National Defense Authorization Act (NOAA) Long-Term Steardship Report
Maxey Flats Disposal Site
MAXEY FLATS DISPOSAL SITE'
Site Description and Mission
The Maxey Flats Disposal Site accepted low-level
radioactive waste for disposal from government and
private entities from across the United States (research
laboratories, electric utilities, government and private
health-care facilities, manufacturing companies, and
nuclear powerplants). The disposal site is located
approximately 14 kilometers (9 miles) northwest of
Morehead, Kentucky, and 104 kilometers (65 miles)
northeast of Lexington, Kentucky. The Commonwealth
of Kentucky owns the 364-hectare (900-acre) site. The
site was opened under a lease arrangement between the
Commonwealth of Kentucky and the Nuclear
Engineering Company (now U.S. Ecology, Inc.) of
Louisville, Kentucky, in January 1963.
Total Site Area- 364 hectares (900 acres)
Estimated Volume of Residual Contaminants- disposal
cell142,000 cubic meters (186,000 cubic yards)
Current Landlord - Commonwealth of Kentucky
Expected Long-Term Stewardship Start Year- 2003
Expected Future Landlord - Commonwealth of
Reason Not Subject to NDAA Requirements -DOE is
not expected to be responsible for long-term
stewardship at the site
Low-level radioactive waste was buried in 51 trenches measuring up to 198 meters (650 feet) long, 21 meters
(70 feet) wide, and 9 meters (30 feet) deep. By the time disposal operations ended in 1977, Maxey Flats had
accepted a total of approximately 142,500 cubic meters (186,675 cubic yards) of low-level radioactive waste.
Currently, the site is undergoing remedial action, which is expected to be complete by 2003. At that time, the
Commonwealth of Kentucky will assume all responsibility for long-term stewardship needs, such as monitoring,
surveillance, and maintenance.
Site Cleanup and Accomplishments
The waste disposed at the site consisted of approximately 242 metric tons (533,000 pounds) of source material
(consisting of uranium and thorium or ores), 2.5 megacuries of byproduct materials, and 0.43 metric tons (950
pounds) of special nuclear material (plutonium and enriched uranium). During the operation of the facility,
workers capped each disposal trench with a layer of soil after it was filled, but the earth eventually collapsed into
the ditches. Water collected in the trenches, leaching radionuclides into the surrounding environment.
This report is developed in response to a Congressional request in the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 National
Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). As requested by the Act, this report addresses current and anticipated longterm stewardship activities at each site or portion of a site by the end of calendar year 2006 ("Conference Report on
S.1059, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000," Congressional Record, August 5, 1999).
Based on current planning, the U.S. Department of Energy is not expected to be responsible for the long-term
stewardship activities at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site. However, since DOE sent waste to the disposal site and
was identified as a potentially responsible party, a description of the site and possible long-term stewardship
responsibilities are included. (See Section 2.1.2 of Volume 1).
National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) Long-Term Ste ardship Report
Maxey Flats Disposal Site
In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) notified 832 potentially responsible parties, including
DOE, that the EPA had placed the Maxey Flats Disposal Site on the National Priorities List. Other potentially
responsible parties include other federal agencies, federal contractors, medical facilities, physicians, clinics,
industry, state agencies, transporters, broker/haulers, and the land owner. In accordance with the Comprehensive
Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision, cleanup levels will
be achieved through natural stabilization, with low-level waste remaining on site in the subsurface and in aboveground vaults.
The selected remedy includes extraction, solidification,
and onsite disposal of approximately 3.8 million liters
( 1 million gallons) of radioactive trench leachate in the
Earth Mounded Concrete Bunkers; construction of a
temporary cap (intended to last 100 years) composed of
a synthetic liner; and construction of a final cap once
the waste is stabilized. The final cap will cover both
the trenches and the Earth Mounded Concrete Bunkers.
