OBJECTIVESAt the end of the program, participants will: Understand the three basic competencies of facilitator. Understand learning theory and its implication. Understand various facilitation methods/ approaches and when to use them. Be able to facilitate training effectively. Be able to design learning environment which is suitable to learning objectives. Utilize visual aids effectively.
Our Flight Plan Timing Day 1 Day 208:30 - 10:00 Getting acquainted Review and Preview Introduction (M1) Facilitating Training (M6)10:00 - 10:15 Coffee Break10:15 - 12:00 Basic Competencies of Facilitating Training (M6) Facilitator (M2) Learning Theory (M3)12:00 - 13:00 Lunch13:00 - 15:00 Design Learning Facilitating Training (M6) Environment (M4) Using Audio/ Visual Aids (M7) Facilitator Preparation (M5)15:00 - 15:15 Coffee Break15:15 – 16:30 Facilitator Preparation (M5) Action Plan (M8) Review and Assignment Summary and Closing
Our Flight Agreement …
Tell Us Your ExperienceThe Best Presentation/Teaching ExperienceWHY? ………………The Worst Presentation/Teaching ExperienceWHY? ………………Lesson Learnt ………
WHY SHOULD WE PRESENT?To practiceTo be listened/respected by othersTo persuade othersTo “sell” our ideasTo step up our career ……………………
COMMON EXCUSESI have no timeI am not experiencedIt is not my jobI am not the expertI don’t want to be laughed byothersI have a stomach ache
MANAGE NERVOUSNESSSmileDeep breathsRelax gestureMaintain eye contactdecelerate your speedSubmerge your EGOMemorize openingsentencesPep talk
SELF-REFLECTIONI want tobecome afacilitatorwho ………. Nothing is more terrible than activity without insight. - Thomas Calyle, Scottish essayist and historian
MODULE 2BASIC COMPETENCIES
TRAINERS’ COMPETENCY (1)1. KNOWLEDGE & EXPERIENCE Technical competence in subject Academic qualification Practical experience Knowledge of training function.
TRAINERS’ COMPETENCY (2)2. TRAINING SKILLS Applying learning theory Making fun Performing & leading Creating & conduct exercise.
TRAINERS’ COMPETENCY (3)3. CONCERN & AVAILABILITY Empathy Listening skills Asking & answering questions Dealing with difficult trainees Adapting style/ content to fit trainees’ needs.
TRAINERS’ PERFORMANCE1. Survive2. Star3. Serve
SELF-REFLECTION Where am I now? What should I do to improve? Nothing is more terrible than activity without insight. - Thomas Calyle, Scottish essayist and historian
MODULE 3LEARNING THEORY
Adult Learning Theory (Knowles, 1990) Pedagogy Andragogyart and science of teaching art and science of helpingchildren adults learn Students are passive and adult students are active learners dependent recipients. Adults bring work-related Bring few experiences to learning experiences. environment. Adults have the need to know why Subject-centered learning they are learning something: not motivated by gold stars or grades They are self-directed and active participants in the learning process Problem-centered learning Underestimates own ability to learn
IMPACT ON TRAINING Involve (have lots of hands on practice) Connect new learning to knowledge base Organize and clearly define program’s goals Identify learners’ interests; specialized training to meet trainee’s needs Provide positive/ constructive GUIDANCE and feedback Practical oriented Create informal & non threatening environment
I am always ready to learn although I do not always like being taught. ~Winston Churchill
Message Channels VisualChannels Auditory Kinesthetic or Tactile Your learning style is based on your sensory preference for receiving information.
Visual LearnersNeed to “see it” to “know it”.Prefer to see information such as pictures,graph, diagrams, cartoons, logo,demonstrations.Picture words and concepts they hear asimagesEasily distracted in lecture with no visual aidsOverwhelmed with intense visualsaccompanied by lectureBenefit from using charts, maps, notes, andflash cards when studying
Auditory Learners Need to “hear it” to “know it”. Prefer to hear information spoken Use music, accent, conversation, voice Can absorb a lecture with little effort May not need careful notes to learn. Often avoid eye contact in order to concentrate
Kinesthetic or TactileLearners Need to “do it” to “know it”. Prefer touch as their primary mode for taking in information In traditional auditory learning situations, they should write out important facts Trigger with: emotion, smell, taste, activity Create study sheets connected to vivid examples Role-playing can help the learn and remember important ideas
SELF-REFLECTION What is my dominant learning style? How do I identify others’ learning style? How will I apply theories I learnt in the classroom? Nothing is more terrible than activity without insight. - Thomas Calyle, Scottish essayist and historian
MODULE 4DESIGN LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
IDEAL ENVIRONMENT Complete audio visual equipments Appropriate seating layout Comfortable chairs Well controlled temperature Sound-proofed room 5 m2 per participant Controllable natural daylight
SEATING LAYOUTU shape Advantages: •Professional/ business like •Trainer can walk intu U •Good participant visibility •Standard, non-threatening Disadvantages: •Formal, need ice breaking •Neck-ache for front participants •Rear participants are far from the screen/ flip chart •Some participant masked by AV
SEATING LAYOUTV shape Advantages: •Best pattern for visibility •Optimum trainer/participant contact •Less formal than U Disadvantages: •Space requirements (only for small group)
SEATING LAYOUTFishbone shape Advantages: •Ideal for team building, discussion •Informal •Trainer can circulate Disadvantages: • Poor visibility of some participants • Lack of attention and encourage side conversations.
