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Photo Exploration

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Teaching elements of photographic imagery.

Teaching elements of photographic imagery.

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  • A breathtaking landscape can transport the viewer to another time and place, if only for a moment. A beautiful still life can capture a mood of serenity, warmth, even magic. A great portrait of a person can look into their soul, and let you share their smiles or tears.
  • The more you simplify a photo, the more attention you draw to your subject. The more attention you draw to your subject, the more successful you are in communicating your message to the viewer. Put your eye right down there and examine the petals, all of the delicate little parts in the center of the flower, any sort of unique characteristics the flower has.
  • Is it the plastic Barbie doll laying on the table behind the vase that's really attracting you? Maybe the wooden table or the placemat that Barbie is reclining on? How about the green stuff in the vase with the flower? Are any of those things what you really want to emphasize in this photograph? No! It's the blossom itself that wants to be the star.
  • Getting in close seems an obvious thing, but you still see too many "Barbie-doll" type distractions, where the flower takes up maybe 1/10 of the final image and the rest is just distracting elements. Then there's no question what the photograph's subject is, and you've communicated with the person who sees the final image! The bottom line is to focus attention on your subject by really thinking about what you want to emphasize. Try it the next time you're taking pictures and see what you think. Here are a couple of examples.
  • Most really strong photographs position their main elements in certain specific places of the frame. When you think about where you put your subject in the photograph, you are “composing” your image. Think about it. When a painter starts out with a blank canvas, he or she has free reign to decide where to put that river, those mountains, the trees, clouds and anything else that needs to be included. Creating a photograph, you should go through the same process.
  • One way to see the main shapes in your photographs is by squinting your eyes until the image almost becomes a blur, then you'll see any lines and shapes created by the shadows and light. This is a great way to look at a scene when you're thinking about how to compose a photograph. You may notice how shadows blend together in a way that might not be immediately obvious otherwise, creating shapes and forms that the viewer may not consciously notice when looking at a photograph, but that will definitely impact their perception of the image, nonetheless. Sometimes lines in a photograph are obvious, like the horizon in a sunset picture.
  • Other times, the main lines in a photograph are not nearly so obvious.
  • Other times, the main lines in a photograph are not nearly so obvious.
  • One way to see the main shapes in your photographs is by squinting your eyes until the image almost becomes a blur, then you'll see any lines and shapes created by the shadows and light. This is a great way to look at a scene when you're thinking about how to compose a photograph. You may notice how shadows blend together in a way that might not be immediately obvious otherwise, creating shapes and forms that the viewer may not consciously notice when looking at a photograph, but that will definitely impact their perception of the image, nonetheless.
  • One way to see the main shapes in your photographs is by squinting your eyes until the image almost becomes a blur, then you'll see any lines and shapes created by the shadows and light. This is a great way to look at a scene when you're thinking about how to compose a photograph. You may notice how shadows blend together in a way that might not be immediately obvious otherwise, creating shapes and forms that the viewer may not consciously notice when looking at a photograph, but that will definitely impact their perception of the image, nonetheless.
  • So if you are composing a photograph of a sunset, try placing that horizon line one-third of the way from the top or bottom of your image, to include either more foreground or more sky. You'll notice a stronger landscape this way.
  • So if you are composing a photograph of a sunset, try placing that horizon line one-third of the way from the top or bottom of your image, to include either more foreground or more sky. You'll notice a stronger landscape this way.
  • Leonardo DaVinci based all sorts of his artwork, experiments and theories on the Golden Mean. Even symphonies by Mozart and Beethoven can be broken down into this ratio. A study was done a few years back on top fashion models. Their faces, interestingly enough, have a number of characteristics with exactly the ratio 1.618. These numbers are everywhere in nature, and on some basic, instinctive level, the human eye tends to find beauty in things that correspond with this ratio.
  • However, when you're looking through your viewfinder, it's not like you're going to get out your tape measure and divide everything into eighths, hence we use the rule of thirds, which is very close for all practical purposes.
  • However, when you're looking through your viewfinder, it's not like you're going to get out your tape measure and divide everything into eighths, hence we use the rule of thirds, which is very close for all practical purposes.