The stabilized waste will remain in the above-ground
bunkers (i.e., Earth Mounded Concrete Bunkers). All
site structures will be demolished and the site will be
Earth Mounded Concrete Bunkers have been
constructed for onsite waste disposal
The majority of trench leachate material has been
extracted, solidified, and disposed
BY 2006 MAXEY FLATS DISPOSAL SITE WILL
Completed trench leachate extraction,
solidification, and disposal
Regraded the site and extended the synthetic liner
Maxey Flats Disposal Site
Primary contaminants of concern in the ground and surface water include radionuclides, primarily tritium.
Surface water control systems have been installed to limit infiltration and to control surface water runoff. Water
monitoring equipment, as part of an Infiltration Monitoring System, will be installed in trenches and within wells,
to detect potential accumulation of leachate in trenches.
As a potentially responsible party, DOE is responsible for approximately forty percent of the remediation costs.
This responsibility will cease when the interim cap is in place and the initial closure construction support
activities are complete. DOE assumes that these activities will be complete by 2003. DOE anticipates no further
liability once it has made the final payment, currently scheduled for 2003.
POTENTIAL LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP ACTIVITIES
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is responsible for long-term stewardship, including surveillance, maintenance,
and monitoring of stabilized waste, as stated in the Consent Decree developed between the potentially responsible
parties. Currently, the Maxey Flats Disposal Site is fenced to control access. As part of long-term stewardship,
the Commonwealth of Kentucky will continue to maintain and repair the fence, as needed. The Commonwealth
of Kentucky will also be responsible for maintaining and updating site records. Types of records include site
characterization data, remedial action design information, the site completion report, long-term monitoring plans,
annual inspection reports, and current and historic monitoring data.
The interim cap will cover approximately 26 hectares (65 acres) of the site. Upon completion of the interim cap,
intensive monitoring will be conducted for two five-year periods to evaluate the need for additional remedial
action. Erosion and runoff controls will be improved. A final cap will be placed over the site after disposal
trenches have subsided and waste has had sufficient time to stabilize. In accordance with CERCLA, five-year
reviews will be required, as well as cap maintenance and inspection.
Ground and surface water will be monitored in trenches and within wells to detect potential accumulation of
leachate. Radionuclide testing of groundwater and surface water will be performed, as appropriate, on a routine
EXPECTED FUTURE USES AND SITE RESPONSIBILITY
Maxey Flats will remain a permanent low-level waste disposal site under controlled access. The site is currently
managed by the landlord, Commonwealth of Kentucky. DOE has no control or management responsibility. As
of 2003, DOE anticipates no further liability because it will have fulfilled its responsibilities as a potentially
For additional information about the Maxey Flats Disposal Site, please contact:
Fazi Sherkat, Manager
Kentucky Division of Waste Management
14 Reilly Road
Frankfort, KY 40601
U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Technical Program Integration
EM-22, Room 2151
Germantown, MD 20874
or visit the Internet website at http://www.nr.state.ky.us/nrepc/dep/waste/dwmhome.htm
Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant
PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT
Site Description and Mission
The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant enriches
WNG-TERM STEWARDSHIP HIGHLIGHTS
uranium for use in commercial nuclear facilities
(formerly for the U.S. Department of Energy
Major Long-Term Stewardship Activities- engineered cap,
(DOE) and its predecessor agencies). The plant is
groundwater, and surface water monitoring; maintenance;
located on a 1,385-hectare (3,423-acre) reservation
institutional control enforcement
owned by DOE, approximately eight kilometers
Total Site Area- 1,385 hectares (3,423 acres)
*Estimated Volume of Residual Contaminants - soil1.2
(five miles) west of the City of Paducah,
million cubic meters (1.6 million cubic yards); groundwater
Kentucky. The gaseous diffusion plant itself is
23,000 cubic meters (30,000 cubic yards); engineered units
located within an industrialized, securityunknown; facilities unknown; surface water/sediments
controlled area that comprises 304 hectares (7 50
acres), roughly in the center of the reservation.
