Change Management Under supervision: Dr , prof : Eglal . Cairo University . prepared by Wesam Ahmed Thabet. Wafaa Rashwan Ahmed.
Presentation Outline• Introduction.• Define the change management.• The change agents.• Types of change .• Change management aims and targets.• Change management principles.• Kotters eight steps to successful change.• Change process and change theory.• Change management process.• Resistance to Change.• Forces that influence change.• Managing the Change.
IntroductionThere are some rules for effective management of change. Managing organizational change will be more successful if you apply some simple principles. Achieving personal change will be more successful too if you use the same approach where relevant.
Change management entails thoughtfulplanning and sensitive implementation, andabove all, consultation with, andinvolvement of, the people affected by thechanges. If you force change on peoplenormally problems arise. Change must berealistic, achievable and measurable.
These aspects are especially relevant tomanaging personal change. Before startingorganizational change, ask yourself: What dowe want to achieve with this change, why, andhow will we know that the change has beenachieved? Who is affected by this change, andhow will they react to it?
How much of this change can weachieve ourselves, and what parts of thechange do we need help with? Theseaspects also relate strongly to themanagement of personal as well asorganizational change.
Change Management Definitions Change management is an approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state.
Change Management Kotter defines change management as the utilization of basic structures and tools to control any organizational change effort. Change managements goal is to maximize an organizations benefits and minimize the change impacts on workers and avoid distractions (resistance to change).
Change Management The systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the work environment.
Change Management– Coetsee (1999) states "managements ability to achieve maximum benefits from change depends in part on how effectively they create and maintain a climate that minimizes resistant behavior and encourages acceptance and support“.
Change Agents Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities. OR/a person skilled in the theory & implementation of planned change to deal appropriately with these very real human emotions & to connect & balance all aspects of the organization that will be affected by that change.
There are two types of change agents:1- The first is a person who is called as a consultant to the group to assist them during the change process because this type of agent comes from outside the organization; he or she is called an external change agent.
2- The second type of change agentis one who comes from within the organization or group who will be affected by the change. This type is called an internal change agent.These two types of change agents are formal change agents that is they were officially appointed to be in charge of change & they have been given the authority to plan, implement & probably evaluate the change. Just as these can be an informal leader there can also be an informal change agent.
Becoming an effective change agentCreate a healthy work environment.Develop a vision for change and have total in-depth view.Performance Management: Ability toreward/confront. And differentiates a successful change effort from an un successful one .Power: to legitimize change.
Have the control over own attitude and the way manage the change. Effective Communications methods. Devise an effective education, training and/or skills upgrading scheme for the organization. Counter resistance from the employees and align them to overall strategic direction of the organization. Provide personal counseling (if required) to alleviate any change-related fears. Monitoring of the implementation and fine-tuning as required.
There are two types of change in an organization: planned change and “emergent” change .Planned change: refers to initiatives thatare driven “top-down” in an organization. “emergent” changerefers to a situation in which change canoriginate from any level in the organization.
Change management aims and targets.The aims:Helping organizations become exciting places to work, where people work collaboratively, feel valued, and committed to organizational success.Developing teams which are energetic, and where everyone consistently achieves standards of excellence.
Helping managers become transformational leaders, skilled at developing, motivating and empowering their people.Designing and running learning events which are participative, experiential and engaging, and which lead to genuine, long term, change back at work.Change in order to solve a problem, change to make work procedures more efficient , and change to reduce unnecessary work.
Helping people at all levels to grow, develop their self esteem, become more confident, and increase their self awareness.
There are three possible targets(the persons knowledge, the persons attitude, the persons behavior)1-A change in knowledge is the result of successful learning which can be accomplished through the teaching – learning process.
2- A change in attitudemay result from a change in knowledge when previous beliefs are found to be false or incomplete, in addition may result from a conscious effort to alter an attitude through value clarification or various types of therapy. This change in attitude often follows a behavior change because the persons attitude & behavior must be consistent .
3- A change in behaviormay result from increased knowledge or from an improvement in skill acquired during the teaching – learning process. A change in behavior follow a change in attitude or a change expectations whether self or other imposed or may be the result of the normal growth & development process.
Change management principlesAt all times involve and agree support from people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relationships, behaviors, etc., whether personal or organizational).Understand where you/the organization is at the moment.Understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there.
Plan development towards above No.3 in appropriate achievable measurable stages.Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate involvement from people, as early and openly and as fully as is possible.Resistance is recognized as a natural and expected response to change.
John P Kotters eight steps to successful changeIncrease urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant.Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels.Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy, focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency.
Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to peoples needs.Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognize progress and achievements.
Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.Dont let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones.
Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, new change leaders. Weave change into culture. The Heart Of Change (2002)
Change theories1. Lewin’s force-filed Change Model theory (1951).2. Lippitt`s phase model theory (1958).3. Havelock`s model theory(1973).4. Rogers`s theory(1983).
Lewin’s force-filed Change Model theory (1951). Lewin provides a social-psychological view of the change process. He sees behavior as a dynamic balance of forces working in opposing directions . Driving forces facilitate change because they push persons in the desired direction . Restraining forces impede change because they push persons in the opposite direction. Status quo level is the person balanced state or state of equilibrium between 2 forces.
Process of change (phases)Lewin’s theory Three-Step Change Model
Unfreezing the Status Quo
Unfreeze The existing equilibrium. Motivated persons by getting them ready for change and increase willing to change . Build trust and recognition for the need to change. Active participate in identifying problems and generate alternative solutions. Is the development through problem awareness of a need for change.
MovingWorking toward change by identifying the problem or the need for change, exploring the alternatives, defining goals & objectivities planning how to accomplish the goal & implementing the plan for change.Get persons to agree that the status quo is not beneficial to them.
RefreezingAre the integration of the change into ones personality & the consequent stabilization of change then reinforce the new patterns of behavior.(positive change)New level of equilibrium .Frequently personal return to old behavior after change effort case .(negative change)
Lippitt`s phase model theory (1958). This theory extended lewin`s theory , focused more on what the change agent must do than on the evolution of change itself. Communication skills ,rapport building ,and problem solving strategies underlie this theory seven phases.
Lippitt`s phase model theory (1958). Diagnose the problem : involve key persons in data collection and problem solving. Assessment of the motivation and capacity for change : what are the financial and human resources and constrains? Are the structure and function of the organization conducive to change? What are the suitable solutions and which are preferred?
Assessment of the change agent `s motivation and resources : this assessment is important . Consider the change agent`s own commitment to change ,energy level ,future ambitions , and power bases. Selecting progressive change objective: Develop the action plan, evaluation criteria , and specify strategies. Choosing the appropriate role of the change agent: Act as cheerleader, experts , consultant, or group facilitator.
Maintenance of the change : communication, feedback, revisions and coordination are essential component of this phase. Termination of the helping relationship: The change agent withdraws from the selected role gradually as the change become institutionalized and stabilized.
Havelock`s model theory(1973). This theory is also modification of lewin`s , Havelock describes an active change agent as one who uses a participative approach. Six steps: Building a relationship . Diagnosis the problem. Acquiring the relevant resources. choosing the solution. gaining acceptance. Stabilization and self renewal.
Rogers`s theory(1983). Rogers takes a border approach than previous theories . His 5 steps innovation-decision process details. Making unit passes from first knowledge of an innovation to confirmation of the decision to adopt or reject a new idea.
Rogers`s theory(1983). knowledge : the decision making unit is introduced to the innovation and begins to understanding. Establish the persons awareness. Persuasion: a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation forms. Decision Evaluation : activities lead to a decision to adopt or reject the innovation. Implementation: the innovation is put to use . Conformation and Adoption: reinforcement that the decision was correct.
Change managementprocess The change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change management team or project leader would follow to apply change management to a project or change. change management processes contain the following three phases:
Phase 1 - Preparing for change (Preparation, assessment and strategy development). Phase 2 - Managing change (Detailed planning and change management implementation). Phase 3 - Reinforcing change (Data gathering, corrective action and recognition).
Change management processAssessment)– 1) - Preparing for change(– Identifying the problem : opportunity that necessitates change(symptoms)– Data collection and : gathering structural, technological, and people information and effects of these elements on the process– Data analysis : summarizing the data ( adv., dis adv., risks, and consequences)– Strategic determination: identifying possible solutions, barriers, strategies
con-Decide if the change is necessary.-Make others aware of the need for the change.Swat analysis and basic 4 forces models: (environmental forces ,organizational forces , task demand , personal need.)
2) Managing change (Planning and implementation)– State goal and specific measurable objectives and also the time allotted.– Establishing the who, how, what, and when of change.– Allocating resources, budget and evaluation methods.– Plan for resistance management.
Identify areas of support & resistance.-Include every one in the planning that will be affected.-Establish target dates for implementation.-Develop appropriate strategy for alteration.-Be available to support others through the process.Evaluate the change then modify if necessary.
3) Reinforcing change (Evaluation)- Determining effectiveness of change.- Achieved objectives and benefits ---- qualitative as well as financial and the documented evidences of being achieved.- Stabilize the change: - taking measures to reinforce and maintain the change.
