The French Revolution
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The French Revolution

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The French Revolution The French Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • The French Revolution When Revolution goes Right, Left or Wrong?
  • Objectives
    • Crisis in the French Monarchy
    • The Revolution of 1789
    • The Reconstruction of France
    • The Second Revolution
    • The Reign of Terror
    • Crisis in the French Monarchy
    • The financial crisis
    • Louis XVI was a weak ruler
    • The Estates General
  • A. The financial crisis
    • France was in massive debt
      • The 7 year war
      • The American Revolution
      • Lifestyle of the Bourbon family
    • Nobility refused to increase taxes on themselves
  • B. Louis XVI was a weak ruler
    • Little influence over nobility
      • Nobility did not want to increase taxes
      • Would not raise taxes unless Estates General met
      • It had not met since 1614.
    • Little influence with public
    • Often unable to address pressing issues
  • C. The Estates General
    • The First Estate: Catholic Church
      • Controlled about 10% of the land.
      • Paid a 2% gift to the monarch
    • The Second Estate: The Nobility
      • Less than 2% of the population.
      • Owned 25% of the land
      • Could tax peasants at will.
      • Resented authority of crown
    • The Third Estate: everyone else
      • The emerging Bourgeoisie.
      • The urban working class.
      • Peasant farmers.
      • Carried the majority of the tax burden.
  • II. The Revolution of 1789
    • Meeting of the Estates General
    • The National Assembly
    • The Tennis Court Oath
    • Fall of the Bastille
    • The Great Fear
    • March on Versailles
  • A. Meeting of the Estates General
    • All Estates agreed change was needed
      • Political reform
      • Address corruption
    • But bitter division over how to vote.
      • Vote by order, Third Estate will lose 2-1.
      • As a Whole, Third Estate wins 610-591.
    • King Louis XVI requests estates to meet separately
  • The Estates General Meets
  • B. The National Assembly
    • Third Estate refuses and forms National Assembly
    • Invites 1 st and 2 nd Estate to sit with them
    • Seized power away from the First and Second estates
  • C. The Tennis Court Oath
    • Vowed to write a constitution
    • Members of other estates joined
    • King gave in to National Assembly
    • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizen’s.
  • Tennis Court Oath
  • D. Fall of the Bastille: 7/14/1789
    • While National Assembly meets, Paris has riots.
      • Poor wheat crop cause price increases.
      • Riots over rising prices of bread.
    • Louis XVI called for his Swiss guards to come to Paris
      • To Protect the crown
      • The crowds feared this move.
      • The National Assembly feared the Guards were coming after them.
    • Peasants attack Bastille to seize weapons for defense
      • This is NOT the Assembly
  •  
  • E. The Great Fear: Summer 1789.
    • Peasant mobs rise against nobility.
      • Attacked manors
      • Destroyed legal documents
      • Seized land
      • Stopped paying taxes
    • National Assembly forces Louis XVI to end Feudalism
  • F. The March on Versailles: 10/5/1789
    • Rising bread prices anger woman of Paris.
      • They march on the assembly.
      • They march to Versailles.
    • The woman and mobs attack Versailles.
    • Force King to agree to return to Paris.
  • The March on Versailles
  •  
  •  
  • III. The Reconstruction of France
    • Political reorganization
    • Attacks on the Catholic Church
    • The Counter Revolution
  • A. Political reorganization
    • Citizenship and voting based on tax payers
    • Created 83 departments
      • Replaced all provincial power
      • Further crippled nobility
  • B. Attacks on the Catholic Church
    • Seized all land from church
    • Transformed Catholic Church into secular part of state.
      • Between loss of lands and this Catholic church was very angry
      • Even members of Church who supported the assembly opposed the Revolution now.
      • Really angered the Pope
  • C. The Counter Revolution
    • The revolution threatened political and social order across Europe
      • The Vatican
      • French Nobility or Emigres
      • The King tried to flee, but was caught
      • Monarchs of Europe saw its as a threat
        • Frederick II of Prussia vowed to protect Marie Antoinette
  • IV. The Second Revolution
    • The Jacobins
    • The Paris Commune
    • The Sans-Culottes
  • A. The Jacobins
    • Political Party of the Revolution
      • Influenced by Rousseau and Enlightenment
      • Emerged as early leaders of assembly
    • Declared war on Austria as a threat to the Revolution (1792)
  • B. The Paris Commune
    • Formed to govern Paris during the war
    • Consisted of mobs of people to protect the revolution
      • Feared the counter revolutionaries
    • Attacked the royal residence
      • Imprisoned the family
  • C. The Sans-Culottes
    • Shop keepers, workers and artisans
      • Primarily the poor
    • Very angry at price of food
      • People have a right to food
      • Angry at the Jacobins
    • Divisions in the assembly
      • The left was extremely revolutionary
      • The Right wanted a constitutional Monarchy
  • The King is dead !!!
  •  
  • V. The Reign of Terror
    • War with Europe
    • The Levee en Masse
    • Committee on Public safety
    • The end of Terror
  • A. War with Europe
    • France was at war with Britain, Austria and Prussia
      • Europe feared the revolution
    • The radicals of the revolution saw a need to defend the revolution
      • Viewed early leaders of the revolution as a threat
  • B. The Levee en Masse
    • Mobilize the entire population
      • Over 1 million men
      • Included women
  • C. Committee on Public safety
    • Had power to defend the revolution from internal threats
      • Headed by Maximillian Robespierre
    • Determined to build a “Republic of Virtue”
    • From 1793 –1794 put on trial all enemies of the state.
      • Christians and women
      • Anyone less radical than Robespierre.
      • 40,000 people killed.
  • The fate of those who threatened the Revolution
  • D. The End of Terror
    • Robespierre creates “Cult of Supreme Being”
    • Remaining leaders fear his power
    • Robespierre accuses them of conspiracy
    • This is the end of Robespierre
    • Period becomes known as Reign of Terror
  • Robespierre Is Killed in 1794
  • Closure…
    • The French monarchy failed in addressing the problems of France.
    • How the Enlightenment influenced the Third Estate.
    • How economic conditions radicalized the revolution from the bottom
    • How the revolution challenged the social order of all of Europe
  • Terms
    • Estates General
    • Old Regime
    • Louis XVI
    • Bourgeoisie
    • Sans Culottes
    • Bastille
    • National Assembly
    • Great Fear
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man
    • Jacobin
    • Reign of Terror
    • Robespierre