SEATING LAYOUTTraditional Classroom shape Advantages: •Accommodate a lot of participants •Focus to trainer Disadvantages: •Poor visibility of rear participants •Passive/ low involvement
SEATING LAYOUTSingle Square/ Round Shape Advantages: •High Involvement •Facilitates discussion/ problem solving •Easy to conduct Disadvantages: •Media and visual use is difficult •Limited group size
SELF-REFLECTION How will I apply theories I learnt in the classroom? Nothing is more terrible than activity without insight. - Thomas Calyle, Scottish essayist and historian
MODULE 5FACILITATOR PREPARATION
Communication - Some research Verbal 7%Visual Vocal55% 38%
What can we conclude?Our voice is 5 times more important than wordsaloneour visual impact is 8 times more importantthan words aloneLanguage should be ‘visual’ Use picturesque language; imageryReinforce not just verbally but with gestures
Vocal Variety Pace Rate at which you speak 100-120 words per minute Vary your pace Slow down for important points Includes phrasing and pausing
Vocal VarietyPitch How high or how low the voice is Good to have a variation in range Voice could go up when stressing a pointInflection How high or low voice is within a word Upward inflection for questions Downward inflection for statements
Vocal VarietyVolume Variation in volume is sometimes useful Always audibleStress Emphasis of words within sentence Using inflection, pause or volume
Body Language – Eye Contact
Eye contactDuration 2 – 4 seconds per personWhere to look Professional gaze Social gazeAngle of neck Chin parallel to floor
Posture Stand straight but relaxed Maintain an open posture Stand straight, weight even on both feet Keep shoulder back, knees relaxed Move away from inviting surfaces Drop arms to side of body No hands in pockets
Gesture Use more and larger gestures Don’t point finger at audience, cross arms, or put hands on hips Don’t place hands in prayer position Hold gesture until point is completed. Synchronize gestures with your speech.
Delivery MethodsSix basic delivery methods:1. Case Study 4. Role Play2. Demonstration 5. Structured Exercise3. Group Discussion6. Instructor Presentation
Selecting Delivery Methods POINT # 3 Consider the Practical POINT # 2 Requirements Consider the LearnersPOINT # 1 Consider the Learning Objective
PROFessional PreparationPlayscript/ outline Rehearsal/ practice Onsite checking Flight instruments
Which is central to apresentation? Speaker? Audience? Text?
