15. 15. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution. Speaker Nancy Pelosi Democrat House majority Leader Steny Hoyer House Minority Leader John Boehner                       
  16. 16. D. The Issue of Reapportionment <ul><li>House has Proportional Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution directs Congress to reapportion (redistribute) the seats in the House after every census </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1790: 3.9 million people in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2000: 285 million people in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008: 303 Million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Big Question: Who and how is it done??? </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  17. 17. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  18. 18. D. The Reapportionment Act of 1929 <ul><li>The permanent size of the House of Representatives is 435. </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  19. 19. E. Gerrymandering <ul><li>The Gerrymander was created in 1812 by Elbridge Gerry to have a district that favored him. </li></ul><ul><li>How districts are created can create winners and losers. </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  20. 20. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  21. 21. Gerrymander. <ul><li>Two reasons to Gerrymander: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To concentrate an opponents power in one or a few districts, leaving the other districts for the dominant party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To spread the opposition as thinly as possible across many districts, limiting an opponents ability to control any one district. </li></ul></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  22. 22. F. Wesberry v. Sanders, 1964 <ul><li>Supreme Court decision upheld the concept of, “One man one vote”. </li></ul><ul><li>The court held that “ as much as possible one man’s vote in a congressional election is to be worth as much as another’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional districts are to be drawn so that there are an equal number of people in each district. </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  23. 23. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  24. 24. III. The Senate <ul><li>Terms and Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>The 17 th Amendment </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  25. 25. The Senate in 2004 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  26. 26. 2006 Senate 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  27. 27. A. Terms and Qualifications <ul><li>100 senators </li></ul><ul><li>6 year term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said to bring stability to government. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1/3 up for election each election </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizen for 9 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be 30 tears of age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resident of State. </li></ul></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  28. 28. B. Leadership <ul><li>Vice President presides over senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only vote in a tie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is usually not there. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior senator who resides over senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans daily agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence over committee assignments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minority Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heads the Opposition </li></ul></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  29. 29. C. The 17 th Amendment <ul><li>Passed in 1917 (Progressive era) </li></ul><ul><li>Senators were selected by State Legislatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State Political Machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Millionaires Club </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amendment stated that senators would be selected by Popular vote </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  30. 30. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution. Senator Robert Byrd: President Pro Tempore Dick Cheney President of the Senate
  31. 31. Leadership 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  32. 32. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution. Sen. Harry Reid. Dem. Nevada Sen. Mitch McConnell. Rep
  33. 33. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution. Sen. Robert Byrd West Virginia. Dem Sen. Strom Thurmond South Carolina. Rep
  34. 34. California 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  35. 35. Terms To Know <ul><li>Term </li></ul><ul><li>Session </li></ul><ul><li>Special Session </li></ul><ul><li>Apportion </li></ul><ul><li>Reapportion </li></ul><ul><li>Off year election </li></ul><ul><li>Single member district </li></ul><ul><li>Gerrymander </li></ul><ul><li>Wesberry vs. Sanders </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  36. 36. What do we know??? <ul><li>What are the qualifications and terms both houses? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is reapportionment important? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the 17 th Amendment important? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the leadership of both houses? </li></ul>10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  37. 37. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  38. 38. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  39. 39. 10/01/09 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.

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