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Scientific Revolution Unit 3 Topic 1 Honors World Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    1
    The Scientific Revolution and the Philosophical Response
    Chapter 14
    Pages 452-466
  • 2. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    2
    Objectives
    Important Influences of the Enlightenment
    The Scientific Revolution
    Philosophy responds to Science
    The Age of Reason
  • 3. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    3
    I. Important Influences
    The Renaissance
    The Reformation
  • 4. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    4
    A. The Renaissance
    Rediscovery of Classical knowledge
    Humanism:
    Secular
    Self awareness
    Study of Liberal arts
  • 5. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    5
    B. The Reformation
    Ends the monopoly of the Catholic Church.
    Huge explosion of new interpretations of the Bible.
    Demonstrates a challenge to authority.
  • 6. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    6
    II. Scientific Revolution
    Copernicus
    Kepler
    Galileo
    Sir Isaac Newton
    Conflict with the church.
  • 7. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    7
    A. Copernicus
    Before Copernicus the Ptolemaic or geocentric view of the Universe dominated.
    Accepted by Aristotle and Ptolemy
    The Church taught that God put us at the center of the Universe.
    Copernicus challenged this view and argued for the heliocentric or sun centered view.
  • 8. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    8
    Ptolemaic
  • 9. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    9
    The Church Position
  • 10. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    10
    The Heliocentric Model
  • 11. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    11
    B. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    Continued work of Tycho Brahe (1536-1601).
    Proposed 3 laws of planetary motion.
    Planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbit.
    Planets move more rapidly as they approach sun.
    Time to complete orbit varies with distance.
    Development process of Scientific method.
  • 12. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    12
    C. Galileo (1564-1642)
    He built a telescope and studied the heavens.
    His findings proved the Copernican model correct.
    This became a challenge to the church authority.
    He will be forced to recant and under house arrest the rest of his life.
  • 13. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    13
    D. Sir Isaac Newton
    Sir Isaac Newton
    World has natural laws
    Laws of Gravity and motion that unified the heavens and the earth
    The world has natural laws to explain it.
    Humans also have laws that govern them.
    We, as humans, can use reason to discover these laws.
  • 14. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    14
    III. Philosophy responds to Science
    Nature as Mechanism
    Influence of Francis Bacon
    Rene Descartes
    Thomas Hobbes
    John Locke
  • 15. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    15
    A. Nature as Mechanism
    Science can be used to explain the world
    “It is a machine of natural parts, not divine” Kepler
    God may be a designer, but not actively involved
    Europeans looked at the world to discover knowledge and understand nature, not to understand the divine.
  • 16. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    16
    B. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
    Father of empiricism
    Learning through experience and perception
    Advocated learning
    Leave the past (antiquity)
    Discover new knowledge
    Knowledge should be useful to humanity
  • 17. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    17
    C. Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
    Mathematician
    Analytical geometry
    Mathematical models
    Believed God have given men reason
    Man can use reason to understand the world
    The power of Science
  • 18. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    18
    D. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
    Man is self interested
    State of nature is war
    Hobbes Social Contract:
    People needed to surrender liberty in order to maintain order and security
    Strong central authority is needed
    Without government life would short, nasty and brutish
  • 19. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    19
  • 20. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    20
    E. John Locke. (1632-1704)
    Essay Concerning Human Understanding”
    Knowledge is gained from experience.
    Man is Good
    Rejected concept of original sin.
    Humans could improve society through reason.
  • 21. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    21
    John Locke
    " Men (are) by nature all free, equal and independent. No one can be put out of his estate ( liberty and property) without his own consent. The only way whereby anyone divests himself of his natural liberty and puts on the bonds of civil society, is by agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a community for there comfortable, safe, and peaceable living one amongst the other."
  • 22. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    22
    John Locke
    State of nature is freedom
    Rejected absolutism
    Advocated idea of Social Contract, but with reason and limited authority
    Advocated religious tolerance amongst Christians
    Huge impact on American political thought
  • 23. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    23
    IV. The Age of Reason
    The Values
    Long term impact
  • 24. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    24
    A. Values
    Reason
    Philosophes viewed reason as the absence of intolerance and bigotry.
    Through reason society could be improved and true happiness be found.
    Nature
    Their were laws of nature for all things.
    People could use reason to discover these laws.
    These natural laws could be used to explain economics, politics as well as motion.
  • 25. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    25
    A. Values
    Happiness
    People who live in a perfect state of nature will be happy.
    Rejected idea of misery on Earth as a ticket to heaven.
    Believed happiness could be achieved on earth.
    Progress
    Society can be improved.
    Science can improve society.
    Understanding of Natural laws could improve society.
  • 26. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    26
    A. Values
    Liberty
    Restrictions on trade, religion and speech were seen as harmful.
    Through reason people could be set free.
  • 27. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    27
    B. The Long Term Impact
    Emphasis on the studying nature.
    Belief that Science can explain all?
    Scientific findings challenged the Authority of the Church.
    Science conflicted with the Bible.
    How can the Bible be wrong?
    Conflict still continues today.
    Evolution versus Creationism.
    Also challenge authority of oppressive governments
    The role of Technology
    Our dependence on it.
    It has completely changes our lives.
  • 28. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    28
    With the Enlightenment:
    The State becomes the common bond holding society together.
    The scientist and the university educated scholar become the source of knowledge.
    Natural Law and Reason, rather than revelation or the decrees of the Church become the source of moral authority.
    In the methods of science, European’s believed they had found the source of truth.
    The Enlightenment is an attempt to find the laws of human society in the same way that Newton had found the laws of nature.
  • 29. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    29
    What we know…
    How did the Scientific Revolution challenge the way people saw the world?
    How were nature and reason so important to the Scientific Revolution.
    How did the Scientific Revolution influence the thinking of Locke and Hobbes?
  • 30. 9/26/2009
    10.2 The Impact of the Scientific Revolution on political Thought
    30
    Terms
    Scientific Revolution
    Copernicus
    Kepler
    Galileo
    Newton
    Mechanism
    Empiricism
    Bacon
    Descartes
    Hobbes
    Locke