The entire odyssey notes presentationPresentation Transcript
The OdysseyThe OdysseyTyped by Mrs. Scruggs’s Peer Helpers
EpicEpic: a long, narrative poem about the: a long, narrative poem about theadventures of gods and heroes.adventures of gods and heroes.Epic HeroEpic Hero: a character whose actions: a character whose actionsare noble or inspiring. They oftenare noble or inspiring. They oftenovercome foes or escape fromovercome foes or escape fromdifficulties.difficulties.Epic/Heroic/Homeric SimileEpic/Heroic/Homeric Simile: a long,: a long,elaborate comparison of unlikeelaborate comparison of unlikesubjects. They go on for severalsubjects. They go on for severallines and usually compare thelines and usually compare theordinaryordinary to theto the unknownunknown..EpithetEpithet: a word or phrase used to: a word or phrase used todescribedescribe or characterize a person oror characterize a person orthing. Example: "Zeus, lord of thething. Example: "Zeus, lord of theclouds."clouds."
In medias resIn medias res: when a story begins in the: when a story begins in themiddle of the action. All exposition is skipped.middle of the action. All exposition is skipped.EpisodeEpisode: the division of an epic.: the division of an epic.Oral TraditionOral Tradition: the passing of songs, stories: the passing of songs, storiesand poems from generation to generation byand poems from generation to generation byword of mouth.word of mouth.ArchetypeArchetype: a theme, plot, setting, character: a theme, plot, setting, charactertype, or hero that recurs in many differenttype, or hero that recurs in many differentcultures. Example: the battle of good vs. evil;cultures. Example: the battle of good vs. evil;innocence lost; misbegotten lovers, etc.innocence lost; misbegotten lovers, etc.RhapsodesRhapsodes: they are "singers of tales." They: they are "singers of tales." Theywere the ones who told the epics in the oralwere the ones who told the epics in the oraltradition, before these poems (stories) weretradition, before these poems (stories) werewritten down.written down.
Elements of an EpicElements of an Epic• AA physically impressive herophysically impressive hero of national orof national orhistorical importance.historical importance.• AA vast settingvast setting involving much of the knowninvolving much of the knownphysical world, and sometimes the land of thephysical world, and sometimes the land of thedead and mythological realms as well.dead and mythological realms as well.• Action such as aAction such as a quest or journeyquest or journey taken intaken insearch of something of value.search of something of value.• Evidence ofEvidence of supernatural forcessupernatural forces at work (i.e.,at work (i.e.,help of gods, goddesses, etc.)help of gods, goddesses, etc.)• Glorification of the heroGlorification of the hero at the end.at the end.• A rootedness in aA rootedness in a specific culturespecific culture or society.or society.
Background InformationBackground Information• Homer (Greek) is credited with first composingThe Illiad (about the Trojan War.).• The Trojan War lasted for 10 years inTroy (Troy = modern day Turkey).• the cause of the Trojan War = theGreek King Menelaus had his wife,Helen, stolen by the Trojan PrinceParis.• The Odyssey is about what GreekKing Odysseus (of Ithaca) experiencestrying to return home to Ithaca after 10years at the Trojan War. The Odysseyis the 2ndepic attributed to Homer.• The Illiad and The Odyssey were usedin Greek schools to teach theircultures values.The Illiad is the model for the epic of war.The Odysseyis the model for the epic of long journeys.
The War Story BackgroundThe War Story BackgroundThe IlliadThe Illiad is set in the 10is set in the 10ththand final year ofand final year ofthe Trojan War. Thethe Trojan War. The Greeks attack TroyGreeks attack Troyto avenge the insult done to Kingto avenge the insult done to KingMenelaus of Sparta (Greek). MenelaussMenelaus of Sparta (Greek). Menelaussbrother, Agamemnon, leads the unifiedbrother, Agamemnon, leads the unifiedGreek kings in battle against Troy.Greek kings in battle against Troy.When the Greeks finally win, they trashWhen the Greeks finally win, they trashthe city of Troy and kill all thethe city of Troy and kill all theinhabitants except those they wereinhabitants except those they weretaking back to Greece as slaves. Thetaking back to Greece as slaves. Thereaders ofreaders of The OdysseyThe Odyssey would havewould havealready known the story of Achilles andalready known the story of Achilles andthe names of deeds of other Greek warthe names of deeds of other Greek warheroes.heroes.
The Wooden HorseThe Wooden Horse• For 10 years the Greeks tried to enter Troy, with no success. KingOdysseus hatches a plan: The Greeks build a huge wooden horse thatis hollow inside. They fill the horse with Greek soldiers, roll it to thegates of Troy, and then move their camps as if they have left and as ifthe wooden horse is a peace offering. The Trojans see this, thinktheyve won the war, roll the horse inside the city gates, and start to getdrunk. Once the Trojans pass out drunk, the Greeks jump out of thehorse and kill the Trojans, except for the captives to be used as slaves.• ** SO The Odyssey picks up the story after this point.- Myths: stories that use fantasy to express ideas about life thatcannot be easily explained in realistic terms. They are religious inthat they focus on the relationship between humans and gods.- Alter Ego: a character who serves as a reflection of a heros bestor worst qualities. Poseidon is the alter ego of Odysseus.• **** The OdysseyThe Odyssey isis 11,30011,300 lines long**lines long**
The Plot Structure of theThe Plot Structure of the OdysseyOdyssey• Books 1-4Books 1-4: the adventures of: the adventures of Telemachus as he searchesTelemachus as he searches for hisfor hisfather, King Odysseus. He (Telemachus) leaves Ithaca and seeksfather, King Odysseus. He (Telemachus) leaves Ithaca and seeksthe help of other Greek kings in searching for Odysseus.the help of other Greek kings in searching for Odysseus.• Books 5-8Books 5-8: Adventures of: Adventures of OdysseusOdysseus as he leavesas he leaves Calypsos islandCalypsos island(Ogygia) and arrives in Phaeacia.(Ogygia) and arrives in Phaeacia.• FlashbackFlashback == Books 9-12:Books 9-12: Odysseus recounts his travels andOdysseus recounts his travels andexperiences to the Phaeacians and their king, Alcinous.experiences to the Phaeacians and their king, Alcinous.• Books 13-24Books 13-24: about Odysseus landing on Ithaca, the battle with the: about Odysseus landing on Ithaca, the battle with thesuitors, and thesuitors, and the final recognitionfinal recognition and reunion of Odysseus withand reunion of Odysseus withTelemachus, Penelope, and Odysseuss father, Laertes.Telemachus, Penelope, and Odysseuss father, Laertes.