Long-Term Stewardship Start-End Years- 2000-in
The plant began operating in 1952, supplying
enriched uranium through a gaseous diffusion
Average Annual Long-Term Stewardship Cost FY 2000process for both government and commercial
nuclear fuel needs. In 1992, Congress passed the
Landlord- U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear
Energy Policy Act and, under its provisions, DOE
Energy (Uranium enrichment facilities leased to United
States Enrichment Corporation)
leased the uranium enrichment operations at
*The estimated volume indicates only the known amounts of residual
Paducah to the United States Enrichment
contaminants. For certain portions discussed for this site, exact volume is
Corporation (USEC). However, the Act required
not known at this point. For specific discussions, please see Section 2.2.
DOE to retain responsibility for remedial action of
environmental releases and for decontamination
and decommissioning of facilities. Uranium enrichment operations and related waste disposal activities at
Paducah resulted in both onsite and offsite contamination of the environment with radiological and chemical
substances. Investigation of offsite contamination was initiated in 1988. DOE is currently conducting
remediation activities and anticipates completion by 2010.
Presently, the site supports three missions: (1) continued enrichment of uranium by USEC for use in commercial
nuclear facilities; (2) ongoing environmental restoration and related waste management activities by DOE's
Office of Environmental Management; and (3) continued interim storage of depleted uranium hexaflouride until
a conversion facility is constructed. Current long-term stewardship activities include monitoring surface water,
groundwater, and capped landfills. Once remediation is complete, the long-term stewardship activities will also
include monitoring and maintaining engineered controls and enforcing institutional controls.
Site Cleanup and Accomplishments
In May 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the Paducah site on its National Priorities
List, thereby establishing it as a high priority for cleanup under the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Currently, DOE is conducting cleanup activities under the
conditions established in a Federal Facility Agreement signed by DOE, EPA, and the Commonwealth of
Kentucky. The Federal Facility Agreement coordinates cleanup activities conducted at the site under both the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and CERCLA regulations.
Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant
The cleanup strategy at Paducah consists of a multi-phase process:
Mitigate immediate risks, both onsite and offsite;
Reduce further migration of offsite contamination;
Address onsite sources of offsite contamination;
Address the remaining areas of onsite contamination; and
Complete decontamination and decommissioning of the DOE facilities.
Site-wide, DOE has made significant progress in characterizing site problems and implementing interim actions
to address immediate threats and reduce further migration of offsite contamination (e.g., supplied alternate
drinking water to affected residents, construction and operation of two offsite groundwater extraction and
treatment systems). Now that those initial threats are under control, the focus of the cleanup program is shifting
to the onsite source areas. As the first step, DOE completed an extensive investigation effort to identify and
characterize the primary sources of groundwater contamination in 2000.
Another significant action currently underway includes removal of a pile of contaminated scrap metal (crushed
drums), known as Drum Mountain, in 2000 and disposal of the packaged waste in early 2001. This area has been
identified as a potential source of offsite contamination and geographically overlies several burial grounds that
are of high priority. The primary field work at Drum Mountain was completed in September 2000. Removal of
Drum Mountain will represent about 10 percent of the total contaminated scrap metal stored at the site. DOE
and the regulatory agencies have established a baseline schedule for removing the remaining scrap metal by 2004.
During past operations, RCRA hazardous wastes, hazardous constituents, and hazardous substances were released
into the environment in areas such as burial grounds, spill sites, landfarms, surface impoundments, and
underground storage tanks. Releases from some source areas have migrated into the surrounding soils,
underlying groundwater, and adjacent surface water and sediments.
The primary contaminants of concern in soils at Paducah
include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated
biphenyl (PCBs), and radionuclides.