  • This image is split up into three distinct areas: the orange sand, the blue and white mountains with a few bright clouds, and the dark purple stormy clouds in the upper third of the image. The photograph is much more interesting this way than if the horizon line was centered right in the middle of the photo.
  • The subject itself, the pink daisy blossom, is placed at one of the "Golden Mean" points. The background itself is not distracting. The blue of the vase melts into the blue background, and all of that blue really makes the contrasting pink stand out and grab your attention.
  • Makes you wonder what the dog is thinking/feeling.
  • Makes you wonder what the dog is thinking/feeling.
  • Makes you wonder what the dog is thinking/feeling.
  • Makes you wonder what the dog is thinking/feeling.
  • Makes you wonder what the dog is thinking/feeling.
  • Makes you wonder what the dog is thinking/feeling.
  • Makes you wonder what the dog is thinking/feeling.
  • Makes you wonder what the dog is thinking/feeling.
  • Note that this rectangle sits on top of the triangle.
  • The eyeglasses and the newspaper chart that they are laying on each create their own implied diagonal line. The eyeglasses and the line work together here to divide the photograph into triangles. It won't be very often that you're photographing subjects that are actually triangular, but
  • You can see how the photograph is broken down into three sections. Upon first glance, you might not notice the sections, but that's where the idea of implied lines comes in.
  • Oftentimes rock formations will have holes through them - you can use this sort of natural "frame" by including it in an image and taking a landscape view through the hole.
  • Archways, doorways and all sorts of other architectural features work great for this as well.
  • Roads and footpaths are great way to use leading lines to your advantage.
  • Notice that the road leads your eye into the image, meeting the horizon line, which is one third of the way down into the image. Our natural instinct is to place the horizon square down the middle, but remembering the rule of thirds can give a photograph much more impact. Leading lines can be found in many other ways. A wagon wheel's spokes work together to lead the viewer's eye into the frame. The edges of the petals of a daisy can be leading lines moving into the center of the flower. A row of trees or street lights that vanish in the distance can create very strong leading lines that take the viewer's eye all the way through an image.
  • This rule breaks the rule of thirds and the Golden Mean. The circle can be used very effectively when composing a photograph, if the subject is right. Going back to the idea of getting in close, let's look again at the picture of the rose.
  • The petals that all overlap each other naturally make the viewer's eye move in a circle in this image. The effect is similar to a whirlpool, drawing the viewer in. "The Circle" is a tricky element to use in a photograph effectively, but when done well, makes for an outstanding photograph.
  • Another way to create dynamic impact in your photograph is with the use of "visual rhythm". This is a way to use repetition of form and shape in an image to create interest.
  • In this image, the little lines created by the rows of chickens really make the viewer's focus shift to the blue chicken. Rhythm is combined with leading lines (and the rule of thirds) to really bring attention to that little blue guy.
  • Another use of rhythm, created by the replication of the lines of each glass snifter.
  • Negative space is a term used in photography that implies that only a tiny fraction of the frame is taken up by the actual subject. Negative space is usually used either to make the subject seem very small, or to give the impression of the subject being in a wide-open space.
  • In this image, technically the subject is the wheat. However, since they are surrounded by so much vivid blue space, the feeling that you get is that of a wide-open sky - turning the negative space itself into as much of the subject as the wheat.
  • A Lightning bolt is a great graphic symbol for energy, pure energy. And like real lightning, the lightning bolt symbol is also very exciting visually. Lightning Bolt shapes, Pinwheels and Spirals provide the graphic foundation for most action pictures.
  • A Lightning bolt is a great graphic symbol for energy, pure energy. And like real lightning, the lightning bolt symbol is also very exciting visually. Lightning Bolt shapes, Pinwheels and Spirals provide the graphic foundation for most action pictures.
  • A Lightning bolt is a great graphic symbol for energy, pure energy. And like real lightning, the lightning bolt symbol is also very exciting visually. Lightning Bolt shapes, Pinwheels and Spirals provide the graphic foundation for most action pictures.
  • One of the best ways to learn to see compositionally is by taking abstract photographs. Abstract means that your subject matter is unrecognizable for the most part. Get in close, use color and lines in your composition to create the whole image. When you're done, look closely at it. Does the photo feel "balanced"?