** Property of an epic =** Property of an epic = Invocation of the MuseInvocation of the Muse: the: thepoet prays for inspiration to relay his tale/ song/ poempoet prays for inspiration to relay his tale/ song/ poemfrom one of thefrom one of the 99 muses. The Muses weremuses. The Muses weremythological daughters of Zeus and were creditedmythological daughters of Zeus and were creditedwith inspiring music, arts, theater, story tellingwith inspiring music, arts, theater, story telling(anything artistic).(anything artistic).The poem starts with Homer invokingThe poem starts with Homer invokingthe Muse. (the Muse. (Book IBook I))Homer is asking the Muse (Calliope) to help him retellHomer is asking the Muse (Calliope) to help him retellthe story of Odysseus.the story of Odysseus.
BOOK 5: When We MeetBOOK 5: When We MeetOdysseus in the TextbookOdysseus in the TextbookCalypsos island of Ogygia (not #1 chronologically)Calypsos island of Ogygia (not #1 chronologically)::• Odysseus has spentOdysseus has spent 77 years on the island as her boy toy.years on the island as her boy toy.(some of the time he enjoyed).(some of the time he enjoyed).• Line 41-47: epic simile: "A gull patrolling…up to the cave." ThisLine 41-47: epic simile: "A gull patrolling…up to the cave." Thiscompares how a seagull skims the water (known) to howcompares how a seagull skims the water (known) to howHermes, a god, skims the water (unknown).Hermes, a god, skims the water (unknown).- Calypsos cave/island is described like a paradise.Calypsos cave/island is described like a paradise.Meanwhile, Odysseus is miserable.Meanwhile, Odysseus is miserable.- Calypso tells Odysseus that itsCalypso tells Odysseus that its herher idea to let him go.idea to let him go.Shes saving her pride; also, she truly feels forShes saving her pride; also, she truly feels forOdysseus.Odysseus.- Epithet: line 101: "Son of Laertes, versatile Odysseus…"Epithet: line 101: "Son of Laertes, versatile Odysseus…"
BOOKS 6-8BOOKS 6-8- line 120:line 120: epithetepithet = Odysseus refers to himself as= Odysseus refers to himself asLaertess son. This showsLaertess son. This shows his humilityhis humility and howand howhis family has taken on more importance to himhis family has taken on more importance to himthan the glories of a king.than the glories of a king.- Line 145:Line 145: he values his home and family mosthe values his home and family most..(this(this themetheme is the driving force of the poem.).is the driving force of the poem.).• **Odysseus and his men spent**Odysseus and his men spent 33 days with the Ciconesdays with the Cicones..7272 menmen diedie there (Book 9)there (Book 9)- line 179:line 179: epithetepithet: "Zeus, the lord of cloud": "Zeus, the lord of cloud"- 3 days theyre stuck in the storm3 days theyre stuck in the storm (p.898)(p.898)• 9 days drifting9 days drifting on the open sea (p.898)on the open sea (p.898)
BOOK 9 (This starts the flashback books)BOOK 9 (This starts the flashback books)• The Lotus EatersThe Lotus Eaters– on the 10on the 10ththday theyday theyland in the Land ofland in the Land ofthe Lotus Eaters (#3the Lotus Eaters (#3on your kill map).on your kill map).Odysseus sendsOdysseus sends 33 men to check things out. Themen to check things out. TheLotus Eaters are friendly and start feeding the 3Lotus Eaters are friendly and start feeding the 3men the lotus plant. ( narcotic).men the lotus plant. ( narcotic).None dieNone die; this is an example of Odysseus acting; this is an example of Odysseus actinglike a good leader because he wont leave themlike a good leader because he wont leave themand drags them back to the ship before they loseand drags them back to the ship before they loseall memory of home.all memory of home.
The Land of the Cyclopes (Past)The Land of the Cyclopes (Past)Odysseus’s impression of the Cyclopes before they get to the island:Odysseus’s impression of the Cyclopes before they get to the island:• Giants, loutsGiants, louts• Lawless = no organized system of government.Lawless = no organized system of government.• Uncivilized = distasteful way of life to the ancient GreeksUncivilized = distasteful way of life to the ancient Greeks• Cruel and barbaric, like cave menCruel and barbaric, like cave men• They do not have an agrarian (agricultural) way of life = veryThey do not have an agrarian (agricultural) way of life = verydistasteful to the ancient Greeksdistasteful to the ancient Greeks
•Polyphemuss mother isThoosa, a sea nymph anddaughter of Phorkys, also a seagod, who lives in a cave inIthaca.•Odysseus and crew spend afew days on lush island nearbywatching the Cyclopes. Theyhad to stop on island due toheavy fog. They spend their timefeasting and relaxing. On the 3rdday, they leave the lush islandand go to the Land of theCyclopes.
Day 1Day 1Setting:Setting: cold, harsh environment. Very stony and uninviting.cold, harsh environment. Very stony and uninviting.They see the CyclopsThey see the Cyclops PolyphemusPolyphemus, son of Poseidon., son of Poseidon.Polyphemus is huge (prodigious). He lives alone takingPolyphemus is huge (prodigious). He lives alone takingcare of his livestock. Hes very savage- looking.care of his livestock. Hes very savage- looking.Odysseus and his crew dock. He picksOdysseus and his crew dock. He picks 1212 of his bestof his bestfightingfighting menmen to go with him. He tells the rest to stay withto go with him. He tells the rest to stay withthe ships and guard everything. [an example of Odysseusthe ships and guard everything. [an example of Odysseusacting like a good leader].acting like a good leader].Odysseus thinks ahead and brings along good wine as aOdysseus thinks ahead and brings along good wine as apeace offering.peace offering.• **Odysseus is the cleverest of the ancient heroes of**Odysseus is the cleverest of the ancient heroes ofGreece because his protector is Athena, goddess ofGreece because his protector is Athena, goddess ofwisdom.wisdom.• ** Polyphemus is an** Polyphemus is an archetypalarchetypal character representing the brutecharacter representing the bruteforces any hero must overcome.forces any hero must overcome.
