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The French Revolution

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  • 1. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    1
    The French Revolution
    When Revolution goes Right, Left or Wrong?
  • 2. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    2
    Objectives
    Crisis in the French Monarchy
    The Revolution of 1789
    The Reconstruction of France
    The Second Revolution
    The Reign of Terror
  • 3. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    3
    Crisis in the French Monarchy
    The financial crisis
    Louis XVI was a weak ruler
    The Estates General
  • 4. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    4
    A. The financial crisis
    France was in massive debt
    The 7 year war
    The American Revolution
    Lifestyle of the Bourbon family
    Nobility refused to increase taxes on themselves
  • 5. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    5
    B. Louis XVI was a weak ruler
    Little influence over nobility
    Nobility did not want to increase taxes
    Would not raise taxes unless Estates General met
    It had not met since 1614.
    Little influence with public
    Often unable to address pressing issues
  • 6. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    6
    C. The Estates General
    The First Estate: Catholic Church
    Controlled about 10% of the land.
    Paid a 2% gift to the monarch
    The Second Estate: The Nobility
    Less than 2% of the population.
    Owned 25% of the land
    Could tax peasants at will.
    Resented authority of crown
    The Third Estate: everyone else
    The emerging Bourgeoisie.
    The urban working class.
    Peasant farmers.
    Carried the majority of the tax burden.
  • 7. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    7
    II. The Revolution of 1789
    Meeting of the Estates General
    The National Assembly
    The Tennis Court Oath
    Fall of the Bastille
    The Great Fear
    March on Versailles
  • 8. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    8
    A. Meeting of the Estates General
    All Estates agreed change was needed
    Political reform
    Address corruption
    But bitter division over how to vote.
    Vote by order, Third Estate will lose 2-1.
    As a Whole, Third Estate wins 610-591.
    King Louis XVI requests estates to meet separately
  • 9. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    9
    The Estates General Meets
  • 10. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    10
    B. The National Assembly
    Third Estate refuses and forms National Assembly
    Invites 1st and 2nd Estate to sit with them
    Seized power away from the First and Second estates
  • 11. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    11
    C. The Tennis Court Oath
    Vowed to write a constitution
    Members of other estates joined
    King gave in to National Assembly
    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizen’s.
  • 12. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    12
    Tennis Court Oath
  • 13. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    13
    D. Fall of the Bastille: 7/14/1789
    While National Assembly meets, Paris has riots.
    Poor wheat crop cause price increases.
    Riots over rising prices of bread.
    Louis XVI called for his Swiss guards to come to Paris
    To Protect the crown
    The crowds feared this move.
    The National Assembly feared the Guards were coming after them.
    Peasants attack Bastille to seize weapons for defense
    This is NOT the Assembly
  • 14. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    14
  • 15. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    15
    E. The Great Fear: Summer 1789.
    Peasant mobs rise against nobility.
    Attacked manors
    Destroyed legal documents
    Seized land
    Stopped paying taxes
    National Assembly forces Louis XVI to end Feudalism
  • 16. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    16
    F. The March on Versailles: 10/5/1789
    Rising bread prices anger woman of Paris.
    They march on the assembly.
    They march to Versailles.
    The woman and mobs attack Versailles.
    Force King to agree to return to Paris.
  • 17. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    17
    The March on Versailles
  • 18. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    18
  • 19. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    19
  • 20. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    20
    III. The Reconstruction of France
    Political reorganization
    Attacks on the Catholic Church
    The Counter Revolution
  • 21. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    21
    A. Political reorganization
    Citizenship and voting based on tax payers
    Created 83 departments
    Replaced all provincial power
    Further crippled nobility
  • 22. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    22
    B. Attacks on the Catholic Church
    Seized all land from church
    Transformed Catholic Church into secular part of state.
    Between loss of lands and this Catholic church was very angry
    Even members of Church who supported the assembly opposed the Revolution now.
    Really angered the Pope
  • 23. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    23
    C. The Counter Revolution
    The revolution threatened political and social order across Europe
    The Vatican
    French Nobility or Emigres
    The King tried to flee, but was caught
    Monarchs of Europe saw its as a threat
    Frederick II of Prussia vowed to protect Marie Antoinette
  • 24. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    24
    IV. The Second Revolution
    The Jacobins
    The Paris Commune
    The Sans-Culottes
  • 25. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    25
    A. The Jacobins
    Political Party of the Revolution
    Influenced by Rousseau and Enlightenment
    Emerged as early leaders of assembly
    Declared war on Austria as a threat to the Revolution (1792)
  • 26. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    26
    B. The Paris Commune
    Formed to govern Paris during the war
    Consisted of mobs of people to protect the revolution
    Feared the counter revolutionaries
    Attacked the royal residence
    Imprisoned the family
  • 27. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    27
    C. The Sans-Culottes
    Shop keepers, workers and artisans
    Primarily the poor
    Very angry at price of food
    People have a right to food
    Angry at the Jacobins
    Divisions in the assembly
    The left was extremely revolutionary
    The Right wanted a constitutional Monarchy
  • 28. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    28
    The King is dead !!!
  • 29. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    29
  • 30. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    30
    V. The Reign of Terror
    War with Europe
    The Levee en Masse
    Committee on Public safety
    The end of Terror
  • 31. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    31
    A. War with Europe
    France was at war with Britain, Austria and Prussia
    Europe feared the revolution
    The radicals of the revolution saw a need to defend the revolution
    Viewed early leaders of the revolution as a threat
  • 32. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    32
    B. The Levee en Masse
    Mobilize the entire population
    Over 1 million men
    Included women
  • 33. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    33
    C. Committee on Public safety
    Had power to defend the revolution from internal threats
    Headed by Maximillian Robespierre
    Determined to build a “Republic of Virtue”
    From 1793 –1794 put on trial all enemies of the state.
    Christians and women
    Anyone less radical than Robespierre.
    40,000 people killed.
  • 34. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    34
    The fate of those who threatened the Revolution
  • 35. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    35
    D. The End of Terror
    Robespierre creates “Cult of Supreme Being”
    Remaining leaders fear his power
    Robespierre accuses them of conspiracy
    This is the end of Robespierre
    Period becomes known as Reign of Terror
  • 36. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    36
    Robespierre Is Killed in 1794
  • 37. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    37
    Closure…
    The French monarchy failed in addressing the problems of France.
    How the Enlightenment influenced the Third Estate.
    How economic conditions radicalized the revolution from the bottom
    How the revolution challenged the social order of all of Europe
  • 38. 10/1/2009
    10.2 Causes and consequences of the French Revolution
    38
    Terms
    Estates General
    Old Regime
    Louis XVI
    Bourgeoisie
    Sans Culottes
    Bastille
    National Assembly
    Great Fear
    Declaration of the Rights of Man
    Jacobin
    Reign of Terror
    Robespierre

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