• Eliminated imminent threats by providing residents
characterization of the soils has not been completed, the
alternate drinking water
total volume of contaminated soils has yet to be
• Reduced further migration of offsite groundwater
determined. However, analyses to date indicate that
contamination through installation of pump and
approximately 80 hectares (200 acres) of soils are
• Completed remedial investigations for the major
impacted by residual contamination. Cleanup of the
Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL)
surface soils focuses on addressing risks to onsite
sources of offsite contamination
industrial workers and offsite receptors potentially
exposed through contaminant migration. DOE will
BY 2006 PADUCAH WILL HAVE:
remediate areas within the security fence and the buffer
zone to industrial cleanup levels and areas outside of the
• Completed removal of 65,000 tons of scrap metal
fence to recreational levels. Soil contamination is
• Completed remedial construction for cleanup of
planned for excavation. In accordance with EPA's Toxic
Substances Control Act cleanup level regulations, DOE's
• Completed remediation activities of contamination
current assumption is to cleanup PCBs to 10-25 parts per
of the North-South Diversion Ditch
million (for industrialized areas for human health risk)
and remediate radionuclides to 15-25 millirem per year.
However, the Commonwealth of Kentucky has suggested PCB cleanup levels as low as one part per million for
human health. This issue is unresolved, and the outcome could have a significant impact on the amount of
residual contamination remaining in place. The primary goal is to conduct cleanup or stabilization activities that
National Defense Authm·ization Act (NDAA) Long-Term Stewardship Report
will reduce contamination to levels allowing maximum reuse of the industrialized area with minimal institutional
Due to past operations at Paducah, groundwater contamination from dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs)
consisting of TCE is a long-term source of concern. The groundwater plumes extend over 930 hectares (2,300
acres), both on and off the site, affecting approximately 23,000 cubic meters (30,000 cubic yards) of
groundwater. The offsite contamination has spread into a residential use area, where DOE has provided an
alternative, public water supply. DOE is currently mitigating the high-concentration portions of the offsite
plumes through pump-and-treat operations and monitoring of the groundwater plumes, both onsite and offsite.
DOE is conducting a feasibility study to identify and evaluate groundwater treatment alternatives, including
treatment of groundwater contamination sources. The final remediation strategy for this contamination has not
been selected; however, offsite groundwater will be remediated to residential cleanup levels. The target cleanup
levels for the contaminants of concern, TCE and technetium-99 (Tc-99), are five parts per billion and four
millirem per year, respectively. Onsite groundwater pumping, treating, and monitoring will continue. The
response action for this contamination will likely include containment of source areas, mass removal of highconcentration areas, and natural attenuation of the lower concentration, dissolved-phase plume.
Surface water and sediments covering 26 hectares (65 acres) in the Big and Little Bayou watersheds (both on and
off the site) are contaminated with PCBs, radionuclides, and metals. DOE's strategy is to protect both the
ecosystem and recreational users of the Big and Little Bayou watersheds. DOE has not completed the remedial
investigation of the surface water and sediment contamination. Consequently, neither a detailed description of
the nature and extent of contamination nor any estimate of the expected remedial strategy and levels of residual
contamination are available at this time. In addition, DOE and the Commonwealth of Kentucky have not agreed
upon a cleanup standard for PCBs, which will significantly affect the amount of contamination remaining after
cleanup activities are complete. The Commonwealth of Kentucky has suggested levels significantly below (in
comparison to the levels proposed for surface soils posing human health risks) one part per million for PCBs in
sediments posing ecological risks. In the meantime, surface waters are monitored, and postings (e.g.,
instructional signs stating what one can and cannot do), fences, and deed restrictions currently protect against
improper use of surface water. There are also fish advisories posted in Little Bayou Creek, which runs through
the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area.
Engineered units at Paducah include three closed industrial/solid waste landfills, one currently operational
industrial/solid waste landfill, and one proposed onsite disposal cell. The three closed landfills are capped and
monitored in accordance with the state RCRA regulations. The active landfill is assumed to continue operations
until 2005, at which time it will be closed in accordance with state RCRA regulations. The proposed onsite
disposal cell is a very preliminary remedial action strategy that has not been formally approved by DOE,
regulators, or other affected parties. This onsite disposal cell would contain approximately 1.1 million cubic
meters (1.5 million cubic yards) of decontamination and decommissioning and other material generated by
Paducah cleanup projects. Formal closure of this onsite disposal cell would be managed under CERCLA.