- they go into Polyphemuss cave while hes out. They check outthey go into Polyphemuss cave while hes out. They check outthe food in the cave. The men suggest that they take the food andthe food in the cave. The men suggest that they take the food andmilk products and leave.milk products and leave. *Odysseus refuses to leave. Hes*Odysseus refuses to leave. Hescuriouscurious and wants to see Polyphemus up closeand wants to see Polyphemus up close. [an example of. [an example ofOdysseus acting human, rather than heroic].Odysseus acting human, rather than heroic].- Odysseus and his men make a fire and burn an offering to theOdysseus and his men make a fire and burn an offering to thegods. They eat some of Polyphemuss food.gods. They eat some of Polyphemuss food.- Polyphemus puts down his load of food. Odysseus and his menPolyphemus puts down his load of food. Odysseus and his menhide. Polyphemus brings in his animals, then moves a hugehide. Polyphemus brings in his animals, then moves a hugestone slab in front of the door.stone slab in front of the door. No wayNo way for Odysseus and his menfor Odysseus and his mento get out.to get out.• Polyphemus starts his evening chores and discovers Odysseus and his men. He asksPolyphemus starts his evening chores and discovers Odysseus and his men. He asksO. if hes a friend or foe, beggar or merchant.O. if hes a friend or foe, beggar or merchant.• **Immediately, he has broken the ancient tradition of courtesy to strangers.**Immediately, he has broken the ancient tradition of courtesy to strangers.Foreshadows events to come, which are bad. Odysseus is afraid but actsForeshadows events to come, which are bad. Odysseus is afraid but actsbravely. He talks to the Cyclops about being at Troy and traveling,bravely. He talks to the Cyclops about being at Troy and traveling, but doesntbut doesntgive his namegive his name. He reminds Polyphemus about the customary treatment for. He reminds Polyphemus about the customary treatment forguests, and plugs in a little threat to try to make Polyphemus do the rightguests, and plugs in a little threat to try to make Polyphemus do the rightthing.thing.
Polyphemus insults Odysseus and says Cyclops dontfear the gods (a sacrilege). Then he tries to find outwhere the ships are.Odysseus lies to protect his men; he says theyreshipwrecked and there were no other survivors.**Polyphemus**Polyphemus eats 2 meneats 2 men..Odysseus doesnt try to kill Polyphemus because theyOdysseus doesnt try to kill Polyphemus because theywould be unable to escape the cave because of thewould be unable to escape the cave because of thestone slab.stone slab.• Odysseus and the remaining 10 men freak out and CRY.Odysseus and the remaining 10 men freak out and CRY.Polyphemus goes to sleep and Odysseus draws his swordand wants to stab at Polyphemus, but stops. He stopsbecause he realizes they will be trapped in the cave sincethey are unable to move the stone slab. This is an exampleof Odysseus using his intellect and thinking before he acts.
Day 2Day 2- Polyphemus starts the next morning doing his chores as if nothingsPolyphemus starts the next morning doing his chores as if nothingswrong.wrong. Then he eats 2 more men for breakfast.Then he eats 2 more men for breakfast.- Line 304-305 :Line 304-305 : similesimile- Polyphemus leaves the cave with his animals, then replaces the stonePolyphemus leaves the cave with his animals, then replaces the stoneslab behind him. Odysseus and his men are trapped, but he hatches aslab behind him. Odysseus and his men are trapped, but he hatches aplan to get out of the cave and injure Polyphemus.plan to get out of the cave and injure Polyphemus.- They see a green olive tree and they cut out a 6-foot portion. TheyThey see a green olive tree and they cut out a 6-foot portion. Theysharpen that section. Then put it in the fire to harden the big spike.sharpen that section. Then put it in the fire to harden the big spike.They then hide the weapon in a pile of poop in the cave and wait forThey then hide the weapon in a pile of poop in the cave and wait forPolyphemus to return. Odysseus and the men toss to see who willPolyphemus to return. Odysseus and the men toss to see who willhelp stab Polyphemus. Odysseus is the captain and the best menhelp stab Polyphemus. Odysseus is the captain and the best menwere chosen to help him in the toss.were chosen to help him in the toss.- 5 including Odysseus will blind Polyphemus in his sleep.5 including Odysseus will blind Polyphemus in his sleep.- Line 332-333:Line 332-333: example of foreshadowingexample of foreshadowing..- Polyphemus returns and closes the slab over door, and begins hisPolyphemus returns and closes the slab over door, and begins hisevening chores.evening chores.
- He eatsHe eats 2 more2 more men for dinner.men for dinner.- Odysseus uses theOdysseus uses the Pramnian winePramnian wine he had broughthe had broughtto get Polyphemus drunk. He says hell cut a dealto get Polyphemus drunk. He says hell cut a dealwith Odysseus if he gives him more wine. Hewith Odysseus if he gives him more wine. Heagrees and gives him more. Polyphemus asks himagrees and gives him more. Polyphemus asks himhis name. Odysseus tricks him and tells him hishis name. Odysseus tricks him and tells him hisname isname is NohbdyNohbdy last. *last. * irony: Nohbdy = Nobodyirony: Nohbdy = Nobody..- The escape: Odysseus and his men stabThe escape: Odysseus and his men stabPolyphemus in the eyeball and pop it while hesPolyphemus in the eyeball and pop it while hespassed out drunk. They cant kill him or theyll bepassed out drunk. They cant kill him or theyll betrapped in the cave and starve to death.trapped in the cave and starve to death. They tieThey tieramsrams together in threes and using willow fromtogether in threes and using willow fromPolyphemuss bed. Then, he ties each of his menPolyphemuss bed. Then, he ties each of his menunder theunder the middlemiddle ram (Odysseus being clever).ram (Odysseus being clever).Odysseus waits until all other men are secure; heOdysseus waits until all other men are secure; hethen puts himself under a single, large ram. Theythen puts himself under a single, large ram. Theywait until the morning.wait until the morning. Heroic act = Odysseus isHeroic act = Odysseus isputting himself at the greatest risk to protect hisputting himself at the greatest risk to protect hismen.men.Day 2 Cont...Day 2 Cont...