KNOWING YOUR AUDIENCE (1)1. THE IMPORTANCE Anticipating class atmosphere Know the do and don’t Predict the class speed
KNOWING YOUR AUDIENCE (2)2. INFORMATION MUST BE OBTAINED Audiences’ background Audiences’ experience Audiences’ character Learning ability Learning preferences
KNOWING YOUR AUDIENCE (3)3. HOW TO GATHER THE INFORMATION? Personal data Information from the superior Pre class talk Class observation
SELF-REFLECTION How will I apply theories I learnt in the classroom? Nothing is more terrible than activity without insight. - Thomas Calyle, Scottish essayist and historian
MODULE 6ORGANIZING YOUR SESSION
STRUCTURE OF A SESSION Introduction Body Conclusion Transitions (verbal markers)
Level of Attention Paid By A TypicalAudience During A Speech 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Introduction Body Conclusion
What We Can Conclude Introductions and conclusions are very important Principle of Primacy and Recency Key message to be mentioned at introduction & conclusion Body of speech needs attention grabbers
Duration of Each Section Introduction 10 – 20% Body 60 – 80% Conclusion 10 - 20% As percentage of total length of speech
IntroductionFunctions of an introduction To grab positive interest To establish credibility To preview main ideas To give audience a reason to continue listening (WIIFM) To tell audience objectives of the speech Establish a time frame
Introduction Introduce with GrACE! Greeting Attention Grabber Content outline & Credibility Elaborate on what’s next
Conclusion Functions Provide closure Summarise main points Appeal for action Inspire Answer questions & handle objections
CONCLUDE THE SESSION1. Summarize main points2. Reconfirm the benefits of the training3. Get participants’ commitments4. Inspire5. Final Greeting
Organising theBody of the Speech P-R-E-P formula Point (introduction) Reason Example / Evidence Point (conclusion)
Organising theBody of the Speech Problem – Solution - Action Problem Solution Action
Organising theBody of the Speech See – Saw structure DisadvantagesAdvantages Conclusion
Organising theBody of the Speech Chronological Order Present Past Future
ADAPTIVE LECTURET Brief Explanation Point Example/ Illustration Practice Trainees’ Comment
Frase TransisiFUNCTION To prepare participant for next topic To sell the next topic To get attention from participants
Frase TransisiEXAMPLES In the previous slide you saw …. Now you will see …. Whereas in the last example we saw a decrease in ….. In this example you will see an increase in ….. I’ve just shown you how all these problems were caused. Now I’d like to propose some solution to these problems. In addition to this factor …… there is also the issue of …….
GET/ MAINTAIN ATTENTION1. Keep eye contact2. Ask questions3. Maintain vocal quality4. Touch with humor5. Tell the illustration/ real life example6. Warming up7. Stay in your stage8. Pause regularly9. Get them involved
HANDLING Q & A1. Anticipate2. Paraphrase3. Treat a “why?” question like a “how?”4. Direct response to entire group.5. Watch the person’s body language.6. Give brief answer personally.7. Redirect to participants.8. Parking lot. Does that help?
HANDLING DIFFICULTTRAINEES1. DOMINANT Respond concisely, continue Ignore, don’t response2. TALK EACH OTHER Talk to person beside him/her Pause/ stop3. PASSIVE/ LOW ENTHUSIASM Involve Give more attention & appreciation Use a lot of practice
SELF-REFLECTION How will I apply theories I learnt when I am facilitating a training? Nothing is more terrible than activity without insight. - Thomas Calyle, Scottish essayist and historian
MODULE 7USING AUDIO/ VISUAL AIDS
TYPES OF AUDIO/VISUAL AIDS1. LCD Projector2. OH Projector3. Flipchart4. Video/ DVD5. Simulation tools6. Poster7. Sample8. Slide Projector9. Music …...
BASIC PRINCIPLES1. You are the best visual aid of all. Do not let your visual aids overshadow you the presenter!2. To reinforce training impact.3. Understand the characteristics of each audio/visual aid.4. Use visual aids professionally and appropriately
GENERAL TIPSDon’t block the view.Check visibility form participant seat.Allow enough time for participant to take notes.Turn off when not in use.No spelling mistakesLimit words, add up picture, color, graph, etc.Prepared for an emergency.
SELF-REFLECTION How can I make use of audio/ visual aids to strengthen my facilitation performance? Nothing is more terrible than activity without insight. - Thomas Calyle, Scottish essayist and historian
Final Conclusion There isn’t “one” perfect way Consider learning & teaching styles Be flexible & imaginative Evaluate & make changes Feedback….Feedback… Feedback—get it!
The Ten Worst Human Fears (in the US)1. Speaking before a group2. Heights3. Insects and bugs4. Financial problems5. Deep water6. Sickness7. Death8. Flying9. Loneliness10. Dogs
STAND UP SPEAK UP, AND BE COUNTED
Playscript/ outlineGreet participants (good morning, how are you? myassumption: everybody had teaching/ speaking experience;who has not?)Ice breaker: shake hand each other. Use surprise card; askIntroduce myself them what do they feelAsk participants to introduce themselves Sell the benefitsPresent the objectivesPresent the agendaAsk participant commitment (let them discuss first, then addup with slide show)Bridge to module 1: A person learns faster, better, more,and more efficient by learning from other experience. it isinteresting to know your teaching/ speaking experience. Letus share.
