China And Imperialism
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China And Imperialism

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    China And Imperialism China And Imperialism Presentation Transcript

    • Spheres of influence and China Chapter 25 section 4
    • Topics
      • Structure of Chinese Society
      • China viewed itself as the center of Civilization.
      • European Trade and China
      • The Opium Wars
      • Ch’ing Dynasty struggles
    • I. Structure of Chinese Society
      • A Feudal model
      • The Bureaucracy
    • A. A Feudal model
      • Elite rented land to peasants and collected taxes.
      • Peasants worked the land.
      • Both groups were treated equally before the law.
    • B. The Bureaucracy ran the country.
      • Person had to pass a difficult exam to enter.
      • Focused on long history of China
      • Also on Confucianism.
        • To perfect the behavior of man.
        • Had to look at the past.
    • II. China as center of Civilization.
      • Massive population
      • Advanced Civilization
      • Controlled local trade
      • Very long history
      • Cultural Chauvinism
    • A. Massive population
      • Growing Population
      • 150million to 400 million.
      • Large work force, no need to industrialize.
    • B. Advanced Civilization
      • Invented the compass, printing, gunpowder.
      • Produced many fine goods by skilled artisans.
      • More advanced metallurgy up until the 17th century.
    • C. Controlled local trade
      • Large fleet controlled local seas.
    • D. Very long history
      • Longer recorded history than Europe.
    • E. Cultural Chauvinism
      • Longer recorded history than Europe.
      • China believed they were center of Civilization.
      • Led to cultural Chauvinism or Hubris.
        • The idea that China was superior to other nations.
      • This is a big problem.
        • China was unwilling to learn from other nations.
    • III. European Trade and China
      • Europe wanted access to Chinese markets.
      • China looked down on Europe.
    • A. Europe wanted access to Chinese markets.
      • Europe wanted Chinese items such as silk, porcelain and Rhubarb.
      • The problem was that China did not want anything from Europe.
      • China only wanted gold and silver.
      • Creates a Balance of Trade problem.
      • Europe needs an item to trade to China.
    • B. China looked down on Europe.
      • The barbarians smelled bad.
      • They were only allowed to trade in Canton to licensed Hong Traders.
      • China wanted to keep Europeans out of China.
    • IV. The Opium Wars (1839-1842)
      • The Opium trade
      • China protests
      • Treaty of Nanking
    • A. The Opium trade
      • Opium was the solution to the trade problem.
      • Opium trade increases from 1800 to 1839 by 4000 to 40,000 chests.
      • Chinese Emperor asks Queen Victoria to end trade.
        • She ignored the request.
    • B. China protests
      • China goes to war to stop trade.
      • Chinese navy has 13th century technology.
      • Britain is Industrial.
      • Chinese government is also no longer effective.
        • Plagued with corruption.
        • People used bribes to pass tests.
    • C. Treaty of Nanking
      • Britain wins right to trade in 4 new cities and Hong Kong becomes a colony.
      • British citizens gain extra territorial rights.
      • Britain claims a Sphere of Influence.
      • Other European nations will follow suit.
    • V. The Ch’ing Struggles
      • Threats to China
      • Tai Ping Rebellion
      • U.S. and the Open Door Policy
      • China attempts to modernize
      • The Boxer Rebellion
    • A. Threats to China
      • Dominated by Europe.
      • Government was corrupt
      • Overpopulation was becoming an issue.
      • Opium trade and low taxes were emptying the treasury.
    • B. Tai Ping Rebellion (1850-1865)
      • Led by Hung Hsui Chu’an.
      • Led by those who failed examinations.
      • Supported by 1 million peasants.
      • Wanted a society based on equality.
      • They take control of South China.
      • European nations put down rebellion.
        • 20 million Chinese die.
    • Tai ping rebellion
    • C. U.S. and the Open Door Policy
      • U.S. fears being left out of China.
        • China is a huge Market.
      • U.S. declares an Open Door Policy.
        • Any Nation may trade anywhere in China.
      • Prevented china from being divided into colonies.
    • D. China attempts to modernize
      • many argue modernization of China is essential to repel foreigners.
      • Many Chinese resist.
        • Cultural success of China.
        • Long history.
        • Must repel foreign influence, not embrace.
    • E. The Boxer Rebellion
      • Fists of Righteous harmony
      • Movement to remove all foreigners from China.
      • Attacked Missionaries as invaders.
      • Boxers attacked embassies of Foreigners.
        • Embassies formed a defensive compound.
        • German embassy wiped out.
      • Europe, Japan and U.S. put the rebellion down.
    • 8 Nation alliance
      • Germany, Britain, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Russia, Japan and the yes the U.S.
      • Rebellion was crushed and China forced to pay reparations.
    •  
    • Terms
      • Extraterritorial rights
      • Sphere of influence
      • Opium war
      • Hung Hsiu Chuan
      • Taiping Rebellion
      • Open Door Policy
      • Boxer Rebellion
    • Summary…
      • How did China view their own civilization? How did they view Europe's?
      • How did the Opium war’s affect the relationship between Europe and China?
      • What actions did China take to oppose European dominance? Were they successful?