- moment of tension: the men get out of themoment of tension: the men get out of thecave safely, but Polyphemus (blind) stopscave safely, but Polyphemus (blind) stopsthe one under which is Odysseus. He stopsthe one under which is Odysseus. He stopsit and talks to it :it and talks to it : IronyIrony = Polyphemus asks= Polyphemus asksthe ram where "Nohbdy" is. He doesntthe ram where "Nohbdy" is. He doesntrealize that Nohbdy/Odysseus is under hisrealize that Nohbdy/Odysseus is under hishand. (line 450-456)hand. (line 450-456)- PersonificationPersonification: Polyphemus talks to the ram: Polyphemus talks to the ramlike it is concerned for him.like it is concerned for him.- Odysseus and his men make it safely backOdysseus and his men make it safely backto the ship and take Polyphemuss sheepto the ship and take Polyphemuss sheepwith them. They load up and pull out to sea;with them. They load up and pull out to sea;distraught over lost (eaten) men.distraught over lost (eaten) men.- Line 476: Odysseus lets his emotions takeLine 476: Odysseus lets his emotions takeover (acting human, not heroic). Whenover (acting human, not heroic). Whentheyre out to sea, in anger Odysseus shoutstheyre out to sea, in anger Odysseus shoutsback at Polyphemus and baits him.back at Polyphemus and baits him.- PolyphemusPolyphemus breaks off a hilltopbreaks off a hilltop and hurls itand hurls itat their ship. They are washed back closer toat their ship. They are washed back closer tothe shore. They row twice as far away andthe shore. They row twice as far away andOdysseuss men beg himOdysseuss men beg him notnot to shout atto shout atPolyphemus anymore.Polyphemus anymore.Day 3Day 3
Day 3 Cont...Day 3 Cont...- Odysseus refuses. He shouts at Polyphemus anyway and tellsOdysseus refuses. He shouts at Polyphemus anyway and tellshim his real name. Polyphemus says he knew about Odysseushim his real name. Polyphemus says he knew about Odysseusfrom a prophecy.from a prophecy.- Polyphemus calls out to his father, Poseidon, and asks him toPolyphemus calls out to his father, Poseidon, and asks him tokill/curse Odysseus. His father hears him.kill/curse Odysseus. His father hears him.- Line 526: Odysseus blasphemes the power of Poseidon.Line 526: Odysseus blasphemes the power of Poseidon.- Line 529-538: *Polyphemuss curse will cause the death of all ofLine 529-538: *Polyphemuss curse will cause the death of all ofOdysseus’s men.Odysseus’s men.- Polyphemus picks up another giant stone and throws it atPolyphemus picks up another giant stone and throws it atOdysseus’s ship. It misses. He and his crew head back to theOdysseus’s ship. It misses. He and his crew head back to thenearby lush island. They unload the animals and divide them up.nearby lush island. They unload the animals and divide them up.Odysseus kills the best ram, his, and makes a sacrifice to Zeus.Odysseus kills the best ram, his, and makes a sacrifice to Zeus.Zeus does not accept the offering because OdysseusZeus does not accept the offering because Odysseusblasphemed Poseidon.blasphemed Poseidon.• They sail off again.They sail off again.
The Wind King (Past)The Wind King (Past)- after they leave Cyclopss island, they land onafter they leave Cyclopss island, they land onAeolia, the island of the wind King, Aeolus. For 1Aeolia, the island of the wind King, Aeolus. For 1month they stay here.month they stay here.- When they leave, Aeolus puts all the stormyWhen they leave, Aeolus puts all the stormywinds in a bag so Odysseus and his men willwinds in a bag so Odysseus and his men willhave smooth sailing. Aeolus leaves only the goodhave smooth sailing. Aeolus leaves only the goodwinds free.winds free.• ** When they are near home, Odysseuss men open the** When they are near home, Odysseuss men open thebag while he sleeps. They are blown back to Aeolia.bag while he sleeps. They are blown back to Aeolia.King Aeolus refuses to help them a 2King Aeolus refuses to help them a 2ndndtime, thinkingtime, thinkingthey and their voyage and cursed. It will take themthey and their voyage and cursed. It will take themmuch longer to get home now.much longer to get home now.
Land of the Laestrygonians (Past)Land of the Laestrygonians (Past)**Example of Vast Setting**Example of Vast Setting• 11 ships of the 12 enter the harbor here. The 1211 ships of the 12 enter the harbor here. The 12ththship (carrying Odysseus) remains furthest outship (carrying Odysseus) remains furthest outin the sea. The Laestrygonians are giantin the sea. The Laestrygonians are giantcannibals so, when the 11 ships enter thecannibals so, when the 11 ships enter theharbor, thousands of these giants surround andharbor, thousands of these giants surround andattack the ships, they eatattack the ships, they eat 588588 men. They weremen. They werehere for only 1 day. Only the 12here for only 1 day. Only the 12ththship, withship, withOdysseus and his 45 crew membersOdysseus and his 45 crew members down to 45down to 45crew members.crew members.