  • This is the side of a trailer that was covered in yellow, cracking paint. The line of rivets was placed by using the rule of thirds and the texture creates an interesting abstract. It's the vivid colors, texture and the line of rivets that hold this image together and make it interesting.
  • This is the side of a trailer that was covered in yellow, cracking paint. The line of rivets was placed by using the rule of thirds and the texture creates an interesting abstract. It's the vivid colors, texture and the line of rivets that hold this image together and make it interesting.
  • This is the side of a trailer that was covered in yellow, cracking paint. The line of rivets was placed by using the rule of thirds and the texture creates an interesting abstract. It's the vivid colors, texture and the line of rivets that hold this image together and make it interesting.
  • The last thing we'll talk about is your point of view, as the photographer. How many times have you seen something worth taking a photo of and picked up your camera to snap a picture right then and there? If this is the way you shoot, you can dramatically improve your technique with one simple process.
  • Lie down on the ground and point the camera up at your subject. Okay, if it's your dog, you might have to watch out so he doesn't come over and lick the camera lens, but you get the point. Climb a ladder and look down, trying the same thing.
  • Tilt the camera vertically, even diagonally. Take a whole roll of film (or fill a whole memory card if you use a digital camera) of the same subject from drastically different points of view and compare the results. You might surprise yourself. You'll definitely surprise the viewer by trying something different and that will add impact to your photo.
  • This photo was taken by having the model lie down, then putting the tripod over her to look down from a rather unusual angle.
  • Notice the "get close" style, making sure nothing is in the image but the model, and the diagonal line that adds visual strength.
  • When you're walking around your subject finding different points of view, watch out for what is in the background. Not "Barbie the distracting element" that we already covered, but if you're taking a photo of your Aunt Sally sitting in the back yard knitting a sweater, watch out for that tree behind her. Many a photo has been ruined because Aunt Sally's hair is the same color as the tree bark and when you've taken the pictures and are looking at the final product, you notice that it actually appears as if that tree branch is growing out of her head!
  • When you're walking around your subject finding different points of view, watch out for what is in the background. Not "Barbie the distracting element" that we already covered, but if you're taking a photo of your Aunt Sally sitting in the back yard knitting a sweater, watch out for that tree behind her. Many a photo has been ruined because Aunt Sally's hair is the same color as the tree bark and when you've taken the pictures and are looking at the final product, you notice that it actually appears as if that tree branch is growing out of her head!
  • Lie down on the ground and point the camera up at your subject. Okay, if it's your dog, you might have to watch out so he doesn't come over and lick the camera lens, but you get the point. Climb a ladder and look down, trying the same thing.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Composition And Impact - It's A Beautiful Photograph, But Do You Know WHY It's Beautiful?
    • 2. Composition And Impact - It's A Beautiful Photograph, But Do You Know WHY It's Beautiful?
      • A great picture “communicates.”
      • But what makes a photograph successful? The answer is a fairly simple one, and you can improve your photography “today” by learning a few very basic rules.
    • 3. Number one: Get in close.
    • 4. Number one: Get in close.
      • The first, and most important rule: Simplify.
        • The more you simplify a photo, the more attention you draw to your subject. The more attention you draw to your subject, the more successful you are in communicating your message to the viewer.
    • 5. Number one: Get in close.
      • The first, and most important rule: Simplify.
      • Flowers are inherently beautiful, readily available, and seem to just scream out to have their pictures taken. Before you snap your next flower photo, though, look up close at the flower.
    • 6. Number one: Get in close.
      • Ask yourself: What it is about this specific flower that is crying out to have its picture taken?
    • 7. Number one: Get in close.
      • The best way to eliminate distractions is to get closer and closer until there's nothing else in the viewfinder. This is referred to as "filling the frame."
    • 8. Number one: Get in close.
      • The petals are so soft, it seems that if you touch them, they'd melt like butter. Focusing so closely on the rose really communicates that message to the viewer in this image.
    • 9. Number one: Get in close.
      • There's no question that this photograph is about laughter. No distracting elements, not even the rest of a face to give a personality to the image - just a mouth, laughing.
