M7 A2 Domestic Violence

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  • Conclusion Male and female victims of IPV assaults; risk health related issues. Some health related problems might be physical or psychological. Such issues as: substance abuse; depression; chronic disease; or chronic mental illness (Coker, et al; 2002). Not only do victims suffer from these types of health risks; family members also endure health-related fallout issues from this deviant behavior. Children also become victims in this psychological warfare between the victim and the abuser. The fallout from this physical and emotional impact can sometimes devastate a child’s health and well being, it can also produce future generations of victims and abusers. Rather than focus on internal pathology, behavior exists on a continuum; heavily influenced by the contextual development of the person (Levendosky & Graham-Bermann, 2001). Some distinctions are central to the theoretical and practical understanding of the nature of partner violence, others provide important contexts for developing more sensitive and comprehensive theories and other may simply force us to question our tendency to generalize carelessly from one context to another (Johnson & Ferraro, 2000).   Therefore, it is recommended that further investigative research be had on therapeutic treatment for abusers. However, it should be noted that Island and Letellier (1991) feel that couple's counseling is never appropriate. Clinicians working with violent couples have a few concerns regarding couples therapy (i.e., honesty). However, other clinicians feel that under specific circumstances, couples therapy might be possible. Although, Holtzworth-Munroe and colleagues (1995) state there is no data supporting that this approach to treatment is more effective than individual therapy. Supportive treatments are available increasing motivation and change in resistant clients. These treatments rely on a comprehensive model of change process with a matching therapist’s intervention for the client’s change readiness (Murphy & Baxter, 1997).  
  • M7 A2 Domestic Violence