Circe’s Island of Aeaea (Past)Circe’s Island of Aeaea (Past)- Odysseus divides his crew into 2 groups.Odysseus divides his crew into 2 groups.Eurylochus with 22 men goes out in a search partyEurylochus with 22 men goes out in a search partyto find good, freshwater, and a safe place to rest.to find good, freshwater, and a safe place to rest.Odysseus leads the 2Odysseus leads the 2ndndgroup.group.- Line 539: alliterationLine 539: alliteration- Line 543-546: epic/ homeric/ heroic simileLine 543-546: epic/ homeric/ heroic simile- Eurylochuss group goes out to explore island.Eurylochuss group goes out to explore island.- Eurylochuss group finds Circes palaceEurylochuss group finds Circes palace
-Circes singing when they come up. They also-Circes singing when they come up. They alsosee her weaving on her loom, so they thinksee her weaving on her loom, so they thinkshes friendly.shes friendly.-Polites tells the group they should not fear the-Polites tells the group they should not fear thegoddess; also, he says they have no reason togoddess; also, he says they have no reason towant to trick her or usewant to trick her or use stealthstealth-Circe calls them all in-Circe calls them all in-All the men-All the men exceptexcept Eurylochus go into herEurylochus go into herpalace.palace.-Circe makes them comfortable-Circe makes them comfortable..She seats them on lounging chairs.She seats them on lounging chairs...She feeds them cheese and barley.She feeds them cheese and barley.She gives them a wine concoction.She gives them a wine concoction.
Cont...Cont...Line 568: the spiked drink makes the menLine 568: the spiked drink makes the menforget; then she turns them all intoforget; then she turns them all intopigs/swine. However, they still have thepigs/swine. However, they still have theminds of humans.minds of humans.Eurylochus returns to the ship and reportsEurylochus returns to the ship and reportswhat happened to Odysseus. The other 22what happened to Odysseus. The other 22remain at Circes hall.remain at Circes hall.He begs Odysseus to leave the island; but,He begs Odysseus to leave the island; but,Odysseus wants to save his men (heroic)Odysseus wants to save his men (heroic)* Odysseus goes to save his men, but on the* Odysseus goes to save his men, but on theway he meets the god Hermes.way he meets the god Hermes.Hermes gives Odysseus a special flower- aHermes gives Odysseus a special flower- amolymoly- to protect Odysseus from Circes- to protect Odysseus from Circesmagic.magic.Hermes tell Odysseus he must make theHermes tell Odysseus he must make thegoddess swear shell play no "witchs"goddess swear shell play no "witchs"
Odysseus and CirceOdysseus and CirceCirce seats him in a silver-studded chairCirce seats him in a silver-studded chairShe gives him a drink laced with herShe gives him a drink laced with her"unholy drug""unholy drug"She tries to change him into swine, but herShe tries to change him into swine, but hertrick doesnt work = Odysseus istrick doesnt work = Odysseus isprotected by moly he received fromprotected by moly he received fromHermes.Hermes.Circe then tells him she was previouslyCirce then tells him she was previouslytold of Odysseus and that she wantstold of Odysseus and that she wantshim to "play and love"him to "play and love"OdysseusOdysseus refuses until she swears anrefuses until she swears anoath that she will try no more tricks.oath that she will try no more tricks.Circe makes the oath and they begin aCirce makes the oath and they begin aromantic relationshipromantic relationshipOdysseus continues to worry about hisOdysseus continues to worry about hismen who were transformed into swinemen who were transformed into swine::an example of him acting like a goodan example of him acting like a goodleader.leader.
He refuses to eat and actsHe refuses to eat and acts disconsolatedisconsolate, much to Circes, much to Circesdismay.dismay.Circe tires to cheer up Odysseus, but he refuses until CirceCirce tires to cheer up Odysseus, but he refuses until Circechanges his men back - this is an example of his cunning.changes his men back - this is an example of his cunning.Circe, in sympathy, frees the men and changes them backCirce, in sympathy, frees the men and changes them backinto humans.into humans.They appear younger and more handsome.They appear younger and more handsome.The men and Odysseus weep for joy when reunited. EvenThe men and Odysseus weep for joy when reunited. EvenCirce is touched by their emotion.Circe is touched by their emotion.This act by Circe alters Odysseuss opinion of her. Now heThis act by Circe alters Odysseuss opinion of her. Now hecalls her "exquisite."calls her "exquisite."Circe tells Odysseus to stow away all their gear and returnCirce tells Odysseus to stow away all their gear and returnwith all his "dear companions" from the ship. Odysseuswith all his "dear companions" from the ship. Odysseusobeys becauseobeys because he says he canthe says he cant resist her.resist her.
Odysseus Versus Eurylochus- As Odysseus and his men return to the ship, they findAs Odysseus and his men return to the ship, they findtheir crewmates weeping.their crewmates weeping.– They cried because they thought the transformedThey cried because they thought the transformedmen had been lost.men had been lost.– They cried in relief at seeing their crewmates returnThey cried in relief at seeing their crewmates returnsafely.safely.- Odysseus gives his men the orders to store theirOdysseus gives his men the orders to store theirequipment, but Eurylochus opposes this idea.equipment, but Eurylochus opposes this idea.- Eurylochus challenges Odysseuss judgment andEurylochus challenges Odysseuss judgment andauthority. He tells the men they should doubtauthority. He tells the men they should doubtOdysseus because of all their past troubles.Odysseus because of all their past troubles.
•Eurylochus reminds them of theEurylochus reminds them of the 6 men eaten by6 men eaten byPolyphemus.Polyphemus.•He reminds them about the men changed into pigs.He reminds them about the men changed into pigs.Odysseus responds angrily: he wants to killOdysseus responds angrily: he wants to kill EurylochuEurylochuss::an example of him acting humanly andan example of him acting humanly and reactingreacting with hiswith hisemotions. But, Odysseus is also acting like a strongemotions. But, Odysseus is also acting like a strongleader in that he will not tolerate dissension.leader in that he will not tolerate dissension.•The other men tell Odysseus not to worry.The other men tell Odysseus not to worry.•Theyll follow him toTheyll follow him to Circes hallCirces hall..•They tell Odysseus to leaveThey tell Odysseus to leave EurylochusEurylochus behind. Theybehind. Theydemonstrate their loyalty and respect for Odysseusdemonstrate their loyalty and respect for Odysseusand Ithaca.and Ithaca.•This shows how Odysseus can still be hot-headedThis shows how Odysseus can still be hot-headedand violent = flawsand violent = flaws
-Eurylochus and the mengo with Odysseus back toCirces hall.She wines and dinesthem.The rest helps restorethem mentally andphysically. This showsCirces compassioncontrasted to her crueltysince other humansremain as animals (butnot Odysseuss men).**Odysseus and his menare lulled into staying fora year, not thinking ofhome.