    • 10. Number two: Composition
    • 11. Number two: Composition
      • There are several "classic" ways to compose a photograph. To use these methods, you need to train yourself to see your subjects in terms of lines and shapes.
    • 12.  
    • 13. Number two: Composition
    • 14. Number two: Composition
    • 15. Number two: Composition
      • S-curved lines are a great way to draw the viewer into the photo.
    • 16. Number two: Composition
    • 17. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
      • One of the most commonly talked-about rules in photography is the rule of thirds. You take your canvas and divide it up into thirds, both vertically and horizontally, so that you wind up with a tic-tac-toe board.
    • 18. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
      • The rule of thirds should be used when you have vertical or horizontal lines in your image. It is based on the "Golden Mean," which says that the main subjects of an image should be placed at the intersecting points created by the line, thusly:
    • 19. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
      • The rule of thirds should be used when you have vertical or horizontal lines in your image. It is based on the "Golden Mean," which says that the main subjects of an image should be placed at the intersecting points created by the line, thusly:
    • 20. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
      • The Golden Mean is a number sort of like Pi. Whereas Pi is equal to 3.14 and is handy for all sorts of geometrical things, the Golden Mean is equal to 1.618. Mathematicians use the Greek letter Phi when they're talking about the Golden Mean. This is derived from the Fibonacci Series.
    • 21. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
      • Fibonacci was an Italian mathematician born around 1170 A.D. who decided one day to start with the numbers zero and one and add them together. Okay, that just gave him the number one again. Then he added the last number he used (one) to his new resulting number (one) and got two. He did it again by adding one and two and got three. Then next time:
      • 0+1 = 1
      • 1+1 = 2
      • 1+2 = 3
      • 2+3 = 5
      • 3+5 = 8
      • 5+8 = 13
      • 8+13 = 21
    • 22. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
      • 0+1 = 1
      • 1+1 = 2
      • 1+2 = 3
      • 2+3 = 5
      • 3+5 = 8
      • 5+8 = 13
      • 8+13 = 21
      • 13 + 21 = 34
      • 21 + 34 = 55
      • And you can keep going like that forever. If you take the ratios created by these numbers, an interesting pattern appears.
    • 23. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean Getting to the Golden Mean
      • Ratio of 1 to 0 = 0
      • Ratio of 1 to 1 = 1
      • Ratio of 2 to 1 = 2
      • Ratio of 3 to 2 = 1.5
      • Ratio of 5 to 3 = 1.6666
      • Ratio of 8 to 5 = 1.6
      • Ratio of 13 to 8 = 1.625
      • Ratio of 21 to13 = 1.61538
      • Ratio of 34 to 21 = 1.61538
      • Ratio of 55 to 34 = 1.61764
      • Ratio of 89 to 55 = 1.6181
      • Ratio of 144 to 89 = 1.6179
      • Ratio of 233 to 144 = 1.6180
      • Ratio of 377 to 233 = 1.6180
    • 24.
      • If you look at the gray lines in the image, they make up squares. When all of these squares are put together in the way they make up this picture, they form a rectangle. The ratio of the squares in this rectangle is composed of our magic number, 1.618!
      Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
    • 25.
      • This ratio is found all over in the natural world.
        • Have you ever seen a nautilus seashell that's been sawed open? Its growth rate follows the curve in this image, 1.618 - exactly.
      Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
    • 26.
      • This ratio is found all over in the natural world.
        • Same with the little spirals that compose the interior pattern of a sunflower, where the seeds are.
      Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
    • 27.
      • This ratio is found all over in the natural world.
        • The vast majority of flowers have petals that number 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55 or even 89.
      Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
    • 28. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
      • Technically, if you draw grid marks on your frame and break it up into eighths, then draw your dividing lines down at the mark of three eighths on each side, you've got the spots where the Golden Mean hits.
    • 29. Number two: The Rule Of Thirds And The Golden Mean
      • You can see that the rule of thirds gives you approximately the same points as the Golden Mean.
    • 30.  
    • 31.  
    • 32.  
    • 33.  
    • 34. Number two: Move subject off center
      • A corollary to the rule of thirds is that the main subject should be off center.
