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  • 1. Oregon /' A .;~.,_ ~'-~ /'---_ :-<n,um1:>1d A "'"' ,.x.,. A "'- ,......_ A +Pl'!ndleton ,A ': J ' A A /"'F· BLUE MTS. , AA Long-Term Stewardship Site Highlights Lakeview Mill (page 3) Major Activities - institutional controls; groundwater monitoring; deed restrictions Site Size- 104 hectares (258 acres) Start/End Years -2000/in perpetuity Estimated Average Annual Cost FY2000-2006 · $47,000 Lakeview Site (page 7) Major Activities -disposal cell monitoring; institutional controls Site Size- 16 hectares (40 acres) Start/End Years - 1995/in perpetuity Estimated Average Annual Cost FY2000-2006- $111,000 Lakeview Site and Lakeview Mill
  • 2. Table of Contents Table of Contents Lakeview Mill .......................................................................... 3 Lakeview Site ........................................................................... 7 Oregon 1
  • 3. National Defense Authorization Act (NOAA) Long-Term Stewardship Report Oregon 2
  • 4. Lakeview Mill LAKEVIEW MILL 1.0 SITE SUMMARY 1.1 Site Description and Mission The Lakeview Mill is the location of a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1974. The site is located on 104 hectares (258 acres) of land in Lake County, Oregon, about two kilometers (one mile) north of the city of Lakeview and approximately 26 kilometers (16 miles) north of the California-Oregon border. As a result of past milling operations, contamination at the site consisted of uranium mill tailings; radium, thorium, and uranium in soils; and building debris. Initially, the tailings pile covered approximately 10 hectares (30 acres) of the 104-hectare (258-acre) site; six evaporation ponds occupied another 28 hectares (69 acres); and onsite windblown contamination occupied LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP HIGHLIGHTS Major Long-Term Stewardship Activities - institutional controls; groundwater monitoring; deed restrictions Total Site Area- 104 hectares (258 acres) Estimated Volume ofResidual Contaminants - groundwater 4.5 million cubic meters (5.9 million cubic yards) Long-Term Stewardship Start-End Years- 2000-in perpetuity Average Annual Long-Term Stewardship Cost FY 2000-2006- $47,000 Landlord- U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office another 10 hectares (25 acres). Beginning in June 1986, approximately 722,000 cubic meters (944,000 cubic yards) of the contaminated materials were relocated offsite to the disposal cell at the nearby Lakeview Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface remediation activities at the Lakeview Mill in October 1989. The current mission ofthe Lakeview Mill is performing long-term stewardship activities, including monitoring the groundwater. The site is subject to Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). As such, DOE is responsible for remediation and performing long-term stewardship activities. Most of the land is privately owned and used for industrial purposes by the Precision Pine Company. A local government entity owns one small portion of the land. The historic mission ofthe site was to process uranium for the U.S. national defense program. The mill was built in 1958, and was operated by the Lakeview Mining Company until 1961. In 1968, the Atlantic Richfield Company acquired the mill and began cleanup in 1974. By 1977, the mill buildings and the surrounding areas had been decontaminated to meet the state regulations then in effect. The mill was sold in 1978 to the Precision Pine Company, which used the site as a lumber mill, and a stockpile facility for sawdust and scrap waste. Further efforts to clean up the site were initiated when UMTRCA designated the Lakeview Mill for remediation by DOE. 1.2 Site Cleanup and Accomplishments The milling operations at the Lakeview Mill site caused both surface and subsurface (groundwater) contamination. The principal environmental concern at Lakeview Mill site, as at other uranium mill sites, was the migration of low-level radioactive materials and other hazardous substances from the residual mill tailings to the surrounding soil, surface water, and groundwater. Because uranium mill tailings are typically piled without covers, the toxic heavy metals and radioactive thorium and radium they commonly contain can easily be spread by wind and water. Approximately 722,000 cubic meters (944,000 cubic yards) ofcontaminated materials (uraniummill tailings and contaminated structures) were relocated to the disposal cell at the Lakeview Site (also known as the Collins Oregon 3
  • 5. National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) Long-Term Stewardship Report Ranch disposal site) 11 kilometers (7 miles) away. Relocation was required because possible seismic and geothermal activity in the area precluded stabilizing the residual radioactive material in place. The disturbed areas at the Lakeview Mill were graded and revegetated, and the soil was remediated to applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. "To Lakeview Site To Portland, OR (-250 miles) <,, (-5 miles) 0.25 Miles Lakeview Mill Approximately4.5 million cubic meters (5.9 million cubic yards) ofgroundwater are contaminated with materials generated from processing ores to recover uranium, including molybdenum, radium, arsenic, and net gross alpha. The groundwater plume covers 47 hectares (116 acres) and extends within the shallow alluvial/lacustrine aquifer beneath the former mill site. Adjacent surface water has not been degraded by site contaminants. Beyond the contaminant plume, groundwater is used for domestic, industrial, and agricultural purposes. However, regional groundwater is naturally highly mineralized as a result of active hydrothermal processes, and is ofgenerally poor quality. Therefore, the groundwater exceeds EPA numerical limits without the Lakeview Mill contamination taken into account. Consequently, EPA approved the application of supplemental standards, as defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 192.22; no groundwater remediation is required. As a "best management practice," groundwater monitoring will continue in perpetuity to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. 