Aeaea Cont...While the men are drunkWhile the men are drunkone night,one night, ElpenorElpenor getsgetstoo drunk, falls off thetoo drunk, falls off theroof, androof, and diesdies. (. (1 dead1 dead).).His men beginHis men begin to longto longfor homefor home.They remind.They remindOdysseus that he is aOdysseus that he is aking and hasking and hasresponsibilitiesresponsibilities in Ithacain Ithacaas a king/leader.as a king/leader.
**Odysseus is torn between**Odysseus is torn betweenhishis duty and his enjoymentduty and his enjoymentwith Circewith Circe (he succumbs to(he succumbs tothe same type of danger asthe same type of danger asthe 3 men faced in the landthe 3 men faced in the landof the Lotus Eaters). Thisof the Lotus Eaters). Thistimetime Odysseus must beOdysseus must besavedsaved..Odysseus tells Circe heOdysseus tells Circe hemust leave. She respondsmust leave. She respondsby telling him what he mustby telling him what he mustdo.do.
Again,Again, CirceCirce shows hershows herconcernconcern for Odysseus, whichfor Odysseus, whichis contrasted with heris contrasted with hercallousness toward othercallousness toward otherhumans.She tells them theyhumans.She tells them theymust travel to themust travel to the underworldunderworld(aka.(aka. The Land of the DeadThe Land of the Dead).).She tells him he must seekShe tells him he must seekthe advice ofthe advice of TeiresiasTeiresias, the, theblind prophet of Thebesblind prophet of Thebes(whos dead) before he can(whos dead) before he canfind his way home.find his way home.
Land of the Dead- Underworld/Hades (past) Book 11This is an example of aThis is an example of a vast settingvast setting..The setting is darkness, endless,The setting is darkness, endless,bottomless.bottomless.–ThisThis foreshadowsforeshadows the grim newsthe grim newsthat Odysseus will learn fromthat Odysseus will learn fromTeiresias.Teiresias.–This foreshadows hisThis foreshadows his mens deathsmens deathsto come later.to come later.PerimedesPerimedes andand EurylochuEurylochus helps helpOdysseus make the sacrifices CirceOdysseus make the sacrifices Circetold him to so that he can bringtold him to so that he can bringTeiresias back from the dead.Teiresias back from the dead.
Helping with the sacrificesHelping with the sacrificesshowsshows EurylochussEurylochuss wishy-wishy-washy character. Thiswashy character. Thisshows Odysseussshows Odysseuss ability toability toforgiveforgive. Now, he again. Now, he againtreats Eurylochus with greattreats Eurylochus with greattrust. They make an altar totrust. They make an altar toTeiresias.Teiresias.This is to convince him to help them. They see many differentThis is to convince him to help them. They see many differentkinds of dead people - including soldiers.kinds of dead people - including soldiers. This foreshadowsThis foreshadowsthe death of his own menthe death of his own men. The blood is. The blood is symbolicsymbolic of life; heof life; heregains enough "life" to prophesy for Odysseus. Odysseusregains enough "life" to prophesy for Odysseus. Odysseusencounters the following characters from the Trojan War:encounters the following characters from the Trojan War: Ajax,Ajax,Achilles, and HeraclesAchilles, and Heracles (aka. Hercules).(aka. Hercules).
More UnderworldMore Underworld•**Epithet = "**Epithet = "the prince of Thebesthe prince of Thebes" is" isTeiresias.Teiresias.-Odysseus sees theOdysseus sees the ghost/ spirit ofghost/ spirit ofElpenorElpenor, his man who fell off the roof, his man who fell off the roofand died on Circes island. Elpenorand died on Circes island. Elpenortells him he died falling off the rooftells him he died falling off the roof(Odysseus didnt realize it was(Odysseus didnt realize it waspartially his fault). Thispartially his fault). This foreshadowsforeshadowshow all the other men will die as ahow all the other men will die as aresult of giving into theirresult of giving into their humanhumandesiresdesires laterlater when they come towhen they come toHelioss island.Helioss island.•Elpenor serves as a warningElpenor serves as a warning..
Teiresias tells him thatTeiresias tells him thatPoseidon will cause himPoseidon will cause himmore troubles and losses onmore troubles and losses ontheir way home.their way home.**** The prophecy: go to theThe prophecy: go to thesingle straight, keep yoursingle straight, keep yourmen in line, and when youmen in line, and when youget to Thrinakia,get to Thrinakia, dontdont messmesswith Helioss cattlewith Helioss cattle. If you do. If you dothis, youll get home safely.this, youll get home safely.Line 636: If Odysseus doesntLine 636: If Odysseus doesntdo this:do this:Destruction of ship and crew.Destruction of ship and crew.Hell be the only survivor.Hell be the only survivor.Itll take more years to getItll take more years to gethome.home.