Most of the uranium processing facilities at the Paducah site remain operational; only two have been transferred
to DOE's Environmental Management program for cleanup. These two facilities, known as "C-41 0 and C-340,"
comprise 26,000 square meters (280,000 square feet) and have not undergone detailed characterization.
However, the buildings and subsurface soils are likely to be radioactively contaminated due to uranium trioxide
conversion and uranium hexafluoride reduction operations. The goal for cleaning up these facilities is to
decontaminate and demolish them and maximize industrial reuse of the remaining land, with minimal institutional
controls, by 2010.
There are four active diffusion cascade buildings (more than 186,000 square meters (2 million square feet)),
Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant
portions of which are potentially contaminated with radionuclides, PCBs, VOCs, and metals. While it is unclear
when USEC will cease uranium processing operations at Paducah, the cleanup and final disposition of those
facilities may significantly affect the nature of residual contamination at the site. DOE assumes that buildings
that are unsuitable for reuse or pose an unacceptable risk will be placed under long-term surveillance and
maintenance pending final decontamination and decommissioning.
SITE· WIDE LONG· TERM STEWARDSHIP
Long-Term Stewardship Activities
The primary steward for the Paducah Gaseous
Diffusion Plant site will be DOE. The long-term
stewardship activities will include monitoring the
surface and groundwater, maintaining engineered
controls (e.g., landfill cap/covers, etc.), enforcing
access restrictions, and maintaining institutional
controls. Long-term stewardship activities are expected
to continue in perpetuity; however the duration will be
adjusted as requirements are better defined.
LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP GOALS
Apply deed restrictions to prohibit groundwater
use and residential development
Implement institutional controls to identify areas
of buried waste and warn the public of its
Provide long-term monitoring to ensure that
engineered controls continue to contain hazardous
and radiological contamination
Institutional controls will include deed restrictions
prohibiting the use of onsite groundwater and
residential development on DOE property. DOE will maintain a permit program that will control excavation,
penetration, or other use of residually contaminated areas. Notices, deed restrictions, and other information (e.g.,
location and risk) associated with the presence of residual contaminants remaining onsite will be filed with
appropriate city and county offices.
The Paducah industrial complex site is currently surrounded by a security fence, with access controlled by
security guards. DOE will maintain access control to protect classified information. Entrance and perimeter
signs clearly identify the Paducah site as a DOE-owned facility with access restrictions. Further, contaminated
areas outside the fenced complex are posted as such and restricted, consistent with applicable requirements.
Currently, DOE is responsible for long-term record-keeping associated with environmental contamination at the
site. DOE plans to maintain the existing administrative record for CERCLA actions and utilize it as a long-term
repository for records in accordance with CERCLA, DOE Orders, and the Land Use Control Assurance Plans.
Site records are kept in permanent storage at the Paducah site and real property records are retained at the DOE
Oak Ridge Office. Types of records maintained include site characterization data, remedial action design
information, monitoring plans, monitoring results, and
action completion reports. Of particular importance are
the Land Use Control Assurance Plan and the
corresponding Land Use Control Implementation Plans
DOE has established a site-specific advisory board and
that will be developed for each cleanup area. The Land
the Paducah Area Community Reuse Organization to
Use Control Implementation Plans will contain
facilitate community involvement in cleanup decisions
notification and reporting requirements. Information
and long-term reuse initiatives for the site. In addition,
collection systems need to be reviewed to determine a
DOE has developed and is implementing a Community
way to flag information relevant for long-term
Relations Plan that incorporates the public
stewardship and to store the information in retrievable
participation requirements of RCRA and CERCLA.
form for the long term.