2.0 SITE-WIDE LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP 2.1 Long-Term Stewardship Activities DOE's Grand Junction Office is responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance activities at the Lakeview Mill. These activities include groundwater monitoring and ensuring that institutional controls are Oregon 4
  • 6. Lakeview Mill maintained. DOE conducts routine sampling of surface water (to ensure groundwater contaminants do not migrate) and groundwater, and enforces deed restrictions on the use of groundwater. On August 22, 2000, a proposed groundwater protection strategy was finalized and submitted to the State of Oregon for signature (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission signature approval will follow). This cooperative agreement between DOE and the State ofOregon will implement institutional controls for the site's contaminated groundwater. The groundwater protection strategy will provide for an upgrade to the City of Lakeview's domestic water line, the implementation of groundwater use restrictions, and long-term monitoring of the area's groundwater. DOE maintains and updates the specific records and reports required to document long-term stewardship activities at the Lakeview Mill. The site records are kept in permanent storage at the DOE Grand Junction Office in Colorado. The types of records maintained include site characterization data, remedial action design information, the site completion report, the groundwater compliance plan, annual inspection reports, and groundwater monitoring results. 2.2 Specific Long-Term Stewardship Activities Groundwater STAKEHOWER INVOLVEMENT Since the remedial action was completed, community interaction has been minimal. Copies of the annual inspection report for the Lakeview Mill and other sites are distributed to the local library and to any stakeholders that request them. The report is also published on the DOE Grand Junction Office website at www.doegjpo.com. Long-term stewardship activities for groundwater are expected to begin in 2000 to ensure continued protection ofhuman health and the environment. DOE will conduct groundwater monitoring once every two years through 2013, then once every five years in perpetuity. 2.3 Regulatory Regime The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of1978 (UMTRCA) authorized DOE to care for the uranium mill tailings disposal sites under a general license issued by NRC for the long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal cells (contained at Title 10 ofthe Code ofFederal Regulations, Section 40.27). However, for the actual processing site where the residual radioactive materials were relocated off the processing site, NRC will not license the site. Compliance with EPA groundwater standards will require NRC concurrence. Several regulations govern the long-term stewardship activities at ofthe Lakeview Mill, including the UMTRCA; the Atomic Energy Act of1954, as amended; EPA groundwater protection standards, including Subparts B and C of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192- Standards for Cleanup of Land and Buildings Contaminated with Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites; a cooperative agreement between DOE and the State of Oregon; and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended. 2.4 Assumptions and Uncertainties EPA approved application of supplemental standards, as defined in Title 40 of the Code ofFederal Regulations Part 192.22, and therefore, no groundwater remediation is required. DOE assumes that as a "best management practice," groundwater monitoring will continue in perpetuity to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Oregon 5
  • 7. National Defense Authorization Act (NOAA) Long-Term Stewardship Report 3.0 ESTIMATED LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP COSTS Estimated long-term stewardship costs for the Lakeview Mill are identified in the table below. Cost estimates are based on the actual costs of long-term stewardship activities at this site. The costs in fiscal year (FY) 2000 include a one-time payment to the State of Oregon for an alternate water supply, in accordance with the groundwater compliance action plan to restrict the use of groundwater. Costs from FY 2000 through 2013 include groundwater monitoring once every two years; thereafter, costs include groundwater monitoring once every five years. For purposes of this report, long-term stewardship costs are shown until FY 2070; however, it is anticipated that long-term stewardship will be required in perpetuity. Site Long-Term Stewardship Costs (Constant Year 2000 dollars) Year(s) Amount Year(s) Amount Year(s) Amount FY 2000 $260,000 FY2008 $0 FY 2036-2040 $11,000 FY 2001 $18,000 FY2009 $11,000 FY 2041-2045 $11,000 FY 2002 $14,000 FY 2010 $0 FY 2046-2050 $11,000 FY2003 $14,000 FY 2011-2015 $22,000 FY 2051-2055 $11,000 FY 2004 $11,000 FY 2016-2020 $11,000 FY 2056-2060 $11,000 FY 2005 $11,000 FY 2021-2025 $11,000 FY 2061-2065 $11,000 FY2006 $0 FY 2026-2030 $11,000 FY 2066-2070 $11,000 FY 2007 $11,000 FY 2031-2035 $0 4.0 FUTURE USES The Lakeview Mill was returned to the owners, Precision Pine Company, for industrial purposes and future use is assumed to continue to be industrial/commercial. For more information about the Lakeview Mill, please contact: Art Kleinrath, Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy ,Grand Junction Office 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, CO 81503 Phone: 970-248-6037 or visit the Internet website at http://www.doegjpo.com Oregon 6
