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Chapter 6 Sec 2

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    • 1. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 1 The Enlightenment 1650-1800 Chapter 6 section 2
    • 2. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 2 Topics I. Important Influences II. The Age of Reason III. The Philosophes
    • 3. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 3 I. Important Influences A. The Renaissance B. The Reformation C. The Scientific Revolution
    • 4. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 4 A. The Renaissance • A rediscovery of Roman and Greek Society • A new emphasis on human qualities.
    • 5. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 5 B. The Reformation • Ends the monopoly of the Catholic Church. • Huge explosion of new interpretations of the Bible. • Demonstrates a challenge to authority.
    • 6. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 6 C. Scientific Revolution • The world has natural laws to explain it. • Humans, as part of nature, also have laws that govern them. • We, as humans, can use reason to discover these laws.
    • 7. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 7 II. The Age of Reason A. Reason B. Nature C. Happiness D. Progress E. Liberty
    • 8. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 8 A. Reason • Philosophes viewed reason as the absence of intolerance and bigotry. • Through reason society could be improved and true happiness be found.
    • 9. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 9 B. Nature. • Whatever was natural was good and reasonable. • Their were laws of nature for all things. • People could use reason to discover these laws. • These natural laws could be used to explain economics, politics as well as motion.
    • 10. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 10 C. Happiness • People who live in a perfect state of nature will be happy. • Rejected idea of misery on Earth as a ticket to heaven. • Believed happiness could be achieved on earth.
    • 11. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 11 D. Progress. • Society can be improved. • Science can improve society. • Understanding of Natural laws could improve society.
    • 12. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 12 E. Liberty. • Philosophes admired the liberties of the English. • Restrictions on trade, religion and speech were seen as harmful. • Through reason people could be set free.
    • 13. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 13 III. The Philosophes. A. Thomas Hobbes B. John Locke C. Voltaire D. Denis Diderot E. Baron de Montesquieu F. Jean Jacque Rousseau G. Adam Smith. H. Benjamin Franklin
    • 14. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 14 A. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) • Wrote Leviathan. • State of Nature is war. • Man is Self interested • Man needs a monarch to rule. • A Social Contract will exist between the people and the state. – Purpose to maintain order.
    • 15. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 15 A. John Locke. (1632-1704) • Man is good, rejected idea of original sin. • Man should be Free. • Man can govern himself through reason. – Humans could improve society through reason. • Advocated idea of Social Contract. • Man had Natural Rights.
    • 16. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 16 C. Voltaire • Voltaire was his pen name. • Used his writings to campaign against intolerance, injustice and prejudice. – Often is jailed for his criticisms of rulers. • Admired British system of common law. • Viewed reason as a divine force.
    • 17. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 17
    • 18. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 18 D. Denis Diderot • Created the First Encyclopedia. • Wanted to collect all information from leading scholars and writers. • Louis XV saw the book as a threat and and had it banned. • Diderot continued to print other copies. • Inspired Encyclopedia Britannica
    • 19. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 19 E. Baron de Montesquieu • Admired the British model. – Hated French Absolutism. • Spirit of the Laws. 1748. • Separation of Powers: Each branch of government will have its own function. – Executive enforces law. – Legislative passes law – Judicial interprets law. • This creates a system of checks and balances. – Prevents any one branch from
    • 20. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 20 F. Jean Jacques Rousseau • Wrote “The Social Contract”. • Believed everyone should be Free. • Power comes from the consent of the governed. • Civilization corrupts goodness of man. • Believed in Direct Democracy
    • 21. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 21 G. Adam Smith • Free Trade and Laissez Faire • Law of Self Interest • Law of Competition • Law of Supply and Demand
    • 22. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 22 H. Ben Franklin. • An American Philosophe • Poor Richards Almanac • Electricity
    • 23. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 23 V. Women and the Enlightenment A. The role of Salons B. Mary Wollstonecraft C. Enlightenment on Women
    • 24. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 24 A. The Role of Salons. • Acted as intellectual centers of Europe. • Poetry, stories, debate, and music. • Organized by woman. – Marie Therese Geoffrin. • Restricted to the upper class.
    • 25. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 25 The Salons
    • 26. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 26 B. Mary Wollstonecraft • A Vindication of the Rights of Women • Opposed traditional roles for women – Confinement to roles is slavery – Male tyranny • Critiqued other philosphes for excluding women • Broadened the debate
    • 27. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 27 C. Enlightenment on Women • Most did not advocate a change for women – Montesquieu’s support was limited • Sympathetic, not revolutionary • Subordinate to male, but could divorce – Most writers emphasized the physical differences • Weakness • Frivolous – Rousseau advocated traditional roles for women
    • 28. IDEA Thinker Impact Natural Rights-Life, liberty, property Locke Fundamental to ideas found in Dec. of Ind. Separation of Powers Montesquieu France, U.S. Latin America use these ideas in their Constitutions Freedom of thought and expression Voltaire Ideas found in many Bills of Rights Free Trade Adam Smith Free Trade, capitalism Religious Freedom Voltaire Bill of Rights, reduction of Persecutions Women’s Rights Wollstonecraft Eventual women’s rights in N. America and Europe Major Ideas of the Enlightenment
    • 29. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 29 With the Enlightenment: • The State becomes the common bond holding society together. • The scientist and the university educated scholar become the source of knowledge. • Natural Law and Reason, rather than revelation or the decrees of the Church become the source of moral authority. • In the methods of science, European believed they had found the source of truth. • The Enlightenment is an attempt to find the laws of human society in the same way that Newton had found the laws of nature.
    • 30. 01/30/15 10.2 The Enduring Political Impact of the Enlightenment on Government 30 Terms • Enlightenment • Philosophe • Salon • Baroque • Newton • Voltaire • Marie Therese Geofrin • Diderot • Priestley • Franklin • Cook • Bach • Handel • Mozart • Beethoven