Odysseuss home will beOdysseuss home will beoverrun by men eating his foodoverrun by men eating his foodandand courting his wifecourting his wife..Hell return underHell return under strange sailstrange sail..Then hell have to travel to aThen hell have to travel to astrange land, make a sacrificestrange land, make a sacrificeto every god and goddess into every god and goddess inorder of rank: then, itll bringorder of rank: then, itll bringpeacepeace betweenbetween OdysseusOdysseus andandPoseidonPoseidon and Odysseus willand Odysseus willlive long and die peacefully.live long and die peacefully.** Odysseus will see** Odysseus will see his motherhis motherin the underworld => shein the underworld => shecommitted suicide while hescommitted suicide while hesgone.gone.More prophecy from the deadMore prophecy from the dead
Odysseus and his men leave theOdysseus and his men leave theUnderworld and goUnderworld and go back toback toAeaea.Aeaea. Circe warnsCirce warns him about thehim about thedangers to come. She tellsdangers to come. She tellsOdysseus how he canOdysseus how he can pass bypass bythe Sirensthe Sirens without endangeringwithout endangeringhis crew, but still satisfy hishis crew, but still satisfy hiscuriosity to hear the famedcuriosity to hear the famedcreatures.creatures.TheThe Sirens hypnotizeSirens hypnotize men withmen withtheirtheir songssongs and then eat them.and then eat them.Circe tells Odysseus to stuff hisCirce tells Odysseus to stuff hismens ears withmens ears with wax;wax; have themhave themtie Odysseus to the ships mast sotie Odysseus to the ships mast sohe cant be harmed; then they rowhe cant be harmed; then they rowpast the Sirens.past the Sirens.
CharybdisCharybdis - (past) Book 12- (past) Book 12This is a female monster whoThis is a female monster whosucks in asucks in a storm of waterstorm of water andandspews it out 3 times a day.spews it out 3 times a day.Circe advised Odysseus toCirce advised Odysseus to avoidavoidCharybdis entirely because theyCharybdis entirely because theyall could dieall could die. She tells him to go. She tells him to gonear Scylla and accept the loss ofnear Scylla and accept the loss of6 men as opposed to all.6 men as opposed to all.**Circe, like Teiresias, warns**Circe, like Teiresias, warnsOdysseus toOdysseus to not eat Heliossnot eat Heliosscattlecattle..Odysseus does not tell his menOdysseus does not tell his menthat some of them will die becausethat some of them will die becausethey would not have wanted tothey would not have wanted toleave Circes island-- then,leave Circes island-- then,Odysseus would never get home.Odysseus would never get home.Line 805-808: Epic/ Homeric simileLine 805-808: Epic/ Homeric simileLine 818:Line 818: Scylla eatsScylla eats 6 men6 menLine 822-828: Epic/ Homeric simileLine 822-828: Epic/ Homeric simile
A very uglyA very uglymonster, she hasmonster, she has12 legs12 legs andand 66headsheads.. ScyllaScylla eatseats 11man for eachman for each headheadas they sail past.as they sail past.Odysseus was toldOdysseus was toldabout this by Circe.about this by Circe.He knows beforeHe knows beforethey get here thatthey get here that 66men will die.men will die.
Odysseus tries to convince his crew toOdysseus tries to convince his crew tobypass Thrinakia altogether.bypass Thrinakia altogether. They disobeyThey disobeyhim and land anyway. He makes themhim and land anyway. He makes thempromise not to eat Helioss cattle.promise not to eat Helioss cattle.**A storm comes up and theyre forced to**A storm comes up and theyre forced toland on Thrinakia.land on Thrinakia.They are there forThey are there for 1 month1 month without eatingwithout eatingthe cattle.They run out of food.the cattle.They run out of food.Odysseus wanders off alone to pray for help; he falls asleep.Odysseus wanders off alone to pray for help; he falls asleep.While hes gone,While hes gone, EurylochusEurylochus rallies the crew against Odysseus.rallies the crew against Odysseus.Eurylochus convinces them its better to dies having made the godsEurylochus convinces them its better to dies having made the godsangry than to starve to death.angry than to starve to death.**Odysseus wakes up and realizes what happened. Meanwhile,**Odysseus wakes up and realizes what happened. Meanwhile,Lampetia (Helioss daughter) runs to tell her father what happened.Lampetia (Helioss daughter) runs to tell her father what happened.Helios’s threat to ZeusHelios’s threat to Zeus: either Zeus punish Odysseuss men, or Helios: either Zeus punish Odysseuss men, or Helios(sun) will never shine on Earth again.(sun) will never shine on Earth again.****Zeuss responseZeuss response: he hits the ship with a thunder bolt.: he hits the ship with a thunder bolt. All die butAll die butOdysseus.Odysseus.
The past and present meetThe past and present meethere in the story ashere in the story as KingKingAlcinous of theAlcinous of thePhaeacians providesPhaeacians providesOdysseus with a shipOdysseus with a ship totoreturn home to Ithaca. [Itsreturn home to Ithaca. [Itsaa magically fastmagically fast ship].ship].Odysseus lands on IthacaOdysseus lands on Ithacabut is met by Athena, whobut is met by Athena, whotransforms him into atransforms him into abeggarbeggar to protect histo protect hisIdentity from the suitors.Identity from the suitors.Most of his loyal army wasMost of his loyal army waslost or killed either at thelost or killed either at theTrojan War or on theTrojan War or on thejourney home.journey home.****Book 13 is whenBook 13 is whenOdysseus leaves PhaeaciaOdysseus leaves Phaeaciain the Phaeacian ship andin the Phaeacian ship andarrives in Ithacaarrives in Ithaca..
**Book 14 - in his beggars**Book 14 - in his beggarsdisguise, Odysseus makes hisdisguise, Odysseus makes hisway toway to EumaeussEumaeuss hut (hishut (histrusty swineherdtrusty swineherd))its important to know thatits important to know thatEumaeus is representative ofEumaeus is representative oftrue faithfulnesstrue faithfulness and is theand is the firstfirstknownknown introduction of aintroduction of aservant as important character.servant as important character.This shows Homers originality.This shows Homers originality.Odysseus, still in disguise,Odysseus, still in disguise,doesnt revealdoesnt reveal himself tohimself toEumaeus.Eumaeus. EumaeusEumaeus follows thefollows theGreek custom and welcomesGreek custom and welcomesthe "stranger".the "stranger".
