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Scientific Revolution Unit 3 Topic 1   Honors World
 

Scientific Revolution Unit 3 Topic 1 Honors World

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    Scientific Revolution Unit 3 Topic 1   Honors World Scientific Revolution Unit 3 Topic 1 Honors World Presentation Transcript

    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      1
      The Scientific Revolution and the Philosophical Response
      Chapter 14
      Pages 452-466
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      2
      Objectives
      Important Influences of the Enlightenment
      The Scientific Revolution
      Philosophy responds to Science
      The Age of Reason
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      3
      I. Important Influences
      The Renaissance
      The Reformation
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      4
      A. The Renaissance
      Rediscovery of Classical knowledge
      Humanism:
      Secular
      Self awareness
      Study of Liberal arts
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      5
      B. The Reformation
      Ends the monopoly of the Catholic Church.
      Huge explosion of new interpretations of the Bible.
      Demonstrates a challenge to authority.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      6
      II. Scientific Revolution
      Copernicus
      Kepler
      Galileo
      Sir Isaac Newton
      Conflict with the church.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      7
      A. Copernicus
      Before Copernicus the Ptolemaic or geocentric view of the Universe dominated.
      Accepted by Aristotle and Ptolemy
      The Church taught that God put us at the center of the Universe.
      Copernicus challenged this view and argued for the heliocentric or sun centered view.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      8
      Ptolemaic
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      9
      The Church Position
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      10
      The Heliocentric Model
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      11
      B. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
      Continued work of Tycho Brahe (1536-1601).
      Proposed 3 laws of planetary motion.
      Planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbit.
      Planets move more rapidly as they approach sun.
      Time to complete orbit varies with distance.
      Development process of Scientific method.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      12
      C. Galileo (1564-1642)
      He built a telescope and studied the heavens.
      His findings proved the Copernican model correct.
      This became a challenge to the church authority.
      He will be forced to recant and under house arrest the rest of his life.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      13
      D. Sir Isaac Newton
      Sir Isaac Newton
      World has natural laws
      Laws of Gravity and motion that unified the heavens and the earth
      The world has natural laws to explain it.
      Humans also have laws that govern them.
      We, as humans, can use reason to discover these laws.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      14
      III. Philosophy responds to Science
      Nature as Mechanism
      Influence of Francis Bacon
      Rene Descartes
      Thomas Hobbes
      John Locke
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      15
      A. Nature as Mechanism
      Science can be used to explain the world
      “It is a machine of natural parts, not divine” Kepler
      God may be a designer, but not actively involved
      Europeans looked at the world to discover knowledge and understand nature, not to understand the divine.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      16
      B. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
      Father of empiricism
      Learning through experience and perception
      Advocated learning
      Leave the past (antiquity)
      Discover new knowledge
      Knowledge should be useful to humanity
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      17
      C. Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
      Mathematician
      Analytical geometry
      Mathematical models
      Believed God have given men reason
      Man can use reason to understand the world
      The power of Science
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      18
      D. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
      Man is self interested
      State of nature is war
      Hobbes Social Contract:
      People needed to surrender liberty in order to maintain order and security
      Strong central authority is needed
      Without government life would short, nasty and brutish
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      19
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      20
      E. John Locke. (1632-1704)
      Essay Concerning Human Understanding”
      Knowledge is gained from experience.
      Man is Good
      Rejected concept of original sin.
      Humans could improve society through reason.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      21
      John Locke
      " Men (are) by nature all free, equal and independent. No one can be put out of his estate ( liberty and property) without his own consent. The only way whereby anyone divests himself of his natural liberty and puts on the bonds of civil society, is by agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a community for there comfortable, safe, and peaceable living one amongst the other."
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      22
      John Locke
      State of nature is freedom
      Rejected absolutism
      Advocated idea of Social Contract, but with reason and limited authority
      Advocated religious tolerance amongst Christians
      Huge impact on American political thought
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      23
      IV. The Age of Reason
      The Values
      Long term impact
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      24
      A. Values
      Reason
      Philosophes viewed reason as the absence of intolerance and bigotry.
      Through reason society could be improved and true happiness be found.
      Nature
      Their were laws of nature for all things.
      People could use reason to discover these laws.
      These natural laws could be used to explain economics, politics as well as motion.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      25
      A. Values
      Happiness
      People who live in a perfect state of nature will be happy.
      Rejected idea of misery on Earth as a ticket to heaven.
      Believed happiness could be achieved on earth.
      Progress
      Society can be improved.
      Science can improve society.
      Understanding of Natural laws could improve society.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      26
      A. Values
      Liberty
      Restrictions on trade, religion and speech were seen as harmful.
      Through reason people could be set free.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      27
      B. The Long Term Impact
      Emphasis on the studying nature.
      Belief that Science can explain all?
      Scientific findings challenged the Authority of the Church.
      Science conflicted with the Bible.
      How can the Bible be wrong?
      Conflict still continues today.
      Evolution versus Creationism.
      Also challenge authority of oppressive governments
      The role of Technology
      Our dependence on it.
      It has completely changes our lives.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      28
      With the Enlightenment:
      The State becomes the common bond holding society together.
      The scientist and the university educated scholar become the source of knowledge.
      Natural Law and Reason, rather than revelation or the decrees of the Church become the source of moral authority.
      In the methods of science, European’s believed they had found the source of truth.
      The Enlightenment is an attempt to find the laws of human society in the same way that Newton had found the laws of nature.
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      29
      What we know…
      How did the Scientific Revolution challenge the way people saw the world?
      How were nature and reason so important to the Scientific Revolution.
      How did the Scientific Revolution influence the thinking of Locke and Hobbes?
    • 9/26/2009
      10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
      30
      Terms
      Scientific Revolution
      Copernicus
      Kepler
      Galileo
      Newton
      Mechanism
      Empiricism
      Bacon
      Descartes
      Hobbes
      Locke