    • 35. Number two: Move subject off center
    • 36. Number two: Leave space in front of moving subject
    • 37. Number two: BUT, balance and symmetry can be very effective
    • 38. Number two: balance and symmetry
    • 39. Number two: BUT, balance and symmetry can be very effective
    • 40.  
    • 41. Number two: Faces are not symmetrical
    • 42. Number two: Faces are not symmetrical
    • 43. Number two: Faces are not symmetrical
    • 44. Number two: Composition
      • There are other ways besides the rule of thirds and the Golden Mean to use lines and shapes to strengthen an image. Here's a quick overview of six additional methods of composition that can strengthen your images.
    • 45. Number two: Composition The Triangle
      • When you take a photograph in a rectangular frame, basing the composition on a triangle that goes from any one corner to the two opposite sides, like this diagram, is always a good way to create a strong image.
    • 46. Number two: Composition The Triangle
      • Some triangles are pretty obvious.
    • 47. Number two: Composition The Triangle
      • Some triangles are pretty obvious.
    • 48. Number two: Composition The Triangle
      • Some triangles are pretty obvious.
      • Note the rectangles, and rough use of the rule of thirds.
    • 49. Number two: Composition The Triangle
      • The shapes in photographs are often implied shapes.
    • 50.
      • Where is the triangle here?
    • 51.
      • By placing objects in your composition along strong diagonal lines that create a triangle, you'll add strength to your image.
    • 52.
      • Where are the triangles here?
    • 53.  
    • 54. Number two: Composition The Frame Within A Frame
      • You can use materials in your foreground around two or more of the edges to create a sort of "frame". This is most often done with trees or branches on two or three sides of the image.
    • 55. Number two: Composition The Frame Within A Frame
      • You can use materials in your foreground around two or more of the edges to create a sort of "frame". This is most often done with trees or branches on two or three sides of the image.
    • 56.
      • Another way is to take a photo through a window of an outdoor scene.
    • 57. Number two: Composition Leading Lines
      • The path really stands out because of the contrasting colors. The line created by the path then leads the viewer into the photo, as if they were standing on the trail, ready to walk right into the image.
    • 58. Number two: Composition Leading Lines
    • 59.  
    • 60. Number two: Composition The Circle
    • 61. Number two: Composition The Circle
    • 62. Number two: Composition Rhythm
    • 63. Number two: Composition Rhythm
    • 64. Number two: Composition Rhythm
    • 65. Number two: Composition Negative Space
    • 66. Number two: Composition Negative Space
    • 67. Number two: Composition Lightning Bolt
    • 68. Number two: Composition Lightning Bolt
    • 69. Number two: Composition Lightning Bolt
    • 70. Number two: Composition Abstract Photography
    • 71. Number two: Composition Abstract Photography
    • 72. Number two: Composition Pattern and Texture
    • 73. Number two: Composition Pattern and Texture
    • 74. Number Three: Point of View
    • 75. Walk around
      • Walk around the subject. All the way around it. See how the background changes as you move 360 degrees around your subject.
      Number Three: Point of View
    • 76. Up or down Number Three: Point of View
    • 77. Up or down Number Three: Point of View
    • 78. Up or down Number Three: Point of View
    • 79. Change angles Number Three: Point of View
    • 80.  
    • 81.  
    • 82. Watch the background!
    • 83. Watch the background!
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    • 132.
      • Now for the assignments. Your chance to apply all of this stuff to your personal photographs and see what you think!
    • 133.
      • Now for the assignments. Your chance to apply all of this stuff to your personal photographs and see what you think!
        • Assignment 1: Take at least one abstract photo based entirely on some of the compositional rules we talked about. Subjects should not be recognizable. Explain why you think the composition makes a visually interesting image.
    • 134.
      • Now for the assignments. Your chance to apply all of this stuff to your personal photographs and see what you think!
        • Assignment 1: Take at least one abstract photo based entirely on some of the compositional rules we talked about. Subjects should not be recognizable. Explain why you think the composition makes a visually interesting image.
        • Assignment 2: Take pictures of a subject from various viewpoints (near, far, from above, below, behind). Creativity is encouraged. Explain which you think is most visually appealing and why.

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