Book 15Book 15Athena appears to Telemachus, whoAthena appears to Telemachus, whohas gone to Pylos and Sparta to lookhas gone to Pylos and Sparta to lookfor news of Odysseus. Telemachusfor news of Odysseus. Telemachusstays gone 1 year. Odysseus returnsstays gone 1 year. Odysseus returnsto Ithaca before his son. Athenato Ithaca before his son. Athenaappear to Telemachus and tells himappear to Telemachus and tells himto go home. When Telemachus does,to go home. When Telemachus does,the palace is overrun by the suitors.the palace is overrun by the suitors.The suitors are spendingThe suitors are spendingTelemachuss inheritance andTelemachuss inheritance anddemanding that Penelope pick a newdemanding that Penelope pick a newhusband. Athena warns Telemachushusband. Athena warns Telemachusthat thethat the suitors plan to ambush himsuitors plan to ambush himwhen he arrives. Telemachuswhen he arrives. Telemachus returnsreturnsto Ithaca, but first goes to Eumaeussto Ithaca, but first goes to Eumaeusshut.hut.
**We are now reaching one**We are now reaching oneof the most climacticof the most climacticmoments of this epic. Atmoments of this epic. Atthis point, Odysseus hasthis point, Odysseus hasnot seen Telemachus fornot seen Telemachus for20 years. The dogs arent20 years. The dogs arentmean to Telemachusmean to Telemachusbecause hes spent most ofbecause hes spent most ofhis life around Eumaeus. Athis life around Eumaeus. Atthis point, Odysseusthis point, Odysseusdoesnt realize itsdoesnt realize itsTelemachus approaching.Telemachus approaching.
-Line 945-955 = Eumaeuss reaction; Odysseus does nothingbecause hes waiting for the sign from Athena (epic/Homeric/heroicsimile)-Line 956: epithet-Line 966: "Uncle" is Telemachuss term for Eumaeus. Telemachusalso upholds the Greek custom of xenos (xenia). Telemachus sendsEumaeus to the palace to tell Penelope hes home and alive. Athenais now ready to reunite Odysseus and Telemachus.-Athena turns to Odysseus back into a younger vibrant man.**symbolism = white is purity/ cleansing-Line 100: epithet-Line 1008-1009: Odysseus cries and acts like a father.-Line 1021: Odysseus still expects Telemachus to act like a princeand fear no one.-Line 1031-33: epic simile: cries of men to cries of taloned hawk(from Book 16)
Book 17 - The Beggar and Argosthe Dog-Telemachus goes back to the palaceto his mom, Penelope, and Eurycleia,his nurse. A fortuneteller has toldPenelope that Odysseus is alive andin Ithaca.-Odysseus goes back into disguise asthe beggar. He and Eumaeus returnto the palace. He is only recognizedby his dog, Argos. Eumaeus doesntrealize hes talking to Odysseus.-As soon as Argos recognizesOdysseus, Argos finally dies =symbolizes loyalty.-Odysseus is now in his own hall indisguise as the beggar. Penelopewelcomes "the beggar", who says hehas news of Odysseus.
Book 18- Penelope appears amongBook 18- Penelope appears amongthe suitors and gets ontothe suitors and gets ontoTelemachus for allowing the evilTelemachus for allowing the evilsuitors tosuitors to mistreat the beggarmistreat the beggar..Book 19- the suitors leave for theBook 19- the suitors leave for thenight and Odysseus andnight and Odysseus andTelemachus hatch their plan.Telemachus hatch their plan.-Odysseus isOdysseus is revealedrevealed totoEurycleiaEurycleia when shewhen shewashes his feet and sees awashes his feet and sees ascar.scar. Athena casts a spellAthena casts a spellover Penelopeover Penelope so sheso shedoesnt know whats goingdoesnt know whats goingon. Penelope decides aon. Penelope decides atest for the suitors for thetest for the suitors for thenext day.next day.
Book 20- Odysseus wants to destroy the suitors. Athenatells Odysseus they will die.Book 21- The Test of the Great Bow-Penelope makes the test so that the suitors mustsuccessfully string Odysseuss bow- which only he cando. Penelope cries when she holds the bow because shefeels like shes giving up on Odysseuss return-Odysseus reveals himself to Philoteus and Eumaeus,who swear to bear arms with him.-Plan = Line 1163-73: gives Philoetus and Eumaeusorders.-Line 1184 = example of irony because the tauntingsuitors dont realize theyre joking about what will reallyhappen.
-Line 1185 - epithet-Line 1185-1191: epic/Homeric/heroic simile.-Line 1193: metaphor = sting cant sound like a bird-Line 1203 = simile-Odysseus wins the bow contest-Line 1217: epithet applies to Telemachus**The climax is here in Book 22. He must kill or get rid ofmore than 100 young men.-Antinous = the most sleazy suitor. Line 1219 = epithet-Line 1222 = metaphor = rain of arrows-He kills Antinous first.-Line 1237-38= simile-Line 1238 = "river of blood" -- Hyperbole/ metaphor-The suitors think Odysseus got a lucky shot to kill Antinous-Line 1252- personification "grip of death"-Line 1253 - color yellow symbolizes cowardice.-Eurymachus pleads with Odysseus to spare their lives sincethe ringleader, Antinous, is dead. In exchange, he offerstithes and gifts as restitution. (repayment).-Now Odysseus, Telemachus, Eumaeus and Philoeteousbegin killing the remainder of the suitors.-Another intervention of the gods: Athenas shield takes formin the hall.-Line 1290-1303: epic simile
Book 23- Odysseus and Penelope-Odysseus orders the maids who betrayed them (slept w/ suitors) toclean up the blood, the hall, and remove the dead bodies. ThenTelemachus hangs them in the courtyard.-Eumaeus tells Penelope that Odysseus is back. Penelope suspects atrick, so she decides to test the "suitor."
-Line 1329: epithet-Line 1335: epithet-GLORIFICATION OF THE HERO-Odysseus is bathed, and then Athena comes and makes him appear handsomeand kingly again. She actually makes Odysseus look bigger and better than ever.-Line 1342-1346: Homeric/heroic/epic simile.-Penelope tests Odysseus by telling Eurycleia to make up a separate bed for him,as if the great tree bed had been moved.-Odysseus responds in anger because he built that room and palace around anunmovable olive tree. This proves to Penelope that Odysseus really is herhusband.Line 1410-1413: epic simile**Book 24: The families of the suitors try to challenge Odysseus, but he defeatsthem.