  • 8. Lakeview Site LAKEVIEW SITE 1.0 SITE SUMMARY 1.1 Site Description and Mission The Lakeview Site (also known as Collins Ranch Disposal site) is the location of a disposal cell built by the U.S. Department ofEnergy (DOE) to retain uranium mill tailings and contaminated building debris and soils from former operations at the nearby Lakeview Mill. The disposal site is approximately 11 kilometers (seven miles) northwest of the town of Lakeview in Lake County, Oregon, and 11 kilometers (seven miles) north of the Lakeview Mill. The disposal site is on 16 hectares (40 acres) of land owned by DOE and the disposal cell occupies 6.5-hectares (16-acres) of the site. Approximately 722,000 cubic meters (944,000 cubic yards) of contaminated materials were relocated from the mill site and vicinity properties, consolidated, and disposed in the Lakeview disposal cell during 1986 LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP HIGHLIGHTS Major Long-Term Stewardship Activities - disposal cell monitoring; institutional controls Total Site Area- 16 hectares (40 acres) Estimated Volume ofResidual Contaminants- disposal cell 722,000 cubic meters (944,000 cubic yards) Long-Term Stewardship Start-End Years- 1995-in perpetuity Average Annual Long-Term Stewardship Cost FY 2000-2006- $111,000 Landlord- U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office through 1988. DOE completed surface remediation activities in June 1988. DOE's currentmission atthe Lakeview Site is performing long-term stewardship activities, including monitoring and maintenance of the disposal cell. The disposal cell is subject to Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation ControlActof1978 (UMTRCA). As such, DOE is responsible for any remediation and for performing long-term stewardship activities at the site, which began in 1995. The Lakeview Site did not have a historic mission prior to its use as a disposal site beginning in 1986. 1.2 Site Cleanup and Accomplishments As a result of past milling operations at the Lakeview Mill, contamination at the site consisted of uranium mill tailings, radium, thorium, and uranium in soils and building debris. The contaminants were relocated and disposed in the disposal cell at the Lakeview Site. The disposal cell contains 668,000 dry metric tons (736,000 tons) of contaminated material, with a total radioactive activity of 42 curies of radium-226. The disposal cell was covered with a 46-centimeter (18-inch) thick radon barrier and a 30-centimeter (12-inch) thick rock erosion protection layer to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for longevity, radon control, and groundwater protection. The up-slope was covered with ten centimeters (four inches) oftop soil and planted with native grasses. DOE received concurrence, in September 1995, from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that the site conformed to design standards (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192). 2.0 SITE-WIDE LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP 2.1 Long-Term Stewardship Activities In September 1995, the long-term care of the disposal site was assigned to DOE's Grand Junction Office. Under the provisions of the site-specific long-term surveillance plan, DOE conducts annual inspections of the site to evaluate the condition of surface features; performs site maintenance, as necessary; maintains institutional controls; and monitors the disposal cell. Annual inspections of the disposal site are conducted to detect Oregon 7
  • 9. National Defense Authol"ization Act (NDAA) Long-Term Stewardship Report progressive change caused by slow-acting natural processes and to identify potential problems before extensive maintenance, repairs, or corrective actions are needed. DOE does not plan to conduct significant maintenance at the Lakeview Site. However, DOE will perform minor maintenance (e.g., replace signs, fix fence) or repair, as needed or determined from site inspections. Groundwater monitoring is not required for contamination purposes, but monitoring is required to measure the disposal cell's initial performance. To Lakeview Mill (- 7 miles) Lakeview Site To Town oflakeview ( .... 7 mHes) ®Groundwater Monitoring Well 0 0.25 0.5 Miles The Lakeview Site is surrounded by a wire fence with a locked gate to prevent unauthorized access. Warning signs are posted on the site perimeter at increments of about 152 meters (500 feet) to inform the public of the site's function and ownership. In addition, DOE staffs a 24-hour phone line for reporting any site concerns. No drilling or other intrusive activities are allowed on the property unless authorized by DOE. Because ofthe remote location of the disposal site, purposeful intrusion is not expected to be a problem. However, if intrusion, vandalism, or other factors (e.g., grazing) become a problem, then site security will be re-evaluated. DOE maintains and updates the specific records and reports required to document long-term stewardship activities at the Lakeview Site. DOE submits an annual report to the NRC that documents the results ofthe site's long-term surveillance plan, as required by NRC regulations in Title 10 ofthe Code ofFederal Regulations, Part 40, Appendix A, Criterion 12. Site records are kept in permanent storage at the DOE Grand Junction Office in Colorado, and real property records are retained at the DOE Albuquerque Office in New Mexico. Types of records maintained include site characterization data, remedial action design information, the site completion report, long-term monitoring plans, annual inspection reports, and current and historic monitoring data. Oregon 8