“Tell me and Ill forget;show me and I may remember;involve me and Ill understand." Chinese Proverbs
Men are four: He who knows not and knows not he knows not, he is a fool - shun him; He who knows not and knows he knows not, he is simple - teach him; He who knows and knows not he knows, he is asleep - wake him; He who knows and knows he knows, hi is wise - follow him! - Lady Burton
tujuanICEBREAKER & OPENERS memungkinkan peserta menjadi akrab mengatasi kemungkinan terhadap rasa ketidakpastian / ragu-ragu membuat kelompok merasa relaks membangun momentum untuk tahap berikutnya membuat semua peserta terlibat
pemahaman & pengelolaanPERILAKU peserta terlalu banyak bicara sangat argumentatif bicara menurut pandangannya sendiri sering terlambat malas bicara atau berpartisipasi bicara terlalu lama menantang ide / opini anda keluar dari topik bahasan
pemahaman & pengelolaanPERILAKU pesertaINTERUPSI “NAKAL” Abaikan Abaikan Beri respons dengan Menyapa / menegur bahasa tubuh Gunakan humor Jawab dengan singkat Diam sebentar Tanggapi secara asertif Jangan memberikan kesempatan untuk berdebat
pemahaman & pengelolaan TIPE - TIPE pesertaSomeone Else (“Saya tidak membutuhkan pelatihan ini.”)Learned (“Apakah pendekatan anda sesuai dengan teori Bart’ ……..”)Reader (“Menurut buku edisi terakhir yang saya baca tentang hal ini ……..”)Over The Hill (“Saya hanya ingin mengikuti pelatihan ini ketika masih muda.”)Me (“Jika anda dan yang lain terus bicara, bagaimana kalian mendengarkan saya[.”)Hide (“mungkin kalau saya tidak terlihat mencurigakan, anda tidak bertanya padasaya.”)Conditional (“Saya mau belajar jika …………..”)Blue Eyes (“Saya mencoba berkonsentrasi, tetapi anda mengacaukan pikiransaya.”)
Pemahaman & pengelolaan TIPE - TIPE pesertaVacation (“Sungguh menyenangkan bisa keluar kantor, bisa duduk-duduksantai ….”)Wow (“Berikan segala yang baik untuk saya. Saya percaya pada setiap kataanda.”)Critic (“Jika saya tidak berdebat mengenai ini, tidak ada yang tahu betapacerdasnya saya.”)Smiley (“Anda tahu saya sedang belajar, sebab saya tersenyum danmengangguk setiap kali anda melihat saya.”)Mask (“Anda mungkin merasa mengetahui diri saya, tetapi saya akan sangatbodoh jika membiarkan anda mengetahui siapa saya.”)Signed Up (“Saya datang kemari tanpa tujuan, saya hanya ditugaskan olehkantor.”)Sub (“Jangan lihat saya. Saya hanya menggantikan rekan saya yang tidak bisahadir.”)
Pemahaman & pengelolaan TIPE - TIPE pesertaBelligerent (“Tidak seorang pun yang bisa mengajari secara lebih baik.”)Live and Let Live (“Tetaplah anda berdiri dan berbicara, dan saya akanduduk dan mendengarkan.”)We always (“Tetapi itu bukan cara yang selalu kami kerjakan.”)I always (“Tetapi saya selalu berpikir bahwa anda seharusnya …….”)Last Time (“Tetapi trainer yang lalu mengatakan ……….”)Never 1 (“Secara teori itu sangat baik, tetapi tidak pernah berhasil dalampraktek”)Never 2 (“Itu adalah ide yang baik, tetapi boss saya tidak akan pernahmenyetujui.”)
Visual Design Rules1. 6X62. Red, green or yellow3. Phrases4. Less5. Visual, sound
Visual Design Rules 6. Distract 7. Uniform 8. 18; 30-36 9. Fancy 10. 5You are the best visual aid of all. Do not let your visual aids overshadow you the presenter!
Can you improve this visual?We seldom realise it, but a lot of our emotions are shownthrough our voices. We should try to have a good voice overthe phone when speaking to our customers. Studies haveshown that customers are more satisfied if they wereattended to by an officer with a friendly voice than onewith an unfriendly tone, REGARDLESS of outcome!We wouldn’t want to lose an existing customer, as 80% ofour business comes from 20% of our existing customerbase. It is also 3 times more costly to attract newcustomers than it is to retain an existing one.A tired sounding voice or monotonous tone over the phone mayshow that you and your company are just too tired or fed up tohandle the caller’s problems. An impatient tone that cuts thecustomer off may show that you have no time to deal with the caller.An improper greeting could show to the customer that you or yourcompany are not professional enough.
Singapore’s Economic Status, 2003Expected GDP for the year was $500 billion.GDP so far, up to September is $360 billion.Expected number of jobs in the market was 56,000. However, there have been 30,000 jobs taken up as at September.