National Defense Authodzation Act (NDAA) Long-Term Steardship Report
Specific Long-Term Stewardship Activities
DOE will monitor conditions at all release sites to ensure regulatory compliance. CERCLA five-year reviews
will be conducted following remediation in areas where contamination or waste is left in place. Approximately
303 hectares (7 48 acres) of soils at Paducah are impacted by residual contamination. Long-term monitoring and
restrictions prohibiting intrusive activities and residential development will control future use of these areas,
consistent with the Records of Decision.
The Paducah site contains twelve unlined burial grounds (nine non-regulated and three permitted) which were
used to dispose of radioactive and nonradioactive trash, equipment, and scrap metal. Consequently, the nature
of the residual contamination found in the burial grounds consists of radionuclides, metals, PCBs, volatile organic
compounds (VOCs), and other contaminants. The burial grounds occupy approximately 43 hectares (107 acres)
within the DOE property boundary. The primary goal is to conduct cleanup or stabilization activities that will
reduce contamination to levels allowing maximum reuse of the industrialized area with minimal institutional
controls. As a result, DOE has divided the burial grounds into "principal threat" and "low-to-moderate threat"
categories. The former category will be excavated to eliminate the sources of contamination, while the latter will
be capped in place with a multi-layer cap. This cap will cover an estimated 1.2 million cubic meters (1.6 million
cubic yards) of residual contamination.
Groundwater monitoring activities have begun under an interim Record of Decision. However, the degree of
monitoring should decrease over time as remediation goals are verified. A network of wells monitor the
migration of groundwater plumes and groundwater discharges to surface water. The Commonwealth of Kentucky
requires a 30-year, post-closure groundwater monitoring and care period; however, due to the presence of
DNAPLs, monitoring will likely be required for a longer period. DOE will continue to provide an alternate
public water supply to affected residents as long as offsite DNAPL concentrations in groundwater are above
maximum contaminant levels. Institutional controls, such as deed restrictions, are also planned, consistent with
the site Land Use Control Assurance Plan and executed Records of Decision, to prevent improper use of
contaminated groundwater onsite.
Surface Water/ Sediment
Surface water monitoring activities are ongoing, consistent with the Clean Water Act. However, the degree of
monitoring may decrease over time with decreased industrial activity. In addition, institutional controls are in
place including of postings, fences, and deed restrictions to protect against the improper use of surface water.
For example, fish advisories are posted in Little Bayou Creek which runs through the Western Kentucky Wildlife
Capped landfills will require long-term monitoring, institutional controls, and ongoing maintenance. The closed
landfills will require DOE monitoring for the foreseeable future. Institutional controls will be put in place to
warn of contamination presence and prevent any subsurface disturbance of the areas. These caps will be
maintained, monitored, and replaced in accordance with operation and maintenance schedules. Since
contamination is left in place, institutional controls will be implemented, consistent with the site Land Use
Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant
Control Assurance Plan, and CERCLA five-year reviews will be required. Warning signs, fences, and deed
restrictions will remain in those areas containing landfills.
Depending on sampling results after the final decontamination and decommissioning of the facilities, minimal
institutional controls may be necessary. Deed restrictions or use limitations may be placed on areas with residual
contamination. These restrictions will be consistent with the Land Use Control Assurance Plan and applicable
Records of Decision.
The site was placed on the National Priorities List in 1994, and the current environmental restoration program
incorporates both RCRA and CERCLA requirements in a Federal Facilities Agreement. A Land Use Control
Assurance Plan has been executed for the site, and the Records of Decision include a Land Use Control
Implementation Plan. Waste management operations are conducted under RCRA, and waters discharged to the
State are permitted under the Clean Water Act. In addition, all radiological operations are conducted consistent
with DOE Orders.