    1. 1. The Psychological Effects of Domestic Violence on Victims and Families Gloria E. Richardson Argosy University
    2. 2. Abstract The psychological effects of domestic violence on victims and families; can cause various health-related problems for all concern. Not only does this deviant behavior produce health concerns; it may also produce future generations of victims and abusers. Considered one of the most under-reported crimes by law enforcement. Producing harmful and sometimes fatal results for both the victim and abuser. This paper discusses research and studies done by various behaviorists and law enforcement agencies. Other research questions and answers will be explored regarding the psychological impact that maladaptive behavior places on victims, abusers and children. Lastly, legal issues, safe havens, risk factors and treatments will be discussed and examine.
    3. 3. Introduction Domestic violence does not discriminate; makes no preference regarding: age, gender, culture or class. It is considered one of the most under-reported crimes in criminology. Women from all walks of life will experience domestic violence at some point and time. One woman is beaten by her husband or partner every 15 seconds in the United States (USDOJ, 1991). Although, men are usually batterers in most domestic violence cases, they also become victims of domestic abuse. A recent 32-nation study by the University of New Hampshire found female students initiate partner violence as often as male students and controlling behavior exists equally in perpetrators of both sexes (Straus, 2006). Abuse is not always physical: it can be emotional, verbal, or economical. Abusers are not always spouses, lovers or significant others. Family members (i.e., parents, grandparents, siblings, or children) can be victims as well as abusers. Each year women experience about 4.8 million intimate partner related physical assaults and rapes. Men are the victims of about 2.9 million intimate partner related physical assaults (CDC, 2010). This paper examines the psychological impact and effects of domestic violence on victims and families, through a review of literature and research. Specifically, the research question that is being explored in this paper is as follows:
    4. 4. How Does Domestic Violence Psychologically Affect Victims and Families How does domestic violence psychologically affect victims and families? A study done by Bacchus, Mezey & Bewley (2003) discussed how domestic abuse on pregnant women pose a threat to mother and unborn child. Using an abuse assessment tool and a cross-sectional survey, the findings were 23.5% of women had lifetime experience of DV, 3% during the current pregnancy . Domestic violence is regarded as an important risk marker for the development of obstetric complications and depressive symptomatology. Therefore, the strength of this study is: maternity health care professionals must have more education and awareness regarding domestic violence and prenatal patients. Another study done by Chemtob & Carlson (2004) examined direct and indirect effects of domestic violence on children and mothers. Forty-three percent of mothers had experienced domestic violence within the last year, defined by at least one physically aggressive act by an intimate partner. Children witnessing domestic violence had significantly lower verbal abilities than non-witnesses after controlling for SES and child abuse. However, no group differences on visual-spatial abilities were found. The weakness of this study is: it does not correlate to the relevance of mothers and children outcome from domestic violence. Further, another study done by Koenen, Moffitt, Caspi, et al, (2003) discussed the effects of domestic violence on young children. This twin study tested children's IQs from a population sample of 1116 monozygotic and dizygotic 5-year-old twin pairs in England. The findings are consistent with animal experiments and human correlational studies documenting the harmful effects of extreme stress on brain development. Research suggests exposures on childhood may have extreme stress on a child’s neurocognitive development. There were no correlations found between domestic violence and lower intelligence. There is weakness found in this study due to reliability and inaccuracies of statement.
    5. 5. How Does Domestic Violence Psychologically Affect Victims and Families (Continued) Another study done by Baldry (2003) aimed at the relationship between bullying and victimization, using cross-sectional anonymous self-reporting questionnaires from 1,059 Italian elementary and middle school children provides this: Even after controlling for direct child abuse, exposure of interparental violence has been associated with bullying and victimization. Violence within a family has impact effects on a child’s behavior; schools play a vital role in early detection of maladjusted behaviors. This study provides relevance and validity regarding future generations of victims and abusers. In general, children exposed to domestic violence will eventually display aggressive behavior; increased emotional problems; and lower levels of social and academic functioning (Fantuzzo & Mohr, 1999).
    6. 6. Help for Domestic Violence Victims and Families Conclusion Male and female victims of IPV assaults; risk health related issues. Some health related problems might be physical or psychological. Such issues as: substance abuse; depression; chronic disease; or chronic mental illness (Coker, et al; 2002). Not only do victims suffer from these types of health risks; family members also endure health-related fallout issues from this deviant behavior. Children also become victims in this psychological warfare between the victim and the abuser. The fallout from this physical and emotional impact can sometimes devastate a child’s health and well being, it can also produce future generations of victims and abusers. Rather than focus on internal pathology, behavior exists on a continuum; heavily influenced by the contextual development of the person (Levendosky & Graham-Bermann, 2001). Some distinctions are central to the theoretical and practical understanding of the nature of partner violence, others provide important contexts for developing more sensitive and comprehensive theories and other may simply force us to question our tendency to generalize carelessly from one context to another (Johnson & Ferraro, 2000).  Therefore, it is recommended that further investigative research be had on therapeutic treatment for abusers. However, it should be noted that Island and Letellier (1991) feel that couple's counseling is never appropriate. Clinicians working with violent couples have a few concerns regarding couples therapy (i.e., honesty). However, other clinicians feel that under specific circumstances, couples therapy might be possible. Although, Holtzworth-Munroe and colleagues (1995) state there is no data supporting that this approach to treatment is more effective than individual therapy. Supportive treatments are available increasing motivation and change in resistant clients. These treatments rely on a comprehensive model of change process with a matching therapist’s intervention for the client’s change readiness (Murphy & Baxter, 1997).  
    7. 7. References Bacchus, L., Mezey, G., & Bewley, S., (2004). Domestic violence prevalence in pregnant women and associations physical and psychological health. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biolog y, v.113 (1), 6-11 http:// sciencedirect .com Retrieved on July 3, 2011 Baldry, A.C., (2003) Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence. Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect v.27 (7) 713-732. http://www. sciencedirect .com/science/article/ pii /s0145213403001145 Retrieved July 3, 2011 Bocks-Huth, A.C., Levendosky, A.A., & Semal, M.A., (2001) The direct and indirect effects of domestic violence in young children’s intellectual functioning. Journal of Family Violence 11 (3), 269-290, http:// springlink .com/content/k180p25k2470+111 Retrieved July 3, 2011 Center for Disease Control (2010) Domestic Violence Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www. cdc.gov/domestic_violence_fact_sheet on July 11, 2011 Chemtob, C.M., & Carlson, J.G., (2004). Psychological effects of domestic violence on children and their mothers. International Journal of Stress Management v.11 (3) 209-226 doi10.1037/1072-5245-11.3.209 http://www. psycnet . apa .org/journals/ str /11/3/209 July 3, 2011 Coker, A.L., Davis, K.E., Arias, I., Desai, S., et al; (2002) Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine http://www. ncbi . nlm . nih . gov / pubmed /12406480 July 3, 2011
    8. 8. References Continued Fantuzzo, J.W., & Mohr, W.K., (1999). Prevalence and effects of child exposure to domestic violence. The Future of Children Journal 9 (3), http://www. jstor .org/ pss /1602779 July 3, 2011 Johnson, M.P., & Ferraro, K.J., (2000) Research on Domestic Violence in the 1990s: Making distinctions. Journal of Marriage and Family 62 (4) http:// onlinelibrary . wiley .com/ doi /10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00948.x/full July 3, 2011 Koenen, K.C., Moffitt, T.E., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Purcell, S., (2003) Domestic violence is associated with environmental suppression of I.Q. in young children. Journal of Development and Psychopathology 15 (2) http://www. ncbi . nlm . nih . gov / pubmed /12931829 July 18, 2011 Levendosky, A.A., & Graham-Bermann, S.A., (2001) Parenting in battered women: The effects of domestic violence on women and their children. 16 (2) 171-192, http://www. springlink .com/content/u3v7j0121t431kr1/ July 18, 2011 Maxwell, C.D., Garner, J.H., & Fagan, J.A., (2001) The effects of arrest on intimate partner violence: New evidence from spouse assault replication program. National Institute of Justice http://www. usdoj . gov /office_of_justice_programs on August 5, 2011 Murphy, C.M., & Baxter, V.A., (1997) Motivating Batterers to Change in the Treatment Context. Journal of Interpersonal Violence v.12 (4) 607-619, http:// jiv . sagepub .com/content/12/4/607.short on July 3, 2011 Psych page.com (2008) Treatment of Domestic Violence http://www. Psychpage.com/learning/library/assess/treatment.html on August 14, 2011 Straus, M.A., (2006) Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female University students in 32 nations http:// pubpages .unh. edu /umas2/ID41E2.pd on August 5, 2011 US Dept. of Justice (1991) FBI Uniform Crime Report: Domestic Violence http://www. usdoj . gov / fbi ­_ ucr / on August 5, 2011  

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