The Federal Court System


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The Federal Court System

  1. 1. The Federal Court System Chapter 18 section 1 and 2
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Dual Court System </li></ul><ul><li>The National Judiciary </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>The Appointment of Judges </li></ul><ul><li>The Inferior Courts </li></ul>
  3. 3. From left to right, seated: Justice Antonin Scalia, Justice John Paul Stevens, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy - standing: Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Justice David H. Souter, Justice Clarence Thomas, Justice Stephen G. Breyer ~
  4. 4. I. A Dual Court System <ul><li>The Federal Court System </li></ul><ul><li>The State Court System </li></ul>
  5. 5. II. The National Judiciary <ul><li>Constitutional Basis </li></ul><ul><li>Limits on Power </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitutional Courts </li></ul><ul><li>The Special Courts </li></ul>
  6. 6. A. Constitutional basis <ul><li>Power of Judiciary is established by Article III, section one of the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentions only a Superior court. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No mention of Lower courts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1789 set up the Supreme Court, 3 Circuit Courts and 13 District Courts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. B. Limits on Power <ul><li>Cases must be Justiciable, or appropriate for review by the courts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must wait for a case to be brought to them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only rule on legal matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved parties must have standing, a vested interest, in the case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court will only hear a case as a last resort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burden of Proof is on the plaintiff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case must involve a specific portion of the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A person can not question a law that they benefit from. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. C. The Supreme Court <ul><li>Established by Article III of the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Comprised of 9 judges currently </li></ul><ul><li>Headed by a Chief Justice </li></ul>
  9. 9. Antonin Scalia and John Paul Stevens
  10. 10. Sandra Day O’Connor and Anthony Kennedy
  11. 11. Ruth Bader Ginsberg and David H. Souter
  12. 12. Clarence Thomas and Stephan G. Breyer
  13. 13. D. The Constitutional Courts <ul><li>94 District Courts </li></ul><ul><li>12 Courts of Appeals </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Court of International Trade </li></ul>
  14. 14. E. The Special Courts <ul><li>U.S. Court of Federal Claims </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial Courts </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Tax Court </li></ul><ul><li>Courts of District of Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Services </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims </li></ul>
  15. 15. III. Types of Jurisdiction <ul><li>What is Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Original Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Appellate Jurisdiction </li></ul>
  16. 16. A. What is Jurisdiction <ul><li>It means the power “To Say The Law” </li></ul><ul><li>Federal courts will jurisdiction based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The subject matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The parties involved </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. B. Exclusive Jurisdiction <ul><li>It is the authority of the court to try only certain types of cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal courts have jurisdiction over: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of Federal Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving Treaties, admiralty and maritime law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving the Federal Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases involving separate states or Foreign governments </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. C. Concurrent Jurisdiction <ul><li>Authority of two or more courts to hear the same kind of case. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws that are established by federal and state governments. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. D. Original Jurisdiction <ul><li>Authority of court to try case first time it is heard. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>District courts are given original jurisdiction. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. E. Appellate Jurisdiction <ul><li>Authority of the court to review a decision of a lower court. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Federal Court of Appeals has power to review decisions made by the District Courts. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. IV. The Appointment of Judges <ul><li>Selection and appointment </li></ul><ul><li>The Issue of Judicial Activism </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of a Judge </li></ul>
  22. 22. A. Selection and appointment <ul><li>Judges are appointed by the President. </li></ul><ul><li>Judges are confirmed by the Senate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically appointments were accepted if the Senator from that state supported the appointed Judge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is referred to as Senatorial Courtesy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is not the case any longer. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. B. The Issue of Judicial Activism <ul><li>Interpretation of the law is powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological fights occur occur over who should have that power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial Activists usually argue that a judge should use there power to promote desirable social ends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial Restraint argues that policy decisions are the sphere of the Legislative and executive branch. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. C. Terms of a Judge <ul><li>Judges are appointed for life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We want impartial judges, not subject to the emotion and whims of the masses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If they were elected, they may craft decisions to get re elected. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Court Judges serve 15 year terms. </li></ul>
  25. 25. V. The Inferior Courts <ul><li>District Courts </li></ul><ul><li>The Court of Appeals </li></ul><ul><li>The Other Courts </li></ul>
  26. 26. A. District Courts <ul><li>Federal cases are first tried in District Courts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>District courts have original Jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>District Courts can hear criminal and civil cases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>87% of case load deals with civil cases. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. B. Courts of Appeals <ul><li>The Supreme Court used to hear all appeals cases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1887, it was 4 years behind on the docket . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Federal Courts of Appeals were established to help with the work load. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The purpose is to review a case if a federal law was applied incorrectly . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No new evidence, no witnesses and no juries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts can uphold, reverse and remand decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles nearly 55,000 cases. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. C. Other Courts <ul><li>U.S. Claims courts </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Court of International Trade </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Tax Court </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Territorial Courts </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The Supreme Court Historical Society </li></ul>