Empirical-Rational– Assumes that people are rational (guided by reason) and receptive to change when given adequate facts, and will follow their self- interest .– Successful change is based on the communication of information and the suggestions of incentives.– Knowledge is the major source of power.– E.g ---- Teaching a smoking group … its danger and consequences ….. Not follow …..giving up.
Normative-Re educative People are social beings and will adhere to cultural norms and values. Change strategy here focuses squarely on culture – what people believe about their world, their work and themselves and the ways in which people behave so as to be consistent with these beliefs. Successful change is based on redefining and reinterpreting existing norms and values, and developing commitments to new ones .
Power-Coercive This strategy assumes that persons with less power will always comply with the plans and directions. Result of an individuals need to please a supervisor, or fear of losing their job. and generally do what they are told or can be made to do. Successful change is based on the exercise of authority and the imposition of sanctions.
Environmental-Adaptive People oppose loss and disruption but they adapt readily to new circumstances. Successful Change is based on building a new organization and gradually transferring people from the old one to the new one. This strategy seeks to shift the burden of change from management and the organization to the people. It exploits their natural adaptive nature and avoids the many complications associated with trying to change people or their culture.
Strategy Selection Considerations Degree of Change. Radical change or transformation argues for an environmental- adaptive strategy (i.e., “wall off” the existing organization and build a new one instead of trying to transform the old one). Population. Large populations argue for a mix of all four strategies.
Degree of Resistance. Strong resistance argues for a coupling of power-coercive and en- vironmental-adaptive strategies. Weak resistance or concurrence argues for a combination of rational-empirical and normative-re-educative strategies
Time Frame. Short time frames argue for a power-coercive strategy. Longer time frames argue for a mix of rational-empirical, normative- re-educative, and environmental-adaptive strategies.Expertise. Having available adequate expertise at making change argues for some mix of the strategies .
Forces that influence changeinternal ExternalOriginate from inside Health care.operation. That may economicsresult from external Technology. changes &include restructuringChanging priorities. Changing.Need for increase. demographics.productivity.opportunities.
Cont’dInternal ExternalStaffing pattern changes. .Shifts in philosophy.Need for cost.containmentWork process changes.Need for quality of work..life
Resistance to Change. Resistance to Change is consider one from factors in Organizational Change: – Efforts by employees to block the intended change is referred to as Resistance to Change. – Resistance to Change has been defined as: ”...behavior which is intended to protect an individual from the effects of real or imagined change" - Alvin Sander, 1950 Values, educational level, cultural and social backgrounds, as well as past experience with change will have an impact on the degree of resistance.
Resistance to Change– Resistance is a natural and inevitable reaction in an organization. You can expect it.– Resistance is sometimes hidden, so it may be necessary to take active steps to find it.– There are many reasons for resistance; it is important to understand it.– We manage resistance by working with people, and helping them deal with their concerns.– There are many ways to build acceptance. It is important to be flexible. But persist!
Resistance to Change The key to successful management of organizational change lies in the people. They are the agents for successful transformation of the organization.So let’s have a look at whereResistance to Change comes from and how to best manage it
Resistance to change lack of trust. perception that change is not necessary. perception that change is not possible. relatively high cost. fear of personal failure. loss of status or power. threats to values and ideas . social, cultural or organizational disagreements. resentment of interference.
– Why people resist change: Resistance to change can be a defense mechanism caused by frustration and anxiety Individuals may not be resisting the change as much as they are resisting a potential loss of status, pay, comfort, or power that arises from expertise In many case there is not a disagreement with the benefits of the new process, but rather a fear of the unknown future and about their ability to adapt to it, e.g. fear that one will not be able to develop new skills and behaviors that are required in a new work setting.
Change Management Howcan I best accomplish Organization-wide Change? The high-level view: – Get senior management agreement (i.e. conflicting goals can kill the project!). – Identify a champion who can articulate the reasons for and advantages of the change. – Translate the vision for change into a realistic plan and then carry out the plan. – Involve people from every area of the organization. – Communicate. Communicate. Educate. Educate. – Get organizational buy-in to the change. – Modify organizational structures so that they will sustain the change.
Change Management Summary – Organizational Change Management is “all of the actions required for an organization to understand, prepare for, implement and take full advantage of significant change”. – The goals of Change Management are: The successful design, implementation, measurement and maintenance of an organization’s change initiative Enhancement of their on-going capacity for managing change
Situation You are a new head nurse in ICU unit , when you assessed the unite work ,you were finding that all nurse in the unit used to follow the function method when giving patient care. However staff nurses are enough for the numbers of patients, so you found that must be change this method to improve the quality of care but large number of nurses disagree for this suggestion. How can you manage? Which strategies do you use?