Long-Term Stewardship Technology Development and Deployment
The problems at Paducah are very complex and will require deployment of the best science and technology
available. A number of innovative technologies have been reviewed and utilized as part of the environmental
restoration program, especially with regard to remediation of groundwater and DNAPL sources. An Innovative
Treatment Remediation Demonstration program has been utilized to enhance the site groundwater feasibility
study in addressing groundwater contamination. The Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration is in the
initial stages of application to surface water contamination. Specific technologies include characterization of
DNAPLs in groundwater through the use of innovative cone penetrometers and DNAPL sensors, in-situ
groundwater remediation, and innovative air stripping.
One example of a new technology for in-situ groundwater remediation is the Permeable Treatment Zone. The
Permeable Treatment Zone will be installed to treat contaminated groundwater in the southwest plume. This
technology will involve construction of a subsurface wall through the injection of reactive treatment media. The
system design is currently underway, with construction scheduled to start in the summer of 2000. If this
demonstration is successful, its use, in conjunction with other source treatment technologies currently under
evaluation, may prove to be considerably more efficient and effective than the existing groundwater pump-andtreat systems. In general, discovering and applying better and more efficient technologies will improve the
efficiency and/or reduce the need for long-term stewardship activities.
Assumptions and Uncertainties
Most of the estimates of the extent of environmental contamination at the Paducah site are preliminary in nature.
DOE has completed a remedial investigation of only one (groundwater) of the six areas (operable units) defining
Paducah's environmental contamination. Consequently, estimates of the extent of soil, surface water, burial
ground, facility, and site-wide cumulative contamination were developed with limited information. The majority
of cleanup activities at the site will take place in the future, and current DOE estimates include a final completion
date of 2010 for environmental remediation and limited facility decommissioning. The Commonwealth of
Kentucky has expressed concern about the proposed PCB cleanup levels for surface soil and sediments. This
issue is unresolved, and the outcome could have a significant impact on the amount of residual contamination
National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) Long-Term Stewardship Report
remaining in place. In addition, DOE completed an environmental health evaluation at Paducah in 1999 that
highlighted the need for accelerating cleanup activities at the site. Finally, the disposition of contaminated
facilities that are currently being used is unclear and will affect the amount and type of contamination or other
hazards remaining on the site after cleanup is complete, as well as the costs for conducting long-term
ESTIMATED LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP COSTS
Estimated costs for long-term stewardship activities for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant are identified in
the table below. The long-term stewardship costs represent monitoring surface water, groundwater, and capped
landfills, as well as monitoring and maintaining engineered controls and enforcing institutional controls. The
significant changes in costs below reflect replacement costs and decreasing monitoring costs. Replacement costs
include cap replacements, water treatment component replacements, etc. The largest one ($59 million in FY
2061-2065) includes cap replacement, but smaller ones occur on different schedules (monitoring wells, piping,
etc.). Monitoring costs include ground and surface water, which decrease over time as site conditions stabilize
and less data needs to be collected. Generally, annual costs decrease between 2015 and 2070; however, between
2036 and 2070 the decreased costs are hidden by the replacement costs. For purposes of this report, long-term
stewardship costs are shown until FY 2070; however, it is anticipated that long-term stewardship activities will
be required in perpetuity.
Site Long-Term Stewardship Costs.(Constant Year 2?00 J)ollttrs)
:: .:l"fidr(s) ·
Future land use at the Paducah site will include a combination of controlled access on 43 hectares (107 acres),
mixed industrial-recreational use on 299 hectares (740 acres), and open space and recreational use on 1,042
hectares (2,576 acres). Within the industrial area, USEC will continue to use existing facilities to conduct
uranium enrichment operations according to its lease with DOE. Several other inactive DOE facilities within
the industrial area will either be decommissioned or reused for other private or public industrial purposes.
Outside the fenced industrial area, the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife will continue to use certain
areas onsite as part of the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area, unless the site redesignates the future use
of this area. The remainder of the site will serve as a buffer zone around the industrialized area.
Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant
For additional information about the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, please contact:
U.S. Department of Energy, Paducah Site Office
P.O. Box 1410
Paducah, KY 42001
or visit the Internet website at htto://www.bechteljacobs.com/pad/report.htm