Ch 19 Sec3 Speech And Press


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Ch 19 Sec3 Speech And Press

  1. 1. Freedom of Speech Ch 19 section 3 Part A
  2. 2. Questions <ul><li>Why is Free speech important? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the Types of Speech? </li></ul><ul><li>What speech is unprotected? </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Why is Free Speech Important? <ul><li>This is a Democracy!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire </li></ul><ul><li>Free Market place of Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>John Stuart Mills </li></ul>
  4. 4. A. This is a Democracy!!!! <ul><ul><li>Public input and dissent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informing the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion of Policy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Expression/Art </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. B. Voltaire <ul><li>“ I may despise what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it!” </li></ul>
  6. 6. C. Free Market Place of Ideas <ul><li>Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes stated… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The best of Truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market….” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the Free market place of ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. D. John Stuart Mills <ul><li>From his Essay on Liberty “ The Peculiar evil of silencing the expression of opinion, is that it is robbing the human race… If the opinion is right, they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth; if wrong, they lose what is almost as great a benefit, the clearer perception and livelier impression of truth, produced by its collision with error.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. II. What are the types of Speech <ul><li>Pure Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Plus </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Speech </li></ul>
  9. 9. A. Pure Speech <ul><li>The expression of an opinion before a willing audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Government control over this type of speech is rare. </li></ul>
  10. 10. B. Speech Plus <ul><li>Speech that is accompanied by such actions as demonstrations or parades. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments do regulate this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strikers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. C. Symbolic Speech <ul><li>Nonverbal communication through the use of symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Tinker vs. Des Moines , 1969 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students wore black arm bands in protest against the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court sided with student </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texas vs. Johnson, 1989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson burned a Flag in protest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas law prohibited it. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. III. What speech is unprotected? <ul><li>Defamatory Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting Words </li></ul><ul><li>Seditious Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Schenk vs. United States, 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis vs. United States, 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>What is Obscene? </li></ul><ul><li>Miller vs. California, 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Pornography </li></ul>
  13. 13. A. Defamatory Speech <ul><li>Libel is printed defamatory statements </li></ul><ul><li>Slander is spoken defamatory statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In either case the plaintiff must prove: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement is untrue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With intent to do harm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And actual harm must have occurred. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. B. Fighting Words <ul><li>Chaplinsky vs. New Hampshire, 1942 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech to provoke a fight is not protected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case stated that “direct tendency to cause acts of violence to whom, an individual, the remark is addressed. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. C. Seditious Speech <ul><li>Seditious speech advocates the overthrowing of the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Alien and Sedition acts, 1798 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gave President power to deport aliens who said “false, scandalous and malicious” criticisms of the government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obviously unconstitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had a sunset clause. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Court has placed restrictions on seditious speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schenk vs. United States, 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dennis vs. United States, 1951 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brandenburg vs. Ohio, 1969 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. D. Schenk vs. United States, 1917 <ul><li>Schenck distributed papers resisting the draft . </li></ul><ul><li>Action violated Espionage Act of 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal to state abusive language against the government or encourage disloyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear and Present Danger Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character of act depends upon the circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can not yell fire in a crowded theater. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resisting draft could jeopardize the war effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conviction was upheld. </li></ul>
  17. 17. E. Dennis vs. United States, 1951 <ul><li>Smith Act of 1940 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime to advocate the violent overthrow of the government including distributing material and teaching it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dennis vs. United States, 1951 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist party leaders advocating revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upheld convictions of communist party leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing individual rights vs. Community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yates vs. United States, 1957 , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court recognized difference between advocating and teaching or discussing. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Terms <ul><li>Libel </li></ul><ul><li>Slander </li></ul><ul><li>Seditious speech </li></ul><ul><li>Smith Act of 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Plus </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Schenk vs. United States, 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis vs. United States, 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>Miller vs. California, 1973 </li></ul>
  19. 19. What we know <ul><li>Why is free speech important to a democracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the government restrict seditious speech? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it so difficult to define obscenity? </li></ul>