Suggested representationShortfall Expected in GDP and Jobs 500 60,000 500 56,000 450 360 50,000 400 350 40,000 300 Jan - Sep 30,000 Jan - Sep 250 30,000 200 Expected Expected 150 20,000 100 10,000 50 0 0 GDP Number of jobs
Singapore Economy 2003 Heavy industry 25% Light industry 21% Construction 16% Services 8% Business services 4% Manufacturing 18% Hospitality 5% Education services 3%
Suggested representation Hospitality Education 5% 3% Heavy industryManufacturing 25% 18% Business 4% Services Light industry 8% Construction 21% 16%
Sales over the last 5 years Sales in 2000 was US$200 million In 2001, it was US$195 million Sales turnover was US250 million in 2002 2003, US$230 million 2004, sales was US$260 million We expect an upward trend for 2005
Suggested Representation Sales expected to go up in 2005 300 250 250 260 230S$ Millions 200 200 195 150 100 50 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year
Facilitation Skills BRIDGEContent Observing Listening Learners Attending Four Basic Skills Questioning Facilitation Skills are the bridge between the content and learners
Attending Skills/BehaviorsFour attending behaviors to consider:1. Face the learners.2. Maintain appropriate eye contact.3. Move toward the learners.4. Avoid distracting behaviors.
Observation Skills Steps STEP 3 Take appropriate STEP 2 action.STEP 1 Try to determine the person’s feelings. Look at person’s face, body position, and body movements.
Listening Skills Listening involves two key steps: 1. Listening to the words being expressed. 2. Paraphrasing what was said to demonstrate understanding.
Step 1: Listen to the Words Two major roadblocks: 1. Internal distractions. 2. External distractions.
Step 2: Paraphrasing Requires verbal interaction, either to... 1. Get additional information. 2. Verify what you think was said.
Questioning Skills There are three skills associated with the questioning process: 1. Asking questions. 2. Handling answers to questions. 3. Responding to questions.
Questioning Skills: Asking Questions1. Two Basic Types: - Closed - Open2. Phrasing: See Guidelines for Phrasing…3. Directing: - Group - Individual
Questioning Skills:Handling Answers Maximum learning requires maximum participation.(See Tips for Handling Answers)
Questioning Skills:Responding to Questions Three acceptable ways to respond: 1. Provide the answer yourself. 2. Redirect the question to a learner. 3. Defer the question. (See Responding to Questions)
Characteristics of AdultLearners Impatient learners, urgency Definite needs, several goals Need quick success Have experience to share Fearful of embarrassment Easily frustrated
Stages of Learning Cycle Concrete Experience Learning by FEELING learning from specific experiences Relating to people; sensitivity to feelings and people Reflective Observation Learning by WATCHING Careful observation before judgment Viewing from different perspective; searching for meaning Abstract Conceptualization Learning by THINKING Logical analysis of ideas Systematic planning; intellectual understanding of situation Active Experimentation Learning by DOING Ability to get things done Risk taking, influence people through action
Concrete ExperienceLaboratories Films/VideosObservations ReadingsText Readings Problem SetsSimulations/Games ExamplesField Work
Reflective Observation Logs Thought Questions Journals Rhetorical Questions Discussion E-Mail List Serves Brainstorming On Line Discussion Forums
Abstract Conceptualization Lecture Projects Papers Analogies Model Building
Active Experimentation Simulations Field work Case Studies Projects Laboratories Homework
LEFT & RIGHT BRAINSTIMULATION Combine analytical practice with creative and expressive activity.
MINDSET CHALLENGE Cognitive dissonance Accept & change vs objection Use WIIFT (What’s In It For Them?)
DELIVERY METHODS K A A C PSS I P S P A K R Case Study 4 5 1 5 1 4 Lecture 8 7 7 8 7 3 Games 5 4 2 3 2 7 Film 6 6 8 6 4 5 Role Play 2 2 3 1 3 6KA: Knowledge Acquisition IPS: Interpersonal SkillsAC: Attitude Change PA: Participant AcceptancePSS: Problem Solving Skills KR: Knowledge Retention
THE OPENING1. Enthusiastic2. Greeting3. Ice breaking4. Introduce yourself and ask participants to do so (learn something about them)5. Explain the objective & agenda6. Sell training benefits7. Ask participants’ commitment creatively
Overview Of Speech Structure INTRODUCTION Point1 Point2,3 Reason Reason Example (or Evidence)Example Point1 Point2,3 CONCLUSION
COMMENTING/RESPONDING S E B Strength Evidence Benefit
People will retain 10% of what they Read 20% of what they Hear 30% of what they See 50% of what they See and Hear 70% of what they Say 90% of what they Do