  • 10. 2.2 Specific Long-Term Stewardship Activities Engineered Units The site contains one disposal cell which measures approximately 320 meters (1,050 feet) by 244 meters (800 feet) and requires long-term surveillance and maintenance to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment. Long-term stewardship activities for the disposal cell includes conducting annual inspections and performing minor maintenance, as needed. To demonstrate the initial performance of the disposal cell, annual groundwater monitoring will occur from 1998 to 2003, after which monitoring will take place once every five years. However, recent Lakeview Site STAKEHOWER INVOLVEMENT Community interaction has been minimal since the remedial action was completed. Copies of the annual inspection report for the Lakeview Site and other sites are distributed to the local library and any stakeholders that requests them. Annual inspection reports are also published on the DOE Grand Junction Office website at www.doegjpo.com. studies suggest that the rock cover on the disposal cell may disintegrate in 130 to 270 years, which may be less than the applicable 200 to 1,000 year long-term performance criteria. Therefore, DOE will continue to monitor the riprap (rock layer) durability and will take appropriate action, as necessary, in consultation with NRC. 2.3 Regulatory Regime In September 1995, NRC issued a license to the Lakeview Site for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites (contained at Title 10 ofthe Code ofFederal Regulations, Section 40.27). The purpose ofthe general license is to ensure that such sites will be cared for in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment. The general license went into effect when NRC concurred that the site conformed to cleanup standards and formally accepted the site-specific long-term surveillance plan. Several other requirements govern the long-term stewardship of the Lakeview Site, including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of1978; the Atomic Energy Act of1954, as amended; Environmental Protection Agency Groundwater Protection Standards, including Subparts A, B, and C of Title 40 of the Code ofFederal Regulations, Part 192- Standards for Cleanup ofLand and Buildings Contaminated with Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites; a cooperative agreement between DOE and the State of Oregon; and the National Environmental Policy Act of1969, as amended. 2.4 ASSUMPTIONS AND UNCERTAINTIES Because the site has been monitored for several years, the long-term stewardship activities at the site are well known and are not expected to change dramatically. Sound scope and cost estimates for the long-term stewardship activities at the site have been developed. DOE assumes that monitoring will continue indefinitely, until the disposal cell demonstrates infiltration control. However, there is the potential for a one-time significant "erosion protection activity" for the disposal cell cover. 3.0 ESTIMATED LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP COSTS Long-term stewardship costs for the Lakeview Site are based on historic costs incurred while conducting actual surveillance and maintenance activities. Cost estimates reflect the current site agreements and monitoring frequencies. Contingency costs, such as cap replacement, have not been incorporated into the cost estimate. Costs from fiscal years (FY) 2000 through 2006 include prorated costs associated with decommissioning unnecessary monitoring wells at similar sites. For purposes ofthis report, long-term stewardship costs are shown until FY 2070; however, it is anticipated that long-term stewardship activities will be required in perpetuity. Oregon 9
  • 11. National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) Long-Term Stewardship Repm·t Site Long-Term Stewardship Costs (Constant Year 2000 Dollars) Year(s) Amount Year(s) Amount Year(s) Amount FY 2000 $116,000 FY 2008 $32,100 FY 2036-2040 $168,000 FY 2001 $126,000 FY 2009 $32,000 FY 2041-2045 $168,000 FY2002 $131,000 FY 2010 $32,100 FY 2046-2050 $168,000 FY 2003 $118,000 FY 2011-2015 $153,000 FY 2051-2055 $168,000 FY 2004 $130,000 FY 2016-2020 $153,000 FY 2056-2060 $168,000 FY 2005 $71,000 FY 2021-2025 $157,000 FY 2061-2065 $168,000 FY 2006 $83,100 FY 2026-2030 $166,000 FY 2066-2070 $168,000 FY 2007 $32,000 FY 2031-2035 $168,000 4.0 FUTURE USES Future use ofthe site will be limited to monitoring and maintaining the disposal cell in perpetuity. Public access to the disposal site will be restricted indefinitely. Land surrounding the site is privately owned and is sparsely populated; the predominant land use is grazing. These uses are expected to continue in the future. For more information about the Lakeview Site, please contact: Art Kleinrath, Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, CO 81503 Phone: 970-248-6037 or visit the Internet website at http://www.doegjpo.com Oregon 10