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Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
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Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
Ch 2 Sec 1
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Ch 2 Sec 1

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  • 1. Our Political Heritage Chapter 2 sec 1
  • 2. Topics <ul><li>Greek Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Influences </li></ul><ul><li>English Common Law </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial governments </li></ul>
  • 3. I. Greek Influences <ul><li>Democracy in Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy in Athens??? </li></ul>
  • 4. A. Democracy in Athens <ul><li>Direct Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Any citizen could serve. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Council of 500 (Lottery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ostraca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens could debate and vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approved all decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jurors were selected from population. </li></ul><ul><li>Generals were elected. </li></ul>
  • 5. B. Democracy in Athens??? <ul><li>Citizenship was limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Women had limited rights. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No voting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No public life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greece had slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Chattel at first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became chattel over time </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. II. Roman Influences <ul><li>Senate and Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve Tables </li></ul>
  • 7. A. Senate and Assembly <ul><li>A Representative or Republican form of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Senate represented the Patrician class. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented landed aristocracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated early Rome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served for life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Assembly represented the Plebeians. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally had little power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew in power over time </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. B. The Twelve Tables 450 B.C.E. <ul><li>Written code of laws. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone tablets were hung for all to see. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrated idea that laws applied to all. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. III. English Common Law <ul><li>The Magna Carta </li></ul><ul><li>The Petition of Right </li></ul><ul><li>The English Bill of Rights </li></ul>
  • 10. A. The Magna Carta, 1215. <ul><li>The Nobility was angered by King John’s wars and taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Coerced King John to sign The Great Charter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial by jury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private Property. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intended to protect nobility only. </li></ul>
  • 11. B. The Petition of Right, 1628. <ul><li>Parliament forced Charles I to sign. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed consent of parliament for new taxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King could not impose martial law. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenged idea of Divine Right of Kings. </li></ul><ul><li>Helped lead to English Civil War </li></ul>
  • 12. C. The English Bill of Rights, 1688. <ul><li>Result of the Glorious Revolution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to a fair trial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom from excessive bail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No cruel and unusual punishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placed significant restrictions on the Crown </li></ul><ul><li>Secured power for Parliament </li></ul>
  • 13. IV. The Enlightenment <ul><li>The Age of Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Hobbes </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Baron de Montesquieu </li></ul>
  • 14. A. The Age of Reason <ul><li>Developed counter to Divine Right </li></ul><ul><li>Strong influence in colonies (U.S.) </li></ul><ul><li>Major principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. B. Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>Wrote “The Leviathan” </li></ul><ul><li>The state of nature of man is war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selfishness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This problem must be averted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution: A Leviathan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong state or leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a state to prevent war. </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Hobbes… <ul><li>People enter into a Social Contract. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The creation of a state to maintain order. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrifice freedoms for security. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Divine Right </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. C. John Locke <ul><li>State of nature for people is freedom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People have reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for a leviathan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believed people had Natural Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… right to life, liberty and property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to revolt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State created to protect liberty </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Locke… <ul><li>Social Contract is between people within a society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govern according to reason. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power comes from the consent of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Power </li></ul>
  • 19. D. Montesquieu <ul><li>Wrote Spirit of the Law </li></ul><ul><li>Government has 3 functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To write laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To interpret laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To enforce laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Separation Of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Power is the check to power” </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. III.Colonial Governments <ul><li>Royal Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Charter Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Trends </li></ul>
  • 21. A. Royal Colonies <ul><li>Colonial settlements under direct rule of British crown. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor and council appointed by Crown. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonists elected an assembly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor had veto power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most colonies were Royal colonies. </li></ul>
  • 22. B. Proprietary Colonies <ul><li>The crown gave a land grant to a proprietor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietor would select governor and upper house. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower house elected by people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. </li></ul>
  • 23. C. Charter Colonies <ul><li>Colonial settlements established by groups given a charter by the crown. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists elected governors and houses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown had right to approve governor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These colonies had the greatest degree of self rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut and Rhode Island. </li></ul>
  • 24. D. common experience <ul><li>State governments used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutions- social contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular Sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited the power of government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 states had a bill of Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All had separation of power </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. What do we know? <ul><li>Several periods influenced American political thought. </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment and English Common Law have had a profound influence. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonies demonstrate early and successful attempts at democratic self government. </li></ul>
  • 26. Terms <ul><li>Direct Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Magna Carta </li></ul><ul><li>Petition of Right </li></ul><ul><li>English Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Hobbes </li></ul><ul><li>Social Contract </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Montesquieu </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Charter